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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915731


Objective@#The association between gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and cognitive profile in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) at diagnosis remains unclear, although GI symptoms and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent in patients with PD. We investigated the relationship between constipation and cognitive status. We also aimed to identify the correlation between constipation and each neuropsychological dysfunction. @*Methods@#A total of 427 patients with de novo Parkinson’s disease with normal cognition (PD-NC, n = 170) and Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, n = 257) at Korea University Guro Hospital in Seoul, Korea were included. All patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological tests and completed the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS). The frequency and severity of constipation were assessed using the NMSS GI symptoms scale, we used logistic regression analysis and partial correlation analysis to determine the associations between constipation score, MCI, and each neuropsychological dysfunction. @*Results@#Frequent and severe constipation was associated with MCI in patients with PD at diagnosis regardless of disease severity. Specifically, constipation was related to poor performance in frontal-executive and visuospatial functions after controlling for age and sex. @*Conclusion@#Our findings may provide an understanding of constipation as a marker associated with cognitive impairment in individuals with PD. Therefore, the evaluation of cognitive function is warranted in PD patients with constipation, while further studies are necessary to investigate the detailed mechanism of our results.

Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833670


Background@#and Purpose: Nonketotic hyperglycemia often causes transient visual field defects, but only scattered anecdotes are available in the literature. @*Methods@#We report a patient with homonymous superior quadrantanopsia due to nonketotic hyperglycemia and provide a systematic literature review of the clinical features of 40 previously reported patients (41 in total, including our case) with homonymous visual field defects in association with nonketotic hyperglycemia. @*Results@#The typical visual field defect was congruous (84.6%), homonymous hemianopsia (87.8%) with macular splitting (61.5%) or sparing (38.5%). It was transient and repetitive in 54.5% of the patients, but it developed as a persistent form in the remainder. Positive visual symptoms such as hallucinations and phosphenes developed in 73.2% of patients. Brain MRI revealed corresponding abnormalities in most patients (84.8%), characterized by a low-intensity white-matter signal or a high-intensity gray-matter signal on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images with diffusion restriction or gadolinium enhancement. Most (97.0%) patients recovered completely, with 48.5% treated by glycemic control alone and the remainder also receiving antiepileptic agents. @*Conclusions@#Nonketotic hyperglycemia should be considered a possible cause of transient visual field defects, especially when it is associated with repetitive positive visual symptoms and typical MRI findings in hyperglycemic patients.