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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925679

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in blood could allow noninvasive genetic analysis of primary tumors. Although there have been unmet needs for noninvasive methods in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), it is still not determined whether plasma ctDNA analysis could be useful for patients with PCNSL. @*Materials and Methods@#Targeted deep sequencing of 54 genes was performed in cell-free DNA isolated from plasma samples collected pretreatment, during treatment, and at the end of treatment in 42 consecutively diagnosed PCNSL patients between January 2017 and December 2018. @*Results@#Targeted sequencing of plasma cell-free DNA detected somatic mutations representing ctDNA in 11 cases (11/41, 27%). The detection of ctDNA was not related to the concentration of cell-free DNA or tumor volume. The mutation profiles of these 11 cases varied between patients. The most frequently mutated gene was PIM1 (4/11, 36.4%), whereas KMT2D, PIK3CA, and MYD88 were each observed in three patients (3/11, 27%). The mutations of 13 genes were concordantly found in primary tumor tissue and plasma ctDNA, giving a detection sensitivity of 45%. During the serial tracking of seven patients with complete response, the disappearance of ctDNA mutations was found in four patients, whereas three patients had detected ctDNA mutation at the end of treatment. @*Conclusion@#The plasma ctDNA mutation analysis still has limited value for surveillance and predicting treatment outcomes of PCNSL because the detection efficiency was lower than other systemic lymphomas. Thus, analytical platforms should be improved to overcome anatomical hurdles associated with PCNSL.

2.
Blood Research ; : S55-S61, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925628

ABSTRACT

Immunohistochemistry is a technique that uses antigen-antibody interactions to detect specific proteins in cells. This technique has several essential applications in lymphoma diagnosis, including identifying the cell lineage and phase of maturation, detecting specific genetic alterations, visualizing the degree of cell proliferation, and identifying therapeutic targets. CD3 is a pan T-cell marker expressed on most of the mature T/NK-cell lymphomas, except for anaplastic large cell lymphoma, whereas CD20 is a pan B-cell marker that is expressed on most of the mature B-cell lymphomas. CD79a may be a good alternative to CD20, compensating for its loss owing to the plasmocytic differentiation of tumor cells or history of rituximab administration. CD56, a neuroendocrine marker, is used as an NK cell marker in lymphoma diagnosis. Characteristic translocations occurring in follicular lymphoma (BCL2) and mantle cell lymphoma (CCND1) can be detected by the overexpression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D-1 in immunohistochemistry, respectively.Ki-67 reflects the degree of tumor cell proliferation by indicating cells in cell cycle phases other than G0. With the development of immunotherapy, several antibodies against markers such as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), CD19, and CD30 have been used as biomarkers to identify therapeutic targets. It is critical to properly fix the specimens to obtain accurate immunohistochemical results. Therefore, all processes, from tissue collection to the final pathological diagnosis, must be performed appropriately for accurate lymphoma diagnosis.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874902

ABSTRACT

Salivary gland tumors are histologically diverse, and each entity has distinctive histopathological and molecular features. We report two cases of salivary gland tumors with unique histological and molecular findings, which have not been documented previously. The tumors were located in the base of the tongue in both patients. Most tumor cells were arranged in cords and nests, giving a trabecularlike appearance. Focally, glandular structures with intraluminal mucin and perivascular pseudorosette-like configurations were identified. Tumor cells had eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm, and showed mild nuclear atypia. They were positive for pancytokeratin and negative for S-100, p63, c-KIT, androgen receptor, and neuroendocrine markers. Multiple foci of capsular or lymphovascular invasion were identified, but the Ki-67 labeling index was low (< 5%). Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed concurrent alterations of MAML2 and EWSR1 gene. Further investigations with a larger number of cases with similar histological and molecular features will accurately classify this tumor.

4.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 222-227, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896809

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder (HVLPD) is rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated disease. The classic form of HVLPD is a self-resolving disease, whereas the systemic form can progress to malignant lymphoma, resulting in fatal outcomes. However, the prognostic factors remain unclear. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of HVLPD and the association between whole blood EBV DNA and clinical outcomes. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed our 25-year experience involving 11 patients with HVLPD from a single tertiary center in South Korea and evaluated the clinical characteristics of HVLPD and the correlation between whole blood EBV DNA and clinical outcomes. @*Results@#Of the total 11 patients, 54.5% (6/11) manifested classic HVLPD that resolved with conservative treatment, while 45.5% (5/11) patients had systemic HVLPD, four of whom died of progressive disease or hemophagocytic syndrome. Five patients with systemic HVLPD manifested severe skin lesions such as prominent facial edema, deep ulcers and necrotic skin lesions involving sun-protected areas. Median EBV DNA levels at initial diagnosis were higher in three dead patients than in those alive (2,290 vs. 186.62 copies/μl). @*Conclusion@#When EBV DNA levels were high, patients showed severe skin lesions and when EBV DNA levels were low, skin lesions tended to improve. Thus, patients with high EBV DNA levels showed an increased risk of severe skin lesions and disease progression.

5.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 222-227, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889105

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder (HVLPD) is rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated disease. The classic form of HVLPD is a self-resolving disease, whereas the systemic form can progress to malignant lymphoma, resulting in fatal outcomes. However, the prognostic factors remain unclear. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of HVLPD and the association between whole blood EBV DNA and clinical outcomes. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed our 25-year experience involving 11 patients with HVLPD from a single tertiary center in South Korea and evaluated the clinical characteristics of HVLPD and the correlation between whole blood EBV DNA and clinical outcomes. @*Results@#Of the total 11 patients, 54.5% (6/11) manifested classic HVLPD that resolved with conservative treatment, while 45.5% (5/11) patients had systemic HVLPD, four of whom died of progressive disease or hemophagocytic syndrome. Five patients with systemic HVLPD manifested severe skin lesions such as prominent facial edema, deep ulcers and necrotic skin lesions involving sun-protected areas. Median EBV DNA levels at initial diagnosis were higher in three dead patients than in those alive (2,290 vs. 186.62 copies/μl). @*Conclusion@#When EBV DNA levels were high, patients showed severe skin lesions and when EBV DNA levels were low, skin lesions tended to improve. Thus, patients with high EBV DNA levels showed an increased risk of severe skin lesions and disease progression.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831060

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The treatment outcome of brentuximab vedotin (BV) has not been related with CD30 expressionin previous studies enrolling patients with a wide range of CD30 expression level.Thus, this study explored the efficacy of BV in high-CD30–expressing non-Hodgkin lymphoma(NHL) patients most likely to benefit. @*Materials and Methods@#This phase II study (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02280785) enrolled relapsed or refractory high-CD30–expressing NHL, with BV administered intravenously at 1.8 mg/kg every 3 weeks.The primary endpoint was > 40% disease control rate, consisting of complete response(CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease. We defined high CD30 expression as ! 30%tumor cells positive for CD30 by immunohistochemistry. @*Results@#High-CD30-expressing NHL patients (n=33) were enrolled except anaplastic large cell lymphoma.The disease control rate was 48.5% (16/33) including six CR and six PR; six patients(4CR, 2PR) maintained their response over 16 completed cycles. Response to BV and survivalwere not associated with CD30 expression levels. Over a median of 29.2 months offollow-up, the median progression-free and overall survival rates were 1.9 months and 6.1months, respectively. The most common adverse events were fever (39%), neutropenia(30%), fatigue (24%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (27%). In a post-hoc analysis forthe association of multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1) on treatment outcome, MUM1-negative patients showed a higher response (55.6%, 5/9) than MUM1-positive patients(13.3%, 2/15). @*Conclusion@#BV performance as a single agent was acceptable in terms of disease control rates and toxicityprofiles, especially MUM1-negative patients.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148357

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) is a member of the TLE family of transcriptional co-repressors that control the transcription of a wide range of genes. We investigated the prognostic significance of TLE1 protein expression in breast cancers by using immunohistochemistry and explored the relationship of TLE1 with clinicopathological parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on 456 cases of breast cancer tiled on tissue microarrays. The relationship between TLE1 expression in normal breast specimens and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was also analyzed. RESULTS: TLE1 was highly expressed in 57 of 456 (12.5%) carcinoma samples. TLE1 was more frequently expressed in DCIS and invasive breast cancers than in normal breast tissue (p=0.002). High expression of TLE1 significantly correlated with negative lymph node (LN) metastasis (p=0.007), high histologic grade (p<0.001), estrogen receptor negativity (p<0.001), progesterone receptor negativity (p<0.001), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity (p<0.001), and high Ki-67 proliferation index (p<0.001). Based on intrinsic subtypes, high TLE1 expression was strongly associated with HER2+ and triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (p<0.001). Survival analysis demonstrated no significant association between TLE1 expression and disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.167) or overall survival (OS) (p=0.286). In subgroup analyses, no correlation was found between TLE1 expression and DFS or OS according to LN status or intrinsic subtype. CONCLUSION: High TLE1 expression is significantly associated with the HER2+ and TNBC subtypes. This is the first study documenting immunohistochemical expression of TLE1 in invasive breast cancer and its association with clinicopathological parameters, prognosis, and intrinsic subtype.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Co-Repressor Proteins , Disease-Free Survival , Estrogens , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18751

ABSTRACT

Rosai-Dorfman disease also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is a benign, rare systemic disease characterized by a histiocyte proliferation which presents with lymphadenopathy. We report a case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with recurrent cervical lymphadenopathy with tenderness, without any other symptoms. After 1 month of medical treatment, her lymphadenopathy still remained, so we performed complete excision and biopsy. She was diagnosed on cytology as a case of Rosai-Dorfman disease. She responded well to become asymptomatic without recurrence by 1 month.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Histiocytes , Histiocytosis , Histiocytosis, Sinus , Humans , Lymphatic Diseases , Recurrence
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100607

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) is one of the four subtypes of gastric carcinoma (GC), as defined by the novel classification recently proposed by The Cancer Genome Atlas. EBVaGC has several clinicopathological features such as longer survival and higher frequency of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) and carcinoma with Crohn's disease-like lymphoid reaction that distinguish it from EBV-negative GC. The intensity and pattern of host cellular immune response in GC have been found to significantly correlate with the prognosis of patients with GC, suggesting that immune reaction and tumor microenvironment have critical roles in the progression of GC, and in particular, EBVaGC. Here, we reviewed the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying prominent immune reactions in patients with EBVaGC. In EBVaGC, deregulation of the expression of immune response-related genes promotes marked intra- or peritumoral immune cell infiltration. The expression of programmed death receptor-ligand 1 is known to be increased in EBVaGC, and therefore, it has been proposed as a favorable prognostic factor for patients with EBVaGC, albeit some data supporting this claim are controversial. Overall, the underlying mechanisms and clinical significance of the host cellular immune response in patients with EBVaGC have not been thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, further research is necessary to better understand the role of tumor microenvironment in EBVaGC.


Subject(s)
Classification , Genome , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 242-251, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126246

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The interaction of programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1), negatively regulates immune responses. This study aimed to clarify PD-L1 expression levels in breast cancer through immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to evaluate associations between these findings and clinicopathologic variables, including prognosis. METHODS: PD-L1 expression was analyzed using IHC on tissue microarrays of 465 invasive breast carcinomas. RESULTS: High PD-L1 expression was demonstrated in 63 of 465 tumors (13.5%). High PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with high histologic grade (p<0.001), negative lymph nodes (p=0.011), early pathologic stage (p=0.025), high tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) (p<0.001) counts, negative estrogen receptor (p<0.001) and progesterone receptor (p=0.002) expression, positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (p=0.003), cytokeratin 5/6 (p=0.011), epidermal growth factor receptor (p<0.001), and p53 (p<0.001) expression, and high Ki-67 proliferating index (p<0.001). Based on intrinsic subtypes, high PD-L1 expression and high TIL counts were significantly associated with the HER2 and triple-negative basal type (p<0.001). PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with better disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.041) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.026) in the univariate analysis, but not in the multivariate analysis. Higher TIL levels was an independent prognostic factor for decreased disease progression (hazard ratio [HR], 2.389; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.284–4.445; p=0.006) and overall death (HR, 3.666; 95% CI, 1.561–8.607; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: PD-L1 protein expression in breast cancer is associated with better DFS and OS, but is not an independent prognostic factor. High PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with high TIL levels. This finding has important implications for antibody therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling mechanism in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Estrogens , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Keratins , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56546

ABSTRACT

Malakoplakia is a characteristic inflammatory condition, which is usually seen in the urogenital tract, and less frequently in the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of colonic malakoplakia in an immunocompromised patient. A 55-year-old female visited the outpatient clinic for routine cancer surveillance. Her past medical history was significant for kidney transplantation 11 years ago, and she had been taking immunosuppressants. A colonoscopy revealed several depressed flat lesions and elevated polyps, which were 0.3 to 0.4 cm in size and accompanied by whitish exudates. A biopsy revealed an infiltration of histiocytes with ample granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, with some lymphocytes and plasma cells. Many histiocytes had the characteristic morphology, described as Michaelis-Gutmann bodies: one or several round basophilic structures of approximately 1 to 10 microm in size with some being laminated, some appearing homogeneous, and others having a dense central core with a targetoid appearance. These Michaelis-Gutmann bodies were positively stained on von Kossa stain, and were diagnostic for malakoplakia.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Basophils , Biopsy , Colon , Colonoscopy , Cytoplasm , Eosinophils , Exudates and Transudates , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract , Histiocytes , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents , Kidney , Kidney Transplantation , Lymphocytes , Malacoplakia , Plasma Cells , Polyps , Transplants
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56544

ABSTRACT

Congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor (CPMT) is a benign pulmonary spindle cell neoplasm of intrauterine and perinatal period, which is thought to arise from primitive peribronchial mesenchyme. We present a case detected incidentally in a one-month-old infant. The solid and partially necrotic tumor involved the right middle and lower lobes of the lung with extension to the diaphragm. Histologically, the tumor was composed of fasciculated monotonous spindle cells, proliferating peribronchiolar cartilage and round cells with rich vasculature, and high mitotic activity was identified in the round cell area. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies showed that the spindle cells were myofibroblastic in phenotype. Although the tumor showed several malignant pathological features, recurrence was not observed in the two-year follow-up period, consistent with the benign clinical behavior of CPMT.


Subject(s)
Cartilage , Diaphragm , Electrons , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Lung , Mesoderm , Myofibroblasts , Phenotype , Recurrence
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The p16INK4a gene methylation has been reported to be a major tumorigenic mechanism. METHODS: We evaluated the methylation status of the p16INK4a genes in 231 invasive breast cancer and 90 intraductal carcinoma specimens using a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and p16 protein expression using immunohistochemistry. The quantity of cell-free methylated p16INK4a DNA in the plasma samples of 200 patients with invasive breast cancer was also examined using a fluorescence-based real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: The frequencies of p16INK4a methylation in invasive and intraductal tumors were 52.8% (122/231) and 57.8% (52/90), respectively. The p16 protein was overexpressed in 145 of the 231 invasive carcinomas (62.8%) and 63 of the 90 intraductal carcinomas (70%). High p16 expression in invasive carcinomas correlated significantly with a high histologic grade, a negative estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status, p53 immunoreactivity and high Ki-67 expression with immunohistochemistry. In addition, the methylation index of p16INK4a was significantly higher in the cancer patients than the normal controls (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: High p16 immunoreactivity correlated with a loss of differentiation in breast carcinomas and high frequency of p16INK4a promoter methylation in both invasive and intraductal carcinomas, suggesting it may be involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , DNA , Estrogens , Genes, p16 , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Methylation , Plasma , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Progesterone
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213041

ABSTRACT

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and fatal disease caused by JC virus. We report a case of PML which developed in a 61-year-old female patient with myasthenia gravis (MG) and thymoma. After 6 years of immunotherapy and chemotherapy she presented with hand weakness followed by progressive decline of consciousness. Serial brain MRI showed rapidly progressive multifocal white matter changes. The JC virus DNA was detected on cerebrospinal fluid. This is a third report of PML in MG.


Subject(s)
Brain , Consciousness , DNA , Female , Hand , Humans , Immunotherapy , JC Virus , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal , Middle Aged , Myasthenia Gravis , Thymoma
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The amplification of murine double minutes (MDM2) is the primary feature of well-differentiated liposarcomas (WDLPS) and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDLPS), while DDIT3 rearrangement is the main one of myxoid liposarcomas (MLPS). Our aim was to evaluate the added value of MDM2 amplification and DDIT3 rearrangement in making a diagnosis and classifying lipogenic tumors. METHODS: Eighty-two cases of liposarcoma and 60 lipomas diagnosed between 1995 and 2010 were analysed for MDM2 amplification and DDIT3 rearrangement using a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The subtypes of liposarcoma were reclassified according to the molecular results, whose results were reviewed with an analysis of the relevant histologic and immunohistochemical findings. RESULTS: One case of lipoma (1.67%) was reclassified as a WDLPS. Of the liposarcomas, 13.4% (16/82) were reclassified after the molecular testing. Five cases of MLPS were reclassified as four cases of DDLPS and one case of myxoid lipoma. Two cases of WDLPS were reclassified as one case of spindle cell lipoma and another case of myxofibrosarcoma. Four cases of DDLPS were reclassified as two cases of leiomyosarcoma, one case of angiomyolipoma and another case of fibroinflammatory lesion. Of the six cases of pleomorphic liposarcoma, five were reclassified as DDLPS. CONCLUSIONS: In our series, a critical revision of diagnosis was found at a rate of 3.5% (5/142) after a review of the lipomatous lesions. The uses of molecular testing by MDM2 and DDIT3 FISH were valuable to make an accurate subtyping of liposarcomas as well as to differentiate WDLPS from benign lipomatous tumor.


Subject(s)
Angiomyolipoma , Fluorescence , In Situ Hybridization , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Leiomyosarcoma , Lipoma , Liposarcoma , Liposarcoma, Myxoid
16.
Journal of Lung Cancer ; : 20-23, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96808

ABSTRACT

Primary acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) of the lung is very rare and this tumor is thought to arise from pluripotent cells of the submucosal glands of the tracheobronchial tree. We report here on a case of primary ACC of the lung in a 68-year-old man who had a solitary pulmonary nodule in the left lower lobe. The patient was symptomless and the lesion was found on a chest X-ray taken during a regular health checkup. The video assisted thoracoscopic surgery wedge resection revealed an ovoid yellow tan solid mass that was 1.8 cm at the largest diameter. Microscopically, the neoplastic cells grew in solid sheets of round cells with eccentric nuclei and abundant basophilic granular cytoplasm. There were no mitotic figures or areas of pleomorphic or anaplastic cells. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) was positive, but the staining for chromogranin A and CD56 was negative. Ultrastructural examination revealed polyhedral cells with many zymogen granules of varying electron density. The patient is well 4 months postoperatively.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Aged , Basophils , Carcinoma, Acinar Cell , Chromogranin A , Cytoplasm , Electrons , Humans , Keratins , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Secretory Vesicles , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Thorax , Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl
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