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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875099

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and trends of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). @*Methods@#Using the NEDIS data from 2014 to 2018, we included patients who had visited the emergency department (ED) with CO poisoning (T58.0 in 7th Korean Standard Classification of Diseases [KCD-7]). We excluded patients with an uncertain time of onset, uncertain intentionality of poisoning, mental state, and unknown clinical outcome. We surveyed age, sex, time of onset, the intentionality of poisoning, mental state, results of emergency treatment, the proportion of admissions to intensive care units (ICU), the outcome of hospitalization, and the regional distribution. We analyzed the rate of incidence and trends of CO poisoning in patients using time series analysis. @*Results@#A total of 18,533 patients, including 10,671 (57.6%) males and 7,862 (42.4%) females, with a mean age of 40.38±18.41 years, were included in this study. Gyeonggi Province (n=6,354, 34.3%) had the highest distribution of patients, followed by Seoul (n=3,357, 18.1%). The incidence of unintentional CO poisoning was more frequent in January and December, and less frequent in August and September. However, the incidence of intentional CO poisoning showed no seasonal variation. The severity, ICU hospitalization rate, and mortality rate for intentional CO poisoning were higher than unintentional CO poisoning (4.1% vs. 0.8%, 29.9% vs. 16.7%, and 2.0% vs. 0.8% respectively) (P<0.001). Applying Winter’s additive method, we could predict that the rate of unintentional CO poisoning would continue to increase and the seasonal fluctuation, such as cases increasing in January-December and decreasing in August-September, would also increase. @*Conclusion@#Intentional CO poisoning showed higher severity than unintentional CO poisoning. In the time series analysis, the rate of unintentional CO poisoning and seasonal fluctuation is predicted to increase.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833881

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Our study aims to characterize esophageal motor function; evaluate the relationships among esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), high-resolution manometry (HRM), and 24-hour esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring combined with pHmetry (MII-pH); and elucidate the determinants of esophageal symptom perception in South Koreans with systemic sclerosis (SSc). @*Methods@#We reviewed prospectively collected HRM (n = 46), EGD (n = 41), and MII-pH (n = 37) data from 46 consecutive patients with SSc (42 females; mean age 50.1 years) who underwent esophageal tests between June 2013 and September 2018. @*Results@#The most common HRM diagnosis was normal (39.1%), followed by ineffective esophageal motility (23.9%) and absent contractility (21.7%). Erosive esophagitis was observed in 12.2% of total SSc patients, with a higher frequency in patients with absent contractility than those with normal motility (44.5% vs 0.0%, P = 0.01). Pathologic acid exposure was observed in 6 patients (20.0%) and positive symptom association in 18 patients (60.0%) in MII-pH tests of symptomatic patients. The proportion of SSc patients with esophageal symptoms not explained by reflux or mucosal or motor esophageal abnormalities was 33.0%. @*Conclusions@#Esophageal involvement among South Koreans with SSc was characterized by heterogeneous motility patterns, with a higher prevalence of normal motility and lower prevalence of erosive esophagitis. Reflux hypersensitivity or functional heartburn might be partly attributed to the perception of esophageal symptoms in SSc patients who have neither gastroesophageal reflux disease nor esophageal dysmotility.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831799

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Capsule endoscopy (CE) is widely used for the diagnosis of small bowel diseases. The clinical performance and complications of small bowel CE, including completion rate, capsule retention rate, and indications, have been previously described in Korea. This study aimed at estimating the recent changes in clinical performance and complications of small bowel CE based on 17-year data from a Korean Capsule Endoscopy Registry. @*Methods@#CE registry data from 35 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical information, including completion rate, capsule retention rate, and indications, was collected and analyzed. In addition, the most recent 5-year data for CE examinations were compared with the previous 12-year data. @*Results@#A total of 4,650 CE examinations were analyzed. The most common indication for CE was obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). The overall incomplete examination rate was 16% and the capsule retention rate was 3%. Crohn’s disease was a risk factor for capsule retention. Inadequate bowel preparation was significantly associated with capsule retention and incomplete examination. An indication other than OGIB was a risk factor for incomplete examination. A recent increasing trend of CE diagnosis of Crohn’s disease was observed. The most recent 5-year incomplete examination rate for CE examinations decreased compared with that of the previous 12 years. @*Conclusions@#The 17-year data suggested that CE is a useful and safe tool for diagnosing small bowel diseases. The incomplete examination rate of CE decreased with time, and OGIB was consistently the main indication for CE. Inadequate bowel preparation was significantly associated with capsule retention and incomplete examination.

4.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 328-333, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763457

ABSTRACT

Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a preferred diagnostic method for analyzing small bowel diseases. However, capsule endoscopes capture a sparse number of images because of their mechanical limitations. Post-procedural management using computational methods can enhance image quality. Additional information, including depth, can be obtained by using recently developed computer vision techniques. It is possible to measure the size of lesions and track the trajectory of capsule endoscopes using the computer vision technology, without requiring additional equipment. Moreover, the computational analysis of CE images can help detect lesions more accurately within a shorter time. Newly introduced deep leaning-based methods have shown more remarkable results over traditional computerized approaches. A large-scale standard dataset should be prepared to develop an optimal algorithms for improving the diagnostic yield of CE. The close collaboration between information technology and medical professionals is needed.


Subject(s)
Capsule Endoscopes , Capsule Endoscopy , Cooperative Behavior , Dataset , Methods
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Among emergency department patient complaints, complaints related to medical malpractice can often lead to lawsuits. This study examined the reasons for medical malpractice complaints and find ways to improve the medical process and patient satisfaction in an emergency department. METHODS: This study analyzed 269 official complaints of emergency department patients between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2016. From these complaints, 100 complaints of medical malpractice were analyzed and the complaints of the non-medical process, such as unkindness, cost, facilities and the others, were excluded. The patients' age, sex, relationship between the patient and complainer, insurance state and visiting hour were analyzed. Details of the medical malpractice complaints were assessed and classified into four reasons: diagnosis, examination, treatment, and explanation. This study attempted to analyze the hospital's response to the complaints made during the medical process. RESULTS: Among the 100 medical malpractice complaints, 75 occurred at night duty; 40 were related to treatment, 32 to diagnosis, 22 to examination, and six to explanation. Among the treatment, wound problems were the most frequent reason for 23 cases. The hospital made financial compensation to 16 of its patients. CONCLUSION: The medical malpractice complaints occurred mainly at night. Treatment, especially wound problems, was the most frequent reason for the complaints. The rate of monetary compensation was higher than that of the other studies.


Subject(s)
Compensation and Redress , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Insurance , Malpractice , Patient Satisfaction , Retrospective Studies , Wounds and Injuries
6.
Intestinal Research ; : 516-526, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: When determining the subsequent management after endoscopic resection of the early colon cancer (ECC), various factors including the margin status should be considered. This study assessed the subsequent management and outcomes of ECCs according to margin status.METHODS: We examined the data of 223 ECCs treated by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) from 215 patients during 2004 to 2014, and all patients were followed-up at least for 2 years.RESULTS: According to histological analyses, the margin statuses of all lesions after EMR were as follows: 138 cases (61.9%) were negative, 65 cases (29.1%) were positive for dysplastic cells on the resection margins, and 20 cases (8.9%) were uncertain. The decision regarding subsequent management was affected not only by pathologic outcomes but also by the endoscopist’s opinion on whether complete resection was obtained. Surgery was preferred if the lesion extended to the submucosa (odds ratio [OR], 25.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.09–91.42), the endoscopic resection was presumed incomplete (OR, 15.55; 95% CI, 4.28–56.56), or the lymph system was invaded (OR, 13.69; 95% CI, 1.76–106.57). Fourteen patients (6.2%) had residual or recurrent malignancies at the site of the previous ECC resection and were significantly associated with presumed incomplete endoscopic resection (OR, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.21–17.39) and submucosal invasion (OR, 5.14; 95% CI, 1.18–22.34).CONCLUSIONS: Subsequent surgery was associated with submucosa invasion, lymphatic invasion, and cancer-positive margins. Presumed completeness of the resection may be helpful for guiding the subsequent management of patients who undergo endoscopic resection of ECC.


Subject(s)
Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Humans
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785625

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Smart glasses can provide sonographers with real-time ultrasound images. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the utility of smart-glasses for ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access.METHODS: In this randomized, crossover-design, simulation study, 12 participants were recruited from the emergency department residents at a university hospital. Each participant attempted ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access on a pediatric phantom at intervals of 5 days with (glasses group) or without (non-glasses group) the use of smart glasses. In the glasses group, participants confirmed the ultrasound image through the lens of the smart glasses. In the non-glasses group, participants confirmed the ultrasound image through the display viewer located next to the phantom. Procedure time was regarded as the primary outcome, while secondary outcomes included the number of head movements for the participant, number of skin punctures, number of needle redirections, and subjective difficulty.RESULTS: No significant differences in procedural time were observed between the groups (non-glasses group: median time, 15.5 seconds; interquartile range [IQR], 10.3 to 27.3 seconds; glasses group: median time, 19.0 seconds; IQR, 14.3 to 39.3 seconds; P=0.58). The number of head movements was lower in the glasses group than in the non-glasses group (glasses group: median, 0; IQR, 0 to 0; non-glasses group: median, 4; IQR, 3 to 5; P<0.01). No significant differences in the number of skin punctures or needle restrictions were observed between the groups.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that smart-glasses may aid in ensuring ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access by reducing head movements.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital , Eyeglasses , Glass , Head Movements , Needles , Pilot Projects , Punctures , Skin , Ultrasonography , Wireless Technology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713545

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy , Hemorrhage , Humans
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714049

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: International emergency medicine (IEM) is a rapidly growing field in emergency medicine (EM). However, there are few studies of the interest and attitude of EM residents on this subject in Korea. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of IEM and determine feasibility of adoption as an EM residency program. METHODS: A structured on/off-line survey was distributed to all current first to third grade EM residents in Korea (year 2016–2017). Ninety-two hospitals with residency programs and 463 residents were identified as potential survey candidates. The survey consisted of 20 questionnaires including binary yes/no and multiple choice questions. RESULTS: The response rate was 37.1% (172/463). The proportion of residents who have interest in IEM was 62.8% (108/172); 76.2% (131/172) respondents answered that they wanted to participate in IEM/global health activities during their residency. Approximately two thirds (68.6%, 118/172) reported that they plan to participate in any IEM activity even after graduation. More than half (56.4%, 97/172) agreed that the inclusion of IEM/global health training in their residency might be necessary and it may help them to guide their future careers after their training (68.6%, 118/172). A total of 144 respondents (83.7%) indicated lack of time during their residency mostly, absence of an IEM program (47.1%, 81/172), and lack of information on IEM (31.4%, 54/172). CONCLUSION: IEM is of interest to Korean EM residents. On the other hand, formal education and training offered to residents is limited in Korea. Korean Society of Emergency Medicine should start discussions on how to adopt a global IEM agenda, and reflect on a resident training program.


Subject(s)
Education , Emergencies , Emergency Medicine , Global Health , Hand , Internship and Residency , Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718677

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Korean government approved selected nonprescription drugs (Over-The-Counter drug; OTC drug) to be distributed in convenience stores from 15. Nov. 2012. This study examined the changes in the incidence and the clinical outcome of acute pharmaceutical drug poisoning after the deregulation of OTC drug sales. METHODS: This study analyzed the data of Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Injury Surveillance (EDIIS), Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, from 2011 to 2014. The following items were examined: age, gender, intention, alcohol association, pharmaceutical drugs resulting acute poisoning, the clinical outcomes in emergency department, and the admission rate of intensive care unit (ICU). This is a retrospective cross section observational study. RESULTS: A total of 10,162 patients were subject to pharmaceutical drug poisoning. Acute poisoning by acetaminophen and other drugs were 1,015 (10.0%) and 9,147 (90.0%) patients, respectively. After the deregulation of OTC drug sales, acute poisoning by other drugs increased from 4,385 to 4,762 patients but acute poisoning by acetaminophen decreased from 538 to 477 patients (p < 0.05). The rate of admission of acetaminophen poisoning increased from 36.1% (194/538) to 46.8% (223/477). The admission rate to the ICU by acetaminophen poisoning increased from 4.6% (25/538) to 11.3% (54/477) after the deregulation of OTC drug sales (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Since the deregulation of OTC drugs sales, pharmaceutical drug poisoning has increased but acetaminophen poisoning has decreased. The rate of hospitalization and ICU admission by pharmaceutical drug poisoning with or without acetaminophen has also increased.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Commerce , Drug Overdose , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Intention , Korea , Nonprescription Drugs , Observational Study , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies
11.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 547-551, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717974

ABSTRACT

Unlike wired endoscopy, capsule endoscopy requires additional time for a clinical specialist to review the operation and examine the lesions. To reduce the tedious review time and increase the accuracy of medical examinations, various approaches have been reported based on artificial intelligence for computer-aided diagnosis. Recently, deep learning–based approaches have been applied to many possible areas, showing greatly improved performance, especially for image-based recognition and classification. By reviewing recent deep learning–based approaches for clinical applications, we present the current status and future direction of artificial intelligence for capsule endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Capsule Endoscopy , Classification , Diagnosis , Endoscopy , Specialization
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Falling is a common cause of head injury in preschool aged children. We investigated the characteristics of mild head injuries caused by falling and the association between body weight and occurrence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI). METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted on head-injured preschool-aged children that visited the emergency department from January 2012 to December 2015. Characteristics such as age, sex, weight, free fall height, floor type, and presence of TBI, as defined as cerebral hemorrhage or skull fracture, were investigated. We calculated body weight percentiles by calibrating age and weight and categorized them into four quartile ranges. We grouped all included cases into two groups according to the presence of TBI. The characteristics of the two groups were compared by using chi-square test, and the association with TBI was investigated by using binomial logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 701 children were included, and TBI was observed in 95 children. Children with TBI were younger. The proportion of children with TBI was higher in the third and fourth quartiles of the body weight group as well as according to soft floor and fall from high height (≥1 m). The odds of soft floor being associated with TBI was higher than the odds for hard floor (odds ratio, 2.734; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.597–4.680). The odds of high height (≥1 m) being associated with TBI was higher than that for low height (odds ratio, 2.306; 95% CI, 1.155–4.601), and the odds ratio for the weight percentile group was 1.228 (95% CI, 1.005–1.499). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of TBI after falling in preschool-aged children might be associated with high fall-height and body weight quartiles.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Body Weight , Brain Injuries , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Child , Child, Preschool , Craniocerebral Trauma , Emergency Service, Hospital , Head , Humans , Logistic Models , Observational Study , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Skull Fractures
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the factors related to satisfaction with the pediatric emergency department service in Korea. METHODS: This study examined data from the Korea Health Panel Data from 2010 to 2012. Pediatric patients who visited the emergency department at least once between 2010 and 2012 in Korea were included. Data were collected on patient satisfaction with the emergency department service, and factors related to the patient characteristics, emergency department service process, and medical institution. We compared the dissatisfied and satisfied groups, and calculated the odds ratios for satisfaction according to each variable. RESULTS: A total of 1,505 emergency department visits from 947 pediatric patients during the 3-year period were analyzed. We estimated that about 79.5% of patients in the population were satisfied. The odds of expressing satisfaction were higher among males than in females, and among patients who were hospitalized after emergency department treatment compared to those who were transferred to another hospital. Conversely, the odds of expressing satisfaction were lower among patients who had a chronic disease, a financial source other than National Health Insurance, experienced hospitalization within 1 year. CONCLUSION: Our study results might be helpful for establishing a satisfactory pediatric emergency medical service system. In the future, further prospective studies evaluating the causal relationships between the relevant factors and patient satisfaction are warranted.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Korea , Male , National Health Programs , Odds Ratio , Parents , Patient Satisfaction , Pediatrics , Prospective Studies
14.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 317-322, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715796

ABSTRACT

Capsule endoscopy can be a diagnostic option for patients with esophageal diseases who cannot tolerate esophagogastroduodenoscopy.Functional modifications of the capsule allow for thorough examination of the esophagus. Esophageal capsule endoscopy has so farfailed to show sufficient performance to justify the replacement of traditional endoscopy for the diagnosis of esophageal diseasesbecause the esophagus has a short transit time and common pathologies appear near the esophagogastric junction. However,technological improvements are being introduced to overcome the limitations of capsule endoscopy, which is expected to become agood alternative to conventional endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Barrett Esophagus , Capsule Endoscopy , Diagnosis , Endoscopy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Esophageal Diseases , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Humans , Pathology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56108

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated playground equipment related injuries in preschool-aged children. This was a retrospective observational study using Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Surveillance, (2011–2014). We included the preschool-aged children with playground equipment related injuries. We surveyed the mechanism and incidence of injuries, and estimated the odds ratio (OR) of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and upper/lower extremities fracture. There were 6,110 patients, mean age was 4.14 ± 1.95 years old. Slide and swing related injuries were 2,475 (40.5%) and 1,102 (18.0%). Fall down (48.5%) was the most common mechanism. The OR of TBI in children 0–2 years old was 1.88 times higher than children 3–7 years old, and in swing was 4.72 (OR, 4.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.37–9.40) times higher than seesaw. The OR of upper extremity fracture in children 3–7 years old was 3.07 times higher than children 0–2 years old, and in climbing was 2.03 (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.63–2.52) times higher than swing. The OR of lower extremity fractures in horizontal bars, tightropes, and trampolines was 2.95 (OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.55–5.61) times higher than swing. The most common mechanism and playground equipment were fall down and slide. TBI was associated to younger children (0–2 years old) and swing. Fracture of upper extremities was associated to older children (3–7 years old) and climbing. Fracture of lower extremities was associated to others such as horizontal bars, tightropes, and trampolines.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Extremities , Fractures, Bone , Humans , Incidence , Lower Extremity , Observational Study , Odds Ratio , Play and Playthings , Retrospective Studies , Upper Extremity , Wounds and Injuries
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53377

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study reports the clinical features of infant, child, school aged and adolescent patients treated for acute poisoning in nationwide emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data pertaining to patients under 19 years of age who were treated for acute poisoning in nationwide EDs from 2013 to 2015. The data were collected by the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). All patients were divided into three groups: ‘Infant and child group’ (0 to 5 years), ‘school age group’ (6 to 12 years) and ‘adolescent group’ (13 to 18 years). General characteristics, Korea Standard Classification of Disease 7(th) (KCD-7) codes and results of care were collected. RESULTS: There were 14,500 pediatric poisoning cases during the study period. The distribution of patient age was bimodal with two peaks among infant, child and adolescent group. The proportion of alert mentality at the ED visit of the infant and child group was 99.3%, while that of the adolescent group was 86.4%. The proportion of intentional intoxication was higher in the adolescent group (40.7%) than other age groups. Among children less than 13 years of age, various poisonous substances and therapeutic drugs were common. CONCLUSION: There were some clinical differences in acute poisoning patients between age groups. It is necessary to establish a preventive plan considering characteristics by age. Since the KCD-7 code has limitations in analyzing the characteristics of poisoning patients, it is necessary to consider the registration system of poisoning patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Classification , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Infant , Information Systems , Korea , Pediatrics , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56986

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Falling is one of the most common causes of injury for preschool children. Here, we aim to identify the characteristics and risk factors of injuries by falling-down in preschool children. METHODS: Between January 2010 and December 2011, we enrolled patients under the age of 7 years, who were injured by falling down and visited an urban regional emergency center. We retrospectively surveyed the medical record of these patients, including age, sex, place and height of fall, type of floor, guardian's witness, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and fracture of extremities. RESULTS: The odds ratios sex (male), age (under 2 years old), height of fall, type of floor (hard), and guardian's witness (presence) that resulted in TBI were 1.35 (95% confidence interval [Cl], 0.72?2.55; p=0.352), 3.83 (95% Cl, 1.78?8.65; p<0.05), 6.38 (95% Cl, 3.27–12.44;p<0.05), 3.58 (95% Cl, 0.47–27.30; p=0.218), and 1.47 (95% Cl, 0.63–3.43; p=0.377), respectively. The odds ratios sex (male), age (over 2 years old), height of fall, type of floor (soft), and guardian's witness (absence) that resulted in fractures were 1.19 (95% Cl, 0.78–1.81; p=0.433), 3.10 (95%Cl, 1.99–4.84; p<0.05), 1.98 (95%Cl, 1.19–3.29; p<0.05), 2.41 (95% Cl, 1.29–4.54; p<0.05), and 1.15 (95%Cl, 0.72–1.85, p=0.554), respectively. CONCLUSION: In preschool children who experienced an injury from falling down, TBI was increased with younger patients and higher height of fall, but it was not related with patient's sex, type of floor, and guardian's witness; conversely, fractures were increased with older patients, higher height of fall, and soft floor, but not related with patient's sex and guardian's witness.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Brain Injuries , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergencies , Extremities , Humans , Medical Records , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 859-866, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81884

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In Korea, registration of paraquat-containing herbicides was canceled in November 2011, and sales thereof were completely banned in November 2012. We evaluated the effect of the paraquat ban on the epidemiology and mortality of herbicide-induced poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed patients treated for herbicide poisoning at 17 emergency departments in South Korea between January 2010 and December 2014. The overall and paraquat mortality rates were compared pre- and post-ban. Factors associated with herbicide mortality were evaluated using logistic analysis. To determine if there were any changes in the mortality rates before and after the paraquat sales ban and the time point of any such significant changes in mortality, R software, version 3.0.3 (package, bcp) was used to perform a Bayesian change point analysis. RESULTS: We enrolled 2257 patients treated for herbicide poisoning (paraquat=46.8%). The overall and paraquat poisoning mortality rates were 40.6% and 73.0%, respectively. The decreased paraquat poisoning mortality rate (before, 75% vs. after, 67%, p=0.014) might be associated with increased intentionality. The multivariable logistic analysis revealed the paraquat ban as an independent predictor that decreased herbicide poisoning mortality (p=0.035). There were two major change points in herbicide mortality rates, approximately 3 months after the initial paraquat ban and 1 year after complete sales ban. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the paraquat ban decreased intentional herbicide ingestion and contributed to lowering herbicide poisoning-associated mortality. The change point analysis suggests a certain timeframe was required for the manifestation of regulatory measures outcomes.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Eating , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology , Herbicides , Humans , Intention , Korea , Mortality , Paraquat , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207457

ABSTRACT

The Kaeseong Industrial District (KID) is a special economic zone that is being managed in partnership by North Korea and South Korea. The Kaeseong Industrial District Medical Clinic (KIDMC) was founded to deliver healthcare services to South Korean workers staying at the KID. The purpose of this study is to understand the clinical manifestations of the patients who visited the KIDMC from January 2013 to November 2014. All data were collected by analyzing the medical records of the patients. Gender, age, vital signs, and causes of visits were collected. The causes of visits to the clinic were categorized according to the Korean Standard Classification of Causes of Death and Disease, 6th edition. Information about the patients who underwent emergency evacuation from the KID to South Korea was reviewed in depth. The number of patients included in this study was 1,199. The total number of clinic visits was 2,548 and 3,873 in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The most common reason for a visit was respiratory problems (34.99%). During the study period, 103 patients underwent emergency evacuation from the KID during the study period. The most common reason for evacuation was trauma (20.39%). The mean time of emergency evacuation from the KIDMC to the southern office of Customs, Immigration and Quarantine was 176 minutes. We concluded that the KIDMC must obtain medical equipment and human resources for patients with various health conditions. Furthermore, equipment and medical staff should be obtained, and a system established, for fast, safe evacuation. We expect that this study provides information that would be valuable for such efforts.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Cause of Death , Classification , Delivery of Health Care , Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emigration and Immigration , Humans , Korea , Medical Records , Medical Staff , Quarantine , Transportation of Patients , Vital Signs
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219098

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the anesthetic effect on a modified subcutaneous single-injection digital block in accordance with the location of the finger. METHODS: We recruited volunteers from the workshop training course. We injected less than 5 mL of 2% lidocaine at the volar side, between the 3rd metacarpal and proximal phalangeal joint, until the swelling in the dorsal side of the finger increased. At 10 minutes post the modified subcutaneous single-injection digital block, we recorded the pain score (0-10) using 11-point numeric rating pain scale (NRPS) according to the location of the finger (volar proximal phalanx, VPP; volar middle phalanx, VMP; volar distal phalanx, VDP; dorsal distal phalanx, DDP; dorsal middle phalanx, DMP; dorsal proximal phalanx, DPP) via a pinprick test. We analyzed and compared the NRPS on the location of the finger by the Friedman test with a Pairwise comparison. RESULTS: Fifty-eight volunteers of healthy adult were enrolled in this study. The pain scales on DPP and DMP were 7.00 (4.00-8.00) and 2.00 (1.00-4.00), respectively. The pain scales on DDP, VDP, VMP and VDP were 0.00 (0.00-2.00), 0.00 (0.00-0.00), 0.00 (0.00-1.00) and 0.00 (0.00-1.00), respectively. The pain scales on DPP and DMP were significantly different among DDP, VPP, VMP and VPP (p0.999; VDP vs. VMP, p>0.999; VMP vs. VPP, >0.999). CONCLUSION: A modified subcutaneous single-injection digital block should be considered useful in regional anesthesia at the volar side of the finger and the dorsal side of the distal phalanx.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia, Conduction , Anesthesia, Local , Anesthetics , Education , Finger Injuries , Fingers , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Joints , Lidocaine , Nerve Block , Pain Measurement , Volunteers , Weights and Measures
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