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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925958

ABSTRACT

Background@#The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has gradually increased in the Korean population. This study aimed to evaluate the annual age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates (ASR) of VTE and anticoagulation trends between 2014 and 2018. @*Methods@#Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, we retrospectively identified VTE patients between 2014 and 2018 using both diagnostic and medication anticoagulant codes assigned within 6 months of the initial index event. Anticoagulant patterns were classified as follows: direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), panticoagulants, warfarin, and mixed anticoagulation regimens. @*Results@#We identified 95,205 patients with VTE (female, 56.8%). The ASR for VTE per 100,000 person-years increased from 32.8 in 2014 to 53.7 cases in 2018 (relative risk of 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.6–1.67). The VTE incidence rates were 25 times higher in the ≥ 80 group than in the 30s group. VTE occurred 1.29 times more often in women than in men. The proportion of DOAC prescriptions increased from 40.5% to 72.8%, whereas warfarin prescriptions decreased from 27% to 5.6% in 2014 and 2018. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, the ASRs of VTE continued to increase since 2014, but the rate of increase slowed in 2018. The VTE occurred more often in the elderly and in women. Five years after the introduction of DOACs in 2013, they accounted for 73% of all anticoagulants used to treat VTE.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915501

ABSTRACT

Poor graft function (PGF) is a serious, potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Eltrombopag has shown multilineage responses in patients with refractory severe aplastic anemia, supporting the idea that it may improve cytopenia in patients with PGF. This retrospective, single center analysis included 8 Korean patients receiving eltrombopag for PGF. Median interval between transplant and eltrombopag treatment was 73 days, and the median duration treatment was 3.5 weeks.With median maximum daily dose of 50 mg, the time to best response was 93 days. Median hemoglobin increased from 8.2 g/dL to 10.9 g/dL, platelet from 18.5 × 109 /L to 54 × 109 /L, and absolute neutrophil count from 1.25 × 109 /L to 3.32 × 109 /L. In conclusion, eltrombopag is a good option for PGF in Korean patients, even at a lower dose compared to western patients.

3.
Blood Research ; : 6-16, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874333

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a condition characterized by abnormal blood clot formation in the pulmonary arteries and the deep venous vasculature. It is often serious and sometimes even fatal if not promptly and appropriately treated. Moreover, the later consequences of VTE may result in reduced quality of life. The treatment of VTE depends on various factors, including the type, cause, and patient comorbidities. Furthermore, bleeding may occur as a side effect of VTE treatment. Thus, it is necessary to carefully weigh the benefits versus the risks of VTE treatment and to actively monitor patients undergoing treatment. Asian populations are known to have lower VTE incidences than Western populations, but recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of VTE in Asia. A variety of treatment options are currently available owing to the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants.The current VTE treatment recommendation is based on evidence from previous studies, but it should be applied with careful consideration of the racial, genetic, and social characteristics in the Korean population.

4.
Blood Research ; : 102-108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897359

ABSTRACT

Background@#To estimate real-world outcomes in East Asian populations, we conducted a nationwide retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide for del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with transfusion-dependent anemia in Korea. @*Methods@#Patients aged ≥19 years who had received lenalidomide for the treatment of lower-risk, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent del(5q) MDS were selected. A filled case report form (CRF) with information from electronic medical records was requested from members of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/MDS Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology. All the CRFs were gathered and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 31 patients were included in this study. Of 28 evaluable patients, 19 (67.9%) achieved RBC transfusion independence (RBC-TI). Female sex and the development of thrombocytopenia during treatment were associated with achieving RBC-TI. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were pruritus, fatigue, and rashes. All non-hematologic toxicities of grades ≥3 were limited to rash (12.9%) and pruritus (6.5%). Dose reduction was required in 15 of the 19 responders (78.9%). The most common final stable dosing schedule for the responders was 5 mg once every other day (31.6%). @*Conclusion@#Lenalidomide efficacy and tolerability were similar in the Asian del(5q) MDS patients and western patients. Dose reduction during treatment was common, but it was not associated with inferior outcomes.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892134

ABSTRACT

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complicated disease characterized by genetic heterogeneity and simultaneous alterations in multiple genes. For decades, its only curative method has been intensive induction chemotherapy with or without allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and this approach cannot be applied to elderly patients, who make up more than 50% of AML patients. Recent advances in genomics facilitated the elucidation of various mutations related to AML, and the most frequent mutations were discovered in epigenetic regulators. Alterations to epigenetic modifications that are essential for normal cell biology, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation, have been identified. As epigenetic dysregulation is an important carcinogenic mechanism and some epigenetic changes are reversible, these epigenetic alterations have become targets for novel drug development against AML. This review summarizes the recent advances in epigenetic therapies for AML and discusses future research directions.

6.
Blood Research ; : 102-108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889655

ABSTRACT

Background@#To estimate real-world outcomes in East Asian populations, we conducted a nationwide retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide for del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with transfusion-dependent anemia in Korea. @*Methods@#Patients aged ≥19 years who had received lenalidomide for the treatment of lower-risk, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent del(5q) MDS were selected. A filled case report form (CRF) with information from electronic medical records was requested from members of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/MDS Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology. All the CRFs were gathered and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 31 patients were included in this study. Of 28 evaluable patients, 19 (67.9%) achieved RBC transfusion independence (RBC-TI). Female sex and the development of thrombocytopenia during treatment were associated with achieving RBC-TI. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were pruritus, fatigue, and rashes. All non-hematologic toxicities of grades ≥3 were limited to rash (12.9%) and pruritus (6.5%). Dose reduction was required in 15 of the 19 responders (78.9%). The most common final stable dosing schedule for the responders was 5 mg once every other day (31.6%). @*Conclusion@#Lenalidomide efficacy and tolerability were similar in the Asian del(5q) MDS patients and western patients. Dose reduction during treatment was common, but it was not associated with inferior outcomes.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899838

ABSTRACT

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complicated disease characterized by genetic heterogeneity and simultaneous alterations in multiple genes. For decades, its only curative method has been intensive induction chemotherapy with or without allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and this approach cannot be applied to elderly patients, who make up more than 50% of AML patients. Recent advances in genomics facilitated the elucidation of various mutations related to AML, and the most frequent mutations were discovered in epigenetic regulators. Alterations to epigenetic modifications that are essential for normal cell biology, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation, have been identified. As epigenetic dysregulation is an important carcinogenic mechanism and some epigenetic changes are reversible, these epigenetic alterations have become targets for novel drug development against AML. This review summarizes the recent advances in epigenetic therapies for AML and discusses future research directions.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875471

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Understanding leukemic stem cell (LSC) is important for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment. However, association of LSC with patient prognosis and genetic information in AML patients is unclear. @*Methods@#Here we investigated the associations between genetic information and the various LSC phenotypes, namely multipotent progenitor (MPP)-like, lymphoid primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP)-like and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMP)-like LSC in 52 AML patients. @*Results@#In secondary AML patients, MPP-like LSC was significantly higher than de novo AML (p = 0.0037). The proportion of MPP-like LSC was especially high in post-myeloproliferative neoplasm AML (p = 0.0485). There was no correlation between age and LSC phenotype. Mutations of KRAS and NRAS were observed in MPP-like LSC dominant patients, TP53 and ASXL1 mutations in LMPP-like LSC dominant patients, and CEBPA, DNMT3A and IDH1 mutations in GMP-like LSC dominant patients. Furthermore, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with MPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0540), and TP53 mutation with LMPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0276). When the patients were separated according to the combined risk including next generation sequencing data, the poorer the prognosis, the higher the LMPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0052). This suggests that the dominant phenotype of LSC is one of the important factors in predicting the prognosis and treatment of AML. @*Conclusions@#LSC phenotype in AML is closely associated with the recurrent mutations which has prognostic implication. Further research to confirm the meaning of LSC phenotype in the context of genetic aberration is warranted.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875436

ABSTRACT

In 2016, the World Health Organization revised the diagnostic criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) based on the discovery of disease-driving genetic aberrations and extensive analysis of the clinical characteristics of patients with MPNs. Recent studies have suggested that additional somatic mutations have a clinical impact on the prognosis of patients harboring these genetic abnormalities. Treatment strategies have also advanced with the introduction of JAK inhibitors, one of which has been approved for the treatment of patients with myelofibrosis and those with hydroxyurea-resistant or intolerant polycythemia vera. Recently developed drugs aim to elicit hematologic responses, as well as symptomatic and molecular responses, and the response criteria were refined accordingly. Based on these changes, we have revised the guidelines and present the diagnosis, treatment, and risk stratification of MPNs encountered in Korea.

10.
Blood Research ; : 27-34, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although T-cell-replete hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from haploidentical donors (HIDs) using anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) has shown promising outcomes, previous studies often adopted heterogenous graft sources and conditioning.METHODS: We retrospectively compared HCT outcomes from 62 HIDs, 36 partially-matched unrelated donors (PUDs), and 55 matched unrelated donors (MUDs) in patients with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome using the same graft source of peripheral blood and a reduced intensity conditioning of busulfan, fludarabine, and ATG.RESULTS: The estimates of 3-yr disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were not significantly different among the MUD, HID, and PUD groups, at 46%, “41%, and 36%” for the DFS rate (P=0.844), and 55%, 45%, and 45% for the OS rate (P=0.802), respectively. Cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality at 3 yr was similar among different donor types. Subsequent multivariable analyses showed that the sex of the patient (male) and a high/very high disease risk index were independently associated with poorer DFS and OS, while the donor type was not.CONCLUSION: T-cell replete HCT from HIDs using an ATG-containing reduced intensity conditioning regimen may be a reasonable option in the absence of matched related donors in patients with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Antilymphocyte Serum , Busulfan , Cell Transplantation , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Incidence , Leukemia , Mortality , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Unrelated Donors
11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833673

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: The main difficulty when diagnosing leptomeningeal metastases (LMSs) is the low sensitivity of cytology. Cancer cells release cell-free DNA (cfDNA) during proliferation and apoptosis, and so we analyzed the cfDNA level as a biomarker for LMSs in hematologic malignancy. @*Methods@#This study prospectively enrolled 20 patients with hematologic malignancy who underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. LMS was diagnosed based on both CSF cytology and clinical findings. @*Results@#The CSF level of cfDNA was higher in patients with LMSs (108.17±84.84 ng/mL, mean±standard deviation) than in non-LMS patients (14.23±2.78 ng/mL). The sensitivity of cfDNA was higher than that of cytology (100% vs. 87%). @*Conclusions@#The cfDNA level in the CSF can be used as a supplemental marker for diagnosing LMS in hematologic malignancy patients.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831914

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#A link between oral cavity infections and chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (CIOM) in patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) undergoing intensive chemotherapy (IC) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been suggested. However, conclusive data are lacking, and there are no current guidelines for the prophylactic use of antimicrobials to prevent CIOM in these populations. @*Methods@#The relationships between herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation and Candida colonization in the oral cavity and CIOM in patients with HMs undergoing IC or HSCT were evaluated. Patients aged ≥ 19 years with HMs undergoing IC or HSCT were enrolled. Each patient was evaluated for HSV and Candida in the oral cavity along with CIOM at baseline and during the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks. @*Results@#Seventy presentations among 56 patients were analyzed. CIOM was observed in 23 presentations (32.9%), with a higher incidence associated with HSCT (17 of 35 presentations, 48.6%) than with IC (six of 35 presentations, 8.6%). The reactivation of HSV-1 was significantly associated with an increased incidence of CIOM after adjusting for age, sex, type of disease, and treatment stage. A higher HSV-1 viral load was associated with an increased incidence of CIOM. The presence of Candida was not associated with CIOM. @*Conclusions@#HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity was highly associated with CIOM in patients with HMs undergoing high-dose chemotherapy.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831862

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Seasonal variation is an environmental factor proposed to affect the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, VTE seasonal variation is not well studied in Asian populations, which have different genetic determinants of VTE compared to Westerners. The present study aimed at investigating seasonal variation of VTE occurrence and the effect of various demographic factors (i.e., age, sex, and co-morbidities) on variation. @*Methods@#VTE seasonal variation was evaluated in 59,626 index cases (from January 2009 to December 2013) in the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. We quantified and compared VTE occurrence across four seasons, and additionally assessed monthly through a chronobiological analysis. @*Results@#VTE incidence varied both seasonally and monthly, with new cases peaking in the winter (January and February) and the lowest incidence in the summer (August and September). After adjusting for sex, age, type of VTE, and combined cancer diagnosis, winter remained a significant independent factor driving VTE incidence. Additionally, seasonal variation was prominent in patients aged 60 years or older and in patients with pulmonary embolism, but not so prominent in patients of aged less than 60 years and patients with deep vein thrombosis. @*Conclusions@#Seasonal variation was a weak but independent contributor to VTE incidence in a Korean population diagnosed from 2009 to 2013, especially in those individuals with old age or suffering from a pulmonary embolism.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831755

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is defined by specific clinical characteristics, including microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and pathologic evidence of endothelial cell damage, as well as the resulting ischemic end-organ injuries. A variety of clinical scenarios have features of TMA, including infection, pregnancy, malignancy, autoimmune disease, and medications. These overlapping manifestations hamper differential diagnosis of the underlying pathogenesis, despite recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of several types of TMA syndrome. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is caused by a genetic or acquired defect in regulation of the alternative complement pathway. It is important to consider the possibility of aHUS in all patients who exhibit TMA with triggering conditions because of the incomplete genetic penetrance of aHUS. Therapeutic strategies for aHUS are based on functional restoration of the complement system. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the terminal complement component 5 inhibitor, yields good outcomes that include prevention of organ damage and premature death. However, there remain unresolved challenges in terms of treatment duration, cost, and infectious complications. A consensus regarding diagnosis and management of TMA syndrome would enhance understanding of the disease and enable treatment decision-making.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741127

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is challenging due to its close association with other forms of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, such as malignant hypertension and disseminated intravascular coagulation, and because other manifestations including cytopenia and acute kidney injury are manifestations of other medical comorbidities. Further challenges for accurate diagnosis include distinguishing between primary and secondary TMA, as well as between hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). TTP is typically differentiated from HUS by the presence of more severe thrombocytopenia, along with a higher frequency of altered mental status with relatively preserved renal function. However, the clinical course can vary among patients, requiring polymerase chain reaction testing of patient stools for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 13 (ADAMTS13) assay. To reduce the mortality rate, prompt initiation of plasmapheresis is important in cases where TPP cannot be excluded. Future advances enabling more rapid testing for ADAMTS13 levels will reduce the need for unnecessary plasmapheresis, so that treatment strategy can be more optimized.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Anemia, Hemolytic , Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome , Humans , Hypertension, Malignant , Mortality , Plasma Exchange , Plasmapheresis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombospondins , Thrombotic Microangiopathies
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#We investigated the time taken for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to develop brain metastases (BM), as well as their subsequent overall median survival following diagnosis, considering the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational status.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 259 patients diagnosed with advanced NSCLC from January 2010 to August 2013, who were tested for EGFR mutations. The time from the diagnosis of advanced NSCLC to the development of BM and the overall median survival after BM development (BM-OS) were evaluated and compared by EGFR mutational status.@*RESULTS@#Sixty-seven patients (25.9%) developed BM. Synchronous BM occurred more often in patients with EGFR mutation type (MT) (n = 20, 27.4%) compared with EGFR wild type (WT) (n = 27, 14.5%, p < 0.009). The median BM-OS was significantly longer in patients with EGFR MT than in those with EGFR WT (25.7 months vs. 3.8 months, p < 0.001), and a similar trend was noticed for patients with synchronous BM (25.7 months for EGFR MT vs. 6.8 months for EGFR WT, p < 0.001). However, in patients with metachronous BM development, the difference in BM-OS between patients with EGFR MT (14.6 months) and EGFR WT (2.5 months) did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.230).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Synchronous BM was more common in NSCLC patients with EGFR MT than in those with EGFR WT. However, EGFR mutations were associated with significantly longer median BM-OS, especially when the brain was the first metastatic site.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the current study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg)-SN 10%, a new 10% IVIg formulation, in adult patients with severe primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP; platelet count < 20 × 109/L). METHODS: Patients diagnosed as primary ITP, aged 19 years old or more, and had a platelet count of < 20 × 109/L by screening complete blood cell count performed within 2 weeks of study commencement were eligible. Patients received IVIg-SN 10% at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for two consecutive days. Response was defined as the achievement of a platelet count of ≥ 50 × 109/L at day 8. RESULTS: Out of 81 eligible patients, 31 patients were newly diagnosed, 7 patients had persistent ITP, and 43 patients had chronic ITP. In intent-to-treat analysis, 61.3 patients (75.7%) achieved response and satisfied the pre-defined non-inferiority condition. Median time to response was 2 days and mean duration of maintaining response after the completion of IVIg therapy was 9.13 ± 8.40 days. Response rates were not found to be dependent on the phase of ITP or previous treatment for ITP. The drug was well tolerated and the frequency of mucocutaneous bleeding decreased during the study period. CONCLUSION: In summary, IVIg-SN 10% formulation was found to be safe and effective in adult ITP patients (Trial registry at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02063789).


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Cell Count , Hemorrhage , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Mass Screening , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110925

ABSTRACT

Pericardial drainage is an important diagnostic and therapeutic option in the symptomatic patient with large amount of pericardial effusion (PE). However, when the amount of PE is relatively small, physicians are often reluctant to perform the invasive drainage of the fluid due to the increased risk of causing myocardial injury during the procedure. Even in some cases of suspected pericarditis with small amount PE, an initial empirical anti-inflammatory therapy is often recommended. A 65-year-old woman presented with mild dyspnea for two weeks. The echocardiography revealed small amount of PE. A careful fluoroscopy-guided pericardiocentesis, subsequent pericardial fluid cytology, and thorough whole body check-up demonstrated adenocarcinoma with no proven primary site. After the palliative chemotherapy, she had survived for 15 months until her death due to asphyxia. Although pericardiocentesis is considered dangerous in small amount of PE, a prompt and careful drainage may provide early detection of hidden malignancy and better survival outcome.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Aged , Asphyxia , Drainage , Drug Therapy , Dyspnea , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Pericardial Effusion , Pericardial Fluid , Pericardiocentesis , Pericarditis
20.
Blood Research ; : 113-121, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association between baseline renal impairment (RI) and the prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was previously not defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of RI in patients with DLBCL treated with three-weekly rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisolone immunochemotherapy (R-CHOP21). METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed de novo DLBCLs treated with ≥1 cycle of R-CHOP21 were analyzed retrospectively. Pretreatment blood samples were collected and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated. RI was defined by a GFR of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula. RESULTS: Of the 185 patients enrolled in the present study, 19 patients (10.3%) had RI. The reasons for baseline RI were pre-existing CKD (N=5), acute kidney injury due to either obstruction (N=2) or electrolyte imbalance (N=2) related to DLBCL, and undefined causes (N=10). Patients with baseline RI showed inferior overall survival (OS) compared to those without RI (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, RI was identified as an International Prognostic Index (IPI)-independent prognostic indicator. A baseline hemoglobin level of <10 g/dL and the presence of RI effectively discriminated a portion of the patients with far inferior event-free survival and OS among the patients having high or high-intermediate risk cancers according to either the standard- or the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-IPI. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment RI was an independent prognostic marker for inferior OS in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP21 immunochemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , B-Lymphocytes , Cooperative Behavior , Cyclophosphamide , Disease-Free Survival , Doxorubicin , Epidemiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Multivariate Analysis , Prednisolone , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab , Vincristine
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