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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765958


BACKGROUND/AIMS: There has been major progress in our understanding of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and novel treatment classes have emerged. The Rome IV guidelines were published in 2016 and together with the growing body of Asian data on IBS, we felt it is timely to update the Asian IBS Consensus. METHODS: Key opinion leaders from Asian countries were organized into 4 teams to review 4 themes: symptoms and epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and investigations, and lifestyle modifications and treatments. The consensus development process was carried out by using a modified Delphi method. RESULTS: Thirty-seven statements were developed. Asian data substantiate the current global viewpoint that IBS is a disorder of gut-brain interaction. Socio-cultural and environmental factors in Asia appear to influence the greater overlap between IBS and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. New classes of treatments comprising low fermentable oligo-, di-, monosacharides, and polyols diet, probiotics, non-absorbable antibiotics, and secretagogues have good evidence base for their efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Our consensus is that all patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders should be evaluated comprehensively with a view to holistic management. Physicians should be encouraged to take a positive attitude to the treatment outcomes for IBS patients.

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Consensus , Constipation , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Diet , Epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Intestines , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Life Style , Methods , Probiotics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78157


Although gastroesophageal reflux disease is not as common in Asia as in western countries, the prevalence has increased substantially during the past decade. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with considerable reductions in subjective well-being and work productivity, as well as increased healthcare use. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the most effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, there are limitations associated with these drugs in terms of partial and non-response. Dexlansoprazole is the first PPI with a dual delayed release formulation designed to provide 2 separate releases of medication to extend the duration of effective plasma drug concentration. Dexlansoprazole has been shown to be effective for healing of erosive esophagitis, and to improve subjective well-being by controlling 24-hour symptoms. Dexlansoprazole has also been shown to achieve good plasma concentration regardless of administration with food, providing flexible dosing. Studies in healthy volunteers showed no clinically important effects on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition, with no dose adjustment of clopidogrel necessary when coprescribed. This review discusses the role of the new generation PPI, dexlansoprazole, in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asia.

Asia , Blood Platelets , Delayed-Action Preparations , Delivery of Health Care , Dexlansoprazole , Efficiency , Esophagitis , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Healthy Volunteers , Plasma , Prevalence , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Proton Pumps , Protons
JPMA-Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. 1994; 44 (1): 14-16
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-33020


This study was designed to determine the efficacy of corn oil as an alternative vehicle to olive oil for emulsifying cyclosporine [CsA] in preventing rejection of transplanted rat larynges. The issue of varied site absorption was also addressed. Thirty animals were transplanted to get 5 viable transplants at two weeks for three varied sites of administration; intramuscular [IM, subcutaneous [SQ] and intraperitoneal [IP]. Five mg/kg of CsA in corn oil was the dose administrated based on earlier data generated in our laboratory. Postulating selective absorption, the indirect measure of laryngeal histopathology, i.e. rejection, was chosen over blood levels for evaluation. In the IM group 2 grafts evidenced mild rejection whereas 3 showed marked cellular and vascular rejection. The SQ group had 1 mild, 1 moderate and 3 with severe rejections. The IP group had one moderate rejection and 4 severe rejections. Qualitatively the IM and SQ groups were similar. The IP group histologically evidenced far greater cellular rejection. CsA 5mg/kg emulsified in corn oil did not differ substantively in histologic scope or pattern of rejection from CsA in olive oil in experimental rat laryngeal transplantation. Further, the data did not support a change in the administration of CsA from an intramuscular site

Animals, Laboratory , Cyclosporins/statistics & numerical data , Corn Oil , Immunosuppression/methods