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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915542

ABSTRACT

Background@#Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous disease with different age of onset, disease course, clinical symptoms, severity, and risk of comorbidity. The characteristics of children with AD also vary by age or country. However, little is known about the clinical characteristics of AD in Korean school-aged children and adolescents. Furthermore, there are few studies on phenotypic differences according to onset age. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics and phenotypes according to onset age and severity of AD in children and adolescents in Korea. @*Methods@#AD patients aged 6–18 years who presented to 18 hospitals nationwide were surveyed.The patients were examined for disease severity by pediatric allergy specialists, and data on history of other allergic diseases, familial allergy history, onset age, trigger factors, lesion sites,treatment history and quality of life were collected. The results of the patient’s allergy test were also analyzed. The patients were classified into infancy-onset (< 2 years of age), preschoolonset (2–5 years of age), and childhood-onset (≥ 6 years of age) groups. Study population was analyzed for clinical features according to onset-age groups and severity groups. @*Results@#A total of 258 patients with a mean age of 10.62 ± 3.18 years were included in the study. Infancy-onset group accounted for about 60% of all patients and presented significantly more other allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). Food allergy symptoms and diagnoses were highly relevant to both earlier onset and more severe group. Inhalant allergen sensitization was significantly associated with both infancy-onset group and severe group (P = 0.012 and P = 0.024, respectively). A family history of food allergies was significantly associated with infancyonset group (P = 0.036). Severe group was significantly associated with a family history of AD, especially a paternal history of AD (P = 0.048 and P = 0.004, respectively). Facial (periorbital, ear, and cheek) lesions, periauricular fissures, hand/foot eczema, and xerosis were associated with infancy-onset group. The earlier the onset of AD, the poorer the quality of life (P = 0.038). Systemic immunosuppressants were used in only 9.6% of the patients in the severe group. @*Conclusion@#This study analyzed the clinical features of AD in Korean children and adolescents through a multicenter nationwide study and demonstrated the phenotypic differences according to onset age and severity. Considering the findings that the early-onset group is more severe and accompanied by more systemic allergic diseases, early management should be emphasized in young children and infants.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913333

ABSTRACT

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a chronic disease related to human papillomavirus infection. The standard treatment of RRP is surgical resection of the lesion, but due to frequent recurrence, a combination of various adjuvant therapies has been attempted. Herein, we present the first case of RRP to whom intravenous cidofovir was administered as an adjuvant therapy in Korea. A 9-year-old boy was admitted due to hoarseness, stridor and breathing difficulty. At 10 months of age, he was diagnosed with RRP in the upper airway and thereafter he had repeatedly undergone surgical removal. During this hospitalization, papilloma was found again from the superior glottis to the inferior glottis and surrounding the trachea at the age of 9 years. In addition, well-defined nodular lesions were newly found on both lung fields, and a pathologic examination revealed a squamous papilloma with highgrade dysplasia, human papilloma virus types 6, 11, and 40 (low-risk type). Because of the frequent recurrence of papilloma in the upper airway as well as lung involvement, he underwent 38 injections of intravenous cidofovir for 2 years. During treatment, the intervals required for surgical removal of the mass causing upper airway obstruction were prolonged from an average of 37.3 to 74.6 days without serious side effects. However, intravenous cidofovir treatment had no effect on the lung lesion. This case shows that an intravenous cidofovir administration can be used as an adjuvant therapy in a child with RRP to relieve the upper airway obstruction, although this treatment does not cure the disease.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913318

ABSTRACT

Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome is a rare disease characterized by rapid progression of obesity and central hypoventilation with autonomic and endocrine dysregulation. There is no gold-standard diagnostic method for ROHHAD syndrome; it is diagnosed based on a years-long clinical course. For this reason, diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome is often delayed. In particular, ROHHAD has a high mortality rate due to cardiopulmonary arrest when quick diagnosis and appropriate intervention of central sleep apnea are not timely. We report a case in which an 11-year-old girl with central sleep apnea was diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome: the clinical course with early breathing intervention using noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. We emphasize the importance of respiratory interventions in the clinical course of ROHHAD syndrome.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785340

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While there is an urgent need for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), current genetic tests have drawbacks. We retrospectively reviewed the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) as a quick tool for immunophenotyping and functional assays in patients suspected to have PIDs at a single tertiary care institute.METHODS: Between January 2001 and June 2018, patients suspected of having PIDs were subjected to FCM tests, including lymphocyte subset analysis, detection of surface- or intracellular-target proteins, and functional analysis of immune cells, at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. The genetic diagnosis was performed using Sanger or diagnostic exome sequencing.RESULTS: Of 60 patients diagnosed with definite or probable PID according to the European Society of Immune Deficiencies criteria, 24 patients were provided with useful information about immunological dysfunction after initial FCM testing. In 10 patients, the PID diagnosis was based on abnormal findings in FCM testing without genetic tests. The FCM findings provided strong evidence for the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (n = 6), X-linked chronic granulomatous diseases (CGD) (n = 6), leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (n = 3), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 11), autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-FASLG (n = 1), and familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 2 (n = 1), and probable evidence for autosomal recessive-CGD (n = 2), autosomal dominant-hyper-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-syndrome (n = 1), and STAT1 gain-of-function mutation (n = 1). In PIDs derived from PIK3CD (n = 2), LRBA (n = 2), and CTLA4 mutations (n = 3), the FCM test provided useful evidence of immune abnormalities and a tool for treatment monitoring.CONCLUSIONS: The initial application of FCM, particularly with known protein targets on immune cells, would facilitate the timely diagnosis of PIDs and thus would support clinical decisions and improve the clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , Diagnosis , Exome , Flow Cytometry , Genetic Testing , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Korea , Leukocytes , Lymphocyte Subsets , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency , Tertiary Healthcare
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785338

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The roles of gut microbiota on the natural course of atopic dermatitis (AD) are not yet fully understood. We investigated whether the composition and function of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) at 6 months of age could affect the natural course of AD up to 24 months in early childhood.METHODS: Fecal samples from 132 infants were analyzed using pyrosequencing, including 84 healthy controls, 22 transient AD and 26 persistent AD subjects from the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and Allergic Diseases (COCOA) birth cohort. The functional profile of the gut microbiome was analyzed by whole-metagenome sequencing. SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTS: Low levels of Streptococcus and high amounts of Akkermansia were evident in transient AD cases, and low Clostridium, Akkermansia and high Streptococcus were found in children with persistent AD. The relative abundance of Streptococcus positively correlated with scoring of AD (SCORAD) score, whereas that of Clostridium negatively correlated with SCORAD score. The persistent AD group showed decreased gut microbial functional genes related to oxidative phosphorylation compared with healthy controls. Butyrate and valerate levels were lower in transient AD infants compared with healthy and persistent AD infants.CONCLUSIONS: Compositions, functions and metabolites of the early gut microbiome are related to natural courses of AD in infants.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Butyrates , Child , Clostridium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Infant , Metabolomics , Metagenome , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Parturition , Streptococcus
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913274

ABSTRACT

Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction that occurs mainly by food ingestion. Some children with food allergies manifest fatal symptoms like anaphylaxis. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) may offer an effective therapeutic modality for persistent and severe forms of food allergies. We report our experience with OIT in 3 patients with IgE-mediated hen’s egg allergy. Our treatment strategy consists of 1–3 days of initial escalation, 47 to 65 weeks of build-up phase, and 1 year of maintenance phase. Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133, 1×1010 colony-forming unit/day was taken during OIT. As a result, 1 patient achieved successful desensitization, and 1 patient reached maintenance therapy, but did not obtain desensitization. In addition, 1 patient withdrew from treatment due to anxiety symptoms. Despite the limited number of patients, we experienced and herein presented 3 cases of OIT in egg allergy. More trials of OIT need to be performed as a treatment option in Korean children with food allergies.

7.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e33-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with offspring allergic-disease development, and oxidative stress may mediate this relationship. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening, a marker for exposure to oxidative stress, in early life is associated with increased risk of asthma development during the preschool period. METHODS: We assessed the follow-up clinical data of a subgroup from a birth cohort whose LTLs had been measured from cord-blood and 1-year peripheral-blood samples. We examined whether the LTLs would be associated with asthma development at the age of 2–4 years. RESULTS: The data of 84 subjects were analyzed. LTLs were measured from the cord-blood and 1-year peripheral blood of 75 and 79 subjects, respectively. Among them, 14 subjects (16.7%) developed bronchial asthma between 2–4 years old. Prenatally stressed subjects had marginally increased odds of developing asthma (p = 0.097). There was no significant difference in the odds of preschool-asthma development between the groups with shorter and longer cord-blood LTLs (odds ratio [OR], 0.651; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.184–2.306) or in the odds between the groups with shorter and longer 1-year peripheral-blood LTLs (OR, 0.448; 95% CI, 0.135–1.483). Finally, subjects with both higher prenatal stress and shorter LTLs did not have significantly higher odds of preschool-asthma development (for cord-blood: OR, 1.242; 95% CI, 0.353–4.368; for 1-year peripheral-blood: OR, 1.451; 95% CI, 0.428–4.919). CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between early life LTLs and higher risk of bronchial-asthma development during the preschool years.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchial Diseases , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Leukocytes , Oxidative Stress , Parturition , Telomere
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762189

ABSTRACT

Filamin A is an actin-binding protein and, in humans, is encoded by FLNA gene in the long arm of X chromosome. Filamin A plays a role in the formation of cytoskeleton by crosslinking actin filaments in cytoplasm. FLNA mutations affect cytoskeletal regulatory processes and cellular migrating abnormalities that result in periventricular heterotopia. A 5-month-old girl was hospitalized because of breathing difficulty and was diagnosed as having periventricular heterotopia with laryngomalacia, cricopharyngeal incoordination, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic lung disease. A genetic test was performed to find the cause of periventricular heterotopia, and FLNA gene mutation (c.5998+1G>A) was confirmed for the first time in Korea. After discharge, she developed respiratory failure due to a viral infection at 8 months of her age. In spite of management with mechanical ventilation, she died of pneumothorax and pulmonary hemorrhage. Herein, we report a case of FLNA gene mutation who presented with periventricular nodular heterotopia with respiratory insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Actin Cytoskeleton , Arm , Ataxia , Cytoplasm , Cytoskeleton , Female , Filamins , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Infant , Korea , Laryngomalacia , Lung Diseases , Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia , Pneumothorax , Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency , X Chromosome
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762161

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus commonly colonizes the skin of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and contributes to the development and exacerbation of AD. Multiple factors are associated with colonization of AD skin by S. aureus, including the strength of S. aureus-corneocyte adhesion, deficiency of antimicrobial peptides, decreased levels of filaggrin and filaggrin degradation products, overexpressed Th2/Th17 cytokines, microbial dysbiosis and altered lipid profiles. S. aureus colonization on AD skin causes skin barrier dysfunction through virulence factors such as superantigens (toxins), enzymes and other proteins. Furthermore, colonization of AD skin by S. aureus exacerbates AD and may contribute to microbial dysbiosis, allergen sensitization, Th2/Th17 polarization, development of atopic march and food allergy in AD patients. Skin colonization of S. aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is one of the major challenges commonly encountered in the management of AD. Bleach bath, and topical or systemic antibiotics could be used to control S. aureus infection on AD skin. However, careful use of antibiotics is required to control the occurence of MRSA. Recently, various strategies, including microbiome transplant, monoclonal antibodies against virulent toxins, vaccines and recombinant phage endolysin, have been studied to control S. aureus infection on AD skin. Further advances in our understanding of S. aureus could provide us with ways to manage S. aureus colonization more effectively in AD patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Bacteriophages , Baths , Colon , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Dysbiosis , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Methicillin Resistance , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbiota , Peptides , Skin , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus , Superantigens , Vaccines , Virulence Factors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is increasing in young children. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of anaphylaxis in Korean infants, with a focus on food triggers. METHODS: The study analyzed the medical records of infants aged 0 to 2 years old who had been diagnosed with anaphylaxis in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in Korea. RESULTS: We identified 363 cases of infantile anaphylaxis (66.9% male). Cutaneous symptoms were most prevalent (98.6%), followed by respiratory (83.2%), gastrointestinal (29.8%), and neurologic (11.6%) symptoms. Cardiovascular symptoms were noted in 7.7% of the cases. Most of the cases of anaphylaxis (338; 93.1%) were induced by foods. The most common trigger food was cow's milk and cow's milk products (43.8%), followed by hen's eggs (21.9%), walnuts (8.3%), wheat (7.7%), peanuts (4.8%), other nuts (3.0%), and fish (2.1%). In cow's milk-induced anaphylaxis cases, more than half the cases had cow's milk specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) levels that were lower than the diagnostic decision points (DDPs), which is 5 kUA/L for those under the age of 1 and 15 kUA/L for those over the age of 1. In anaphylaxis induced by hen's egg, most of the cases (91.8%) had hen's egg sIgE levels that were higher than the DDP, which is 2 kUA/L for those under the age of 2 and 7 kUA/L for those over the age of 2. Of the infantile anaphylaxis cases, 46.8% had been treated with epinephrine, and 25.1% had been prescribed an epinephrine auto-injector. CONCLUSION: Cow's milk is the most frequent trigger food of anaphylaxis in Korean infants. However, we found no significant correlation between the sIgE level and clinical severity. Education is required regarding the importance of epinephrine as the first line therapy for anaphylaxis and on properly prescribing epinephrine for infants with a history of anaphylaxis.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Child , Education , Eggs , Epinephrine , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Infant , Juglans , Korea , Medical Records , Milk , Nuts , Ovum , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Triticum
11.
Immune Network ; : 42-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785819

ABSTRACT

There have been few studies investigating the association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and prenatal exposure to heavy metals. We aimed to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to heavy metals is associated with the development or severity of AD in a birth cohort study. A total of 331 subjects were followed from birth for a median duration of 60.0 months. The presence and severity of AD were evaluated at ages 6 and 12 months, and regularly once a year thereafter. The concentrations of lead, mercury, chromium, and cadmium in umbilical cord blood were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) were isolated and stimulated for analysis of cytokine production using ELISA. Heavy metal levels in cord blood were not associated with the development of AD until 24 months of age. However, a positive correlation was observed between the duration of AD and lead levels in cord blood (p=0.002). AD severity was also positively associated with chromium concentrations in cord blood (p=0.037), while cord blood levels of lead, mercury, and cadmium were not significantly associated with AD severity (p=0.562, p=0.054, and p=0.055, respectively). Interleukin-13 production in CBMCs was positively related with lead and chromium levels in cord blood (p=0.021 and p=0.015, respectively). Prenatal exposure to lead and chromium is associated with the persistence and severity of AD, and the immune reaction toward a Th2 polarization.


Subject(s)
Cacao , Cadmium , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fetal Blood , Interleukin-13 , Mass Spectrometry , Metals, Heavy , Parturition , Plasma , Umbilical Cord
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739517

ABSTRACT

With increasing need to prevent serious food allergy reactions, Korean food allergen labeling regulation has been revised repeatedly. This paper aims to summarize current statuses of food allergen labeling in Korea and foreign countries and to analyze the issue of food allergen labeling regulation. Korean food labeling regulation currently requires 19 items and 22 foods to be reported on labels (eggs, milk, buckwheat, peanut, soybean, wheat, mackerel, crab, shrimp, pork, peach, tomato, sulfite, walnut, chicken, beef, squid, shellfish, and pine nut). However, some common food triggers (for example, almond, cashew nut, and kiwi fruit) are not included in the current labeling regulation. Another issue is that the Korean labeling regulation has not yet been fully implemented for nonprepacked foods; thus, consumers still have difficulty in correctly identifying allergenic ingredients in food. It should be assessed whether warning statements for cross-contamination are reasonable. To prevent the occurrence of serious reactions from accidental ingestion, efforts must be made to solve recently raised issues including the items required to be listed on food labels, the system of standards for labeling and display methods.


Subject(s)
Anacardium , Arachis , Chickens , Decapodiformes , Eating , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Food Labeling , Hypersensitivity , Juglans , Korea , Lycopersicon esculentum , Milk , Nuts , Perciformes , Prunus dulcis , Prunus persica , Red Meat , Shellfish , Soybeans , Triticum
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739411

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Prenatal maternal stress affects offspring's atopic dermatitis (AD) development, which is thought to be mediated by the oxidative stress. We aimed to evaluate the difference in leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker for exposure to oxidative stress, according to the prenatal stress exposure and the later AD development. METHODS: From a birth cohort (the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases) that had displayed a good epidemiologic association between the exposure to prenatal stress and AD development in the offspring, we selected 68 pairs of samples from 4 subject groups based on the level of prenatal maternal stress and later AD development. The LTL was measured from both cord blood and 1-year peripheral blood, and their LTLs were compared between subject groups. Finally, the proportion of AD development was examined in the subject groups that are reclassified based on subjects' exposure to prenatal stress and there LTL. RESULTS: Cord-blood LTL was shorter in prenatally stressed infants than in unstressed ones (P = 0.026), which difference was still significant when subjects became 1 year old (P = 0.008). LTL of cord blood, as well as one of the 1-year peripheral blood, was not different according to later AD development at 1 year (P = 0.915 and 0.174, respectively). Shorter LTL made no increase in the proportion of later AD development in either prenatally high-stressed or low-stressed groups (P = 1.000 and 0.473, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Cord-blood LTL may reflect subjects' exposure to maternal prenatal stress. However, the LTL shortening is not a risk factor of increasing AD development until the age of 1, and a longer investigation may be necessary for validation. Currently, the results doubt the role of LTL shortening as a marker for risk assessment tool for the prenatal stress associated with AD development in the offspring.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fetal Blood , Humans , Infant , Leukocytes , Oxidative Stress , Parturition , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological , Telomere Shortening , Telomere
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716692

ABSTRACT

Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction that occurs mainly by consumption of food. Some of the children with food allergies have mild symptoms like urticaria and pruritus, while others manifest fatal symptoms like anaphylaxis. Many cases develop in infants and children, and disappear spontaneously over time. The prevalence of food allergy is known to be up to 6% of children and 3%–4% of adults. Growing concern is that prevalence of food allergy seems to be increasing. The prevalence, common allergens and natural course of food allergy vary according to the race, age, eating habits, and unknown factors. In Korea, many researchers have reported regional data on food allergy for comparison with those of foreign countries. Awareness is increasing and food labelling is being established to help people avoid allergenic foods. In the future, monitoring of prevalence and common food allergens at regular intervals is needed to make appropriate policies for children with food allergy. There are still lack of data on pathogenesis, natural course and clinical trials of immunotherapy in Korean children. In addition, it is necessary to form a consensus on primary prevention of food allergy by early exposure to allergenic foods. Further regional studies should be performed to expand our understanding of food allergy and to lead to proper management for Korean children with food allergy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Allergens , Anaphylaxis , Child , Consensus , Continental Population Groups , Eating , Food Hypersensitivity , Food Labeling , Humans , Immunotherapy , Infant , Korea , Prevalence , Primary Prevention , Pruritus , Urticaria
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739509

ABSTRACT

Food allergy has emerged as an important public health problem affecting people of all ages in many countries. The prevalence varies according to age, geographic regions, and ethnicity. For several years, many studies have suggested that the prevalence of food allergy is increasing at an alarming rate, for unclear reasons. Conversely, some studies have also provided findings that sensitization to common food allergens did not increase. Increased recognition rather than an actual increase in patients with IgE-mediated food allergy might lead to the increases in the prevalence of self-reported or physician-diagnosed food allergy. It is also noted that the prevalence of food allergy differs even in the same region according to the study design, i.e., hospital-based or community-based studies. Despite these limitations, epidemiologic data are important because they provide useful information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of food allergy. This review focuses on advances in the epidemiology of food allergy in Korean children.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Child , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Prevalence , Public Health
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713213

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the perception of food allergy among parents and school health instructors in Korea. METHODS: A nationwide epidemiological survey in Korea was conducted in September 2015. From 17 cities and provinces, a total of 1,000 elementary, middle and high schools were selected by stratified random sampling. Parents and school health instructors were surveyed using a questionnaire on the perception of food allergy. RESULTS: The prevalence of food-induced anaphylaxis was 22.3%. Of 252 children with anaphylaxis, 47.6% were prescribed epinephrine auto-injector (EAI). Forty-three parents (37.7%) were educated about the use of EAI. Parents carrying their own EAI at all times or keeping them at schools were 5.6% and 3.8%, respectively. For the food allergen-labeling system, 42.1% of parents read food labels, and 32.1% were satisfied with the system. Only 35.2% of school health instructors received education on food allergy and anaphylaxis, and 42.5% of them knew how to use EAI. There were 70 children (9.4%) with anaphylaxis in school, and 75.9% of schools had the emergency management system. CONCLUSION: The awareness of Korean parents and school health instructors on food allergy is still low, and many parents are dissatisfied with the food allergen labeling system. Many school health instructors have difficulty in using EAI in case of anaphylaxis and are insufficiently educated about food allergy. Therefore, it is necessary to establish more systematic food allergy management plans by providing high-quality education to parents and school health instructors and by utilizing legal systems.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Child , Education , Emergencies , Epinephrine , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Korea , Parents , Prevalence , School Health Services
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209991

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of immediate-type food allergy (FA) among schoolchildren in Korea. METHODS: A nationwide, cross-sectional study was performed in September 2015. A stratified random sample of 50,000 participants was selected from children and adolescents aged 6-7 years (n=17,500), 9-10 years (n=17,500), 12-13 years (n=7,500), and 15-16 years (n=7,500). Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on the detailed history of immediate-type FA. RESULTS: A total of 32,001 (64.0%) responded to the questionnaire survey, and 29,842 children (59.7%) were analyzed after adjusting for missing data. The number of the cases in each age group was 9,671 (6-7 years), 9,756 (9-10 years), 5,169 (12-13 years), and 5,246 (15-16 years). The prevalence of lifetime perceived FA was 15.82%. The prevalence of current immediate-type FA was 4.06% in total, with 3.15% in 6- to 7-year-olds, 4.51% in 9- to 10-year-olds, 4.01% in 12- to 13-year-olds, and 4.49% in 15- to 16-year-olds. Among individual food items, peanut (0.22%) was the most frequent causative food, followed by hen's egg (0.21%), cow's milk (0.18%), and buckwheat (0.13%). Among the food groups, fruits (1.41%), crustaceans (0.84%), tree nuts (0.32%), and fish (0.32%) were the most common offending foods. The prevalence of food-induced anaphylaxis was 0.97%. The most frequent causative food of anaphylaxis was peanut (0.08%), followed by cow's milk (0.07%), buckwheat (0.06%), and hen's egg (0.06%), while fruits (0.28%), crustaceans (0.18%), tree nuts (0.12%), and fish (0.09%) were the most commonly responsible food groups. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of current immediate-type FA and food-induced anaphylaxis in Korean schoolchildren in 2015 was 4.06% and 0.97%, respectively. Peanuts, cow's milk, hen's egg, fruits, crustaceans, and tree nuts are common allergens.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Allergens , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Humans , Korea , Milk , Nuts , Ovum , Parents , Prevalence , Trees
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209989

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Age-based causes and clinical characteristics of immediate-type food allergy (FA) have not been sufficiently studied. Therefore, we investigated age-dependent clinical profiles of FA in Korean children through an extensive multicenter investigation. METHODS: Using a case report form developed by the authors, a retrospective medical record review was performed of patients (0-18 years old) diagnosed with immediate-type FA between September 2014 and August 2015 in 14 tertiary hospitals in Korea. RESULTS: A total of 1,353 children and adolescents, 93% younger than 7 years, were enrolled in the present study, and 1,661 cases of immediate-type FA were recorded in these patients. The 7 major causative foods were cow's milk (28.1%), hen's eggs (27.6%), wheat (7.9%), walnuts (7.3%), peanuts (5.3%), buckwheat (1.9%), and shrimps (1.9%). Categorizing the patients into 4 age groups revealed that the most common causative food was different for each age group: cow's milk (<2 years), walnuts (2–6 years), walnuts (7–12 years), and buckwheat (13-18 years). The onset time of symptoms was less than 10 minutes in 49%, between 10 and 30 minutes in 17%, and between 30 minutes and 2 hours in 34% of cases. Food-induced anaphylaxis was reported in 506 (30.5%) out of 1,661 cases, and the 7 major causes of food-induced anaphylaxis was cow's milk (27.5%), hen's eggs (21.9%), wheat (11.3%), walnuts (10.5%), peanuts (5.9%), buckwheat (4.2%), and pine nuts (3.0%). The proportion of anaphylaxis was highest in the patients allergic to buckwheat (67.7%), followed by those allergic to pine nuts (57.7%), walnuts (43.8%), wheat (43.5%), and peanuts (34.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The 5 major causative foods of immediate-type FA in Korean children were cow's milk, hen's eggs, wheat, walnuts, and peanuts. The distribution of causative foods was considerably distinctive according to different age groups. Anaphylaxis was reported in 30.5% of immediate-type FA cases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Child , Eggs , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Juglans , Korea , Medical Records , Milk , Nuts , Ovum , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Triticum
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25081

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in Korean schoolchildren and to evaluate its utility in the prediction of atopy and allergic diseases. A nationwide, cross-sectional survey was conducted in first grade students from randomly selected elementary and middle schools. Total IgE levels were measured by ImmunoCAP. Skin prick tests were performed for 18 common inhalant allergens to determine the presence of atopy. Children aged 12–13 years and parents of children aged 6–7 years were asked to complete questionnaire assessing allergic diseases. The cut-off levels of total IgE were determined by analyzing receiver operating characteristic curves. The median total IgE level was 86.7 kU/L (range: 1.5–4,523.1) in 3,753 children aged 6–7 years and 94.7 kU/L (range: 1.5–3,000.0) in 3,930 children aged 12–13 years. Total IgE concentrations were higher in children with atopy or allergic diseases than in those without (all P < 0.001). At the cut-off value of 127.7 kU/L, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 67.1%, 75.4%, 65.4%, and 76.7%, respectively, in elementary schoolchildren. At the cut-off value of 63.0 kU/L, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 81.9%, 66.6%, 75.0%, and 75.1%, respectively, in middle schoolchildren. PPV and NPV were ≥ 70% when cut-offs of 258.8 kU/L and 38.4 kU/L were used for the diagnosis of atopy in 6–7 year-olds and 12–13 year-olds, respectively. This nationwide population-based study provided the first normal reference ranges of total IgE in Korean schoolchildren.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Parents , Reference Values , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Skin
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114705

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the details of the clinical characteristics and food exposure types at the first symptom onset in immediate-type cow's milk allergy (CMA) and egg white allergy (EWA) in Korean children. METHODS: This study included children with immediate-type CMA (n=288) or EWA (n=233) with symptom onset time of 2 hours or less, who visited Samsung Medical Center, Ajou University Hospital, and Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital between September 2014 and August 2015. The details of clinical features and food exposure types at the first symptom onset were evaluated by retrospective medical record review using a standardized case report form. RESULTS: The median ages of first symptom onset were 10 months in CMA and 12 months in EWA. The most common types of exposure at the first symptom in CMA were formula milk (29.5%) and milk (29.5%), followed by cheese (17.7%) and yogurt (14.2%). The most common type of exposure in EWA was boiled eggs (35.6%), followed by rice/porridge/soup containing eggs (27.5%), pan-fried eggs (17.6%), and baked goods (9.9%). Cutaneous symptoms were most common in both CMA and EWA, and anaphylaxis was noticed in 36.1% and 30.3%, respectively. Baked goods containing milk or eggs also induced anaphylaxis. The symptom onset time was less than 30 minutes in the majority of patients and the most common place of occurrence was home in both CMA and EWA. CONCLUSION: This study provides comprehensive information on CMA and EWA, and therefore helps clinicians diagnose and guide appropriate food restriction in children with CMA and EWA.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Cheese , Child , Egg Hypersensitivity , Egg White , Eggs , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Medical Records , Milk Hypersensitivity , Milk , Ovum , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Yogurt
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