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1.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-44192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Addition of sodium nitroprusside (NaNTP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor to peritoneal solution could enlarge the effective peritoneal surface area and the peritoneal pore size. This would be leading to increased clearance of all solutes. Generalized clinical usage of NaNTP in CAPD patients however is not practical because it has a very short half-life and needs a specific route of administration. Organic nitrate, another NO donor, has a longer half-life and could be more easily absorbed via many routes. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to determine the effect and mechanism of oral active nitrate (isosorbide 5-mononitrate: ISMN) on solute andfluid transports in stable CAPD patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A prospective randomized placebo control with a crossover study was performed in nine stable CAPD patients. In group I (n = 4), the treatment included 1) oral ISMN at the dose of 20 mg bid for 5 days 2) wash out period for 7 days, and 3) placebo for 5 days. In group 2 (n = 5), the treatment regimens were placebo, wash out, and ISMN periods. RESULTS: The MTACs of low molecular weight (LMW) solutes in the ISMN period were greater than the placebo period: median urea, 16.7 vs 13.8 ml/min; creatinine (Cr), 7.9 vs 6.9 ml/min; and urate, 6.1 vs 5.5 ml/min (p < 0.05 for all except MTAC of urea). Administration of ISMN could also enhance the clearances of high molecular weight (HMW) solute with a magnitude of increase as follows: 10% for beta2-microglobulin, 50% for albumin, and 15% for immunoglobulin G (p < 0.05 for all). However, the values of restrictive coefficient of LMW as well as HMW solutes of both groups were not different, indicating that the increased solute transports are not due to alteration in the peritoneal membrane permeability. Despite the increased peritoneal solute clearance, net ultrafiltration (UF) was unchanged after drug administration, 110 (ISMN group) vs 120 ml (placebo group), (NS). CONCLUSION: ISMN has a similar effect as NaNTP in enhancing peritoneal clearances of both LMW and HMW solutes. The effect of ISMN, however, is mediated only via expansion of peritoneal surface area without significant change in pore size. As such, administration of oral ISMN to stable CAPD patients would be practically beneficial in enhancing the achievement of target solute clearances suggested by NKF- DOQI Guidelines.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Biological Transport/drug effects , Cross-Over Studies , Dialysis Solutions , Female , Humans , Isosorbide Dinitrate/administration & dosage , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Nitric Oxide Donors/administration & dosage , Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory/methods , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
2.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-45674

ABSTRACT

The authors report the first case of chylous ascites and chyluria in a 65-year-old Thai women with nephrotic syndrome due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), tip variant. She presented with generalized edema and abdominal discomfort. Abdominal paracentesis revealed milky white fluid. Chylous ascites was confirmed. Abdominal and thoracic computed tomography did not show any cause of chylous ascites and chyluruia. Lymphoscintigraphy could not demonstrate lymph flow obstruction and connection between lymphatic pathway and KUB system. Those could have explained the chylous ascites or chyluria. Hypoalbuminemia-induced bowel edema may predispose to change the permeability of mucosal or serosal lymphatics. This could result in chylous ascites but the cause of chyluria could not be determined in this case.


Subject(s)
Aged , Chyle , Chylous Ascites/diet therapy , Female , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/pathology , Humans , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Thailand , Urine
3.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-45403

ABSTRACT

The authors reported the first case of nodular glomerulosclerosis, mesangiolysis, and thrombotic microangiopathy in a 69-year-old Thai man with chronic glomerulopathy from light chain deposition disease associated with multiple myeloma and kappa monoclonal gammopathy. He presented with subacute onset of generalized edema, hypertension, and renal insufficiency. Blood examinations revealed kappa monoclonal gammopathy. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. The renal pathologies demonstrated specific findings for light chain deposition disease which were type II nodular glomerulosclerosis, strongly PAS-stained tubular basement membrane, monotypic-kappa light chain deposition along tubular and glomerular basement membranes, and granular electron dense deposits in electron microscopy. However the authors also found the concomitant findings of mesangial and endothelial injuries which were mesangiolysis and thrombotic microangiopathy. Of interest, type II nodular sclerosis and thrombotic microangiopathy were caused by the same cell injury. These might shed new light on the pathogenesis of glomerular injury in monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD).


Subject(s)
Aged , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/ultrastructure , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Male , Microcirculation , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Paraproteinemias/complications , Thrombosis/diagnosis
4.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-42937

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated glomerulonephropathy (HBV-GN) has been increasingly reported, especially in adults. In the present study, the authors investigated the clinical and histopathology features of patients who suspected HBV-GN in 24 patients and age ranging from 23 to 74 years (mean 43 years). Asymptomatic hematuria was the most common presentation (54%); followed by edema and hypertension at equal percentages of 50%. The nephrotic syndrome was presented in 43%, the nephrito-nephrotic syndrome in 3.5%. Clinically suspected rapidly progressive GN was found in 14%. Renal insufficiency was determined in 30%. The most common pathologic finding was IgA nephropathy (IgAN 29%), followed by membranous nephropathy (21%), focal segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS 11%), membranoproliferative GN (11%), post-infectious GN (11%). Liver disease activity also tended to be mild or had no symptoms of hepatitis. The authors remission rates both complete and partial were 75% (higher than the usual report), notwithstanding treatment. The authors achieved a sustained complete remission in half of the patients (3 in 6 cases) treated with steroid alone and 2 out of 7 cases (28.6%) treated with anti-viral therapy. Spontaneous remission was demonstrated in 2 (1 with IgAN + FSGS, and 1 with post infectious GN) out of 6 patients (33.3%). None of the patients in both treatment groups turned to ESRD that occurred in 2 cases receiving non-specific treatment. Of note, all of the patients who received anti-viral therapy or corticosteroid and had complete follow up were in remission either complete or partial.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Female , Glomerulonephritis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hematuria/physiopathology , Hepatitis B/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Thailand
5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-42774

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), used as an antihypertensive medication, on peritoneal membrane transporters in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Prospective and cross-over experimental study of peritoneal membrane transporters was conducted in 7 CAPD patients with hypertension. All previous antihypertensive drugs had been replaced by candesartan at the dose of 8-16 mg/day to control blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg. Hydralazine, which has no effect on peritoneal membrane transports, was added if the target blood pressure was not achieved. All patients had received candesartan for 12 weeks, then, were retreated with the previous antihypertensive drugs for another 6-week period. The modified peritoneal function tests assessing peritoneal membrane transports were performed at 1) baseline, 2) 6 weeks, 3) 12 weeks following candesartan treatment, and 4) 6 weeks after candesartan withdrawal. RESULTS: The blood pressure target was achieved in all patients and was not different among the 4 periods. The albumin clearance and 4-hour albumin loss were significantly decreased following candesartan treatment (p < 0.05). Both values returned to the high baseline levels after 6 weeks of candesartan withdrawal. There were no significant changes in net ultrafiltration and various small and large solute transports. No adverse effects, including hyperkalemia or increased erythropoietin dosage, had been observed. CONCLUSION: In hypertensive CAPD patients, candesartan could provide nutritional benefit by attenuating peritoneal loss of albumin and provides an effective antihypertensive action. Furthermore, candesartan does not impair other solute transports and net ultrafiltration.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacokinetics , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacokinetics , Benzimidazoles/pharmacokinetics , Biological Transport , Blood Pressure , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Membranes , Middle Aged , Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory/methods , Peritoneum , Prospective Studies , Serum Albumin/analysis , Tetrazoles/pharmacokinetics
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-40091

ABSTRACT

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in an adult worldwide. The prevalence of FSGS is estimated as being 20-30% in adults over the age of 15 years and slightly higher (30-35%) in the elderly (age > 60 years). The diagnosis solely relies on pathologic findings, which sclerosis involves some, but not all glomeruli (focal), and sclerosis affects a portion, but not the entire, glomerular tuft (segmental). The pathogenesis remains inconclusive but podocyte injury has been postulated. Even though steroid is the mainstay treatment, only 20-40% of patients are complete respond.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , Nephrotic Syndrome/etiology , Podocytes/pathology
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-38561

ABSTRACT

The authors reviewed the clinical and pathological findings in 120 IgA-nephropathy (IgAN) patients diagnosed at King Chulalongkorn University Hospital from 1994 to 2005. The average age of the patients was 36 years. Male and female ratio was 1:1.2. Thirty percent of the patients had hypertension. Thirty-four percent of the patients had serum creatinine greater than 1.5 mg/dl and had urine protein greater than 3 g/day. The most common presentation was asymptomatic urinary abnormalities (43%) followed by nephrotic syndrome (36%). Of note, many of the presented patients had advanced pathological classification and high tubulointerstitial (TI) fibrotic score. The clinico-pathological correlation was found significantly between serum creatinine and degree of TI fibrotic score by univariate analyses. Compared to other reports from Asian countries, the presented population had many worse prognostic markers including a decline in renal function, advanced pathologic findings, and high TI fibrotic scores. Further study on prognosis in Thai patients should be performed to help decision making in management of IgAN patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biopsy , Female , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Thailand/epidemiology
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-43638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The nationwide renal registry has not yet been organized in Thailand, and the literature contains no registry of renal pathologic finding across the Southeast Asian (SEA) countries in the modern era when electron microscopy (EM) is routinely available. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of renal pathology in Thai population. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The authors reviewed the case file and renal biopsy specimens of King Chulalongkorn University Hospital to identify all adult native renal biopsy specimens received from January 2001 to December 2004, investigating prevalence and clinical and histological data. Biopsy of renal graft and in cases of trauma and tumors the authors excluded. Most of the biopsy specimens obtained The authorsre analyzed using light microscopy (LM), immunofluorescense (IF), and EM. Final diagnosis was made for each patient based on clinicopathologic correlations. RESULTS: A total of 506 native renal biopsies were processed during this period, 69.8% were female and 30.2% were male. Their age average was 37 +/- 14.2 (13-80) years. The most common indications for renal biopsy were nephrotic syndrome and SLE (36.8%, 34.5%, respectively), followed by asymptomatic hematuria/proteinuria in 10.9% of patients. Secondary glomerular diseases were dominant against primary diseases in all but elderly age group (>50 years), particularly LN. Among primary glomerular diseases, the prevalence of IgAN, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and membranous nephropathy were 31.0%, 24.9%, and 13.1%, respectively. The provisional clinical diagnosis was correct in three fourths (73.2%) of the SLE cases. Postbiopsy complications occurred in 3.3% (17/506). Gross hematuria was seen in 2.3% (12/506), and perinephric hemptoma in 0.79%. Three of them required blood transfusion but none of them died and required an invasive procedure for resolution. The major complications were 2 folds less than regular prevalence (0.6% compared to 1.3%). CONCLUSION: Although the data was collected from single center where EM is routinely performed, the authors believe that IgAN is the commonest primary GN in SEA countries. The authors are looking forward to seeing the nationwide registry data in Thailand and other SEA countries.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy , Epidemiologic Studies , Female , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis , Prevalence , Registries , Thailand/epidemiology
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