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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(1): 46-52, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364584

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The cuff of an endotracheal tube seals the airway to facilitate positive-pressure ventilation and reduce subglottic secretion aspiration. However, an increase or decrease in endotracheal tube intracuff pressure can lead to many morbidities. Objective The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different head and neck positions on endotracheal tube intracuff pressure during ear and head and neck surgeries. Methods A total of 90 patients undergoing elective right ear (Group 1: n = 30), left ear (Group 2: n = 30) or head and neck (Group 3: n = 30) surgery were involved in the study. A standardized general anesthetic was given and cuffed endotracheal tubes by the assistance of video laryngoscope were placed in all patients. The pilot balloon of each endotracheal tube was connected to the pressure transducer and standard invasive pressure monitoring was set to measure intracuff pressure values continuously. The first intracuff pressure value was adjusted to 18.4 mmHg (25 cm H2O) at supine and neutral neck position. The patients then were given appropriate head and neck positions before related-surgery started. These positions were left rotation, right rotation and extension by under-shoulder pillow with left/right rotation for Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The intracuff pressures were measured and noted after each position, at 15th, 30th, 60th, 90th minutes and before the extubation. If intracuff pressure deviated from the targeted value of 20-30 cm H2O at anytime, it was set to 25 cm H2O again. Results The intracuff pressure values were increased from 25 to 26.73 (25-28.61) cm H2O after left neck rotation (p = 0.009) and from 25 to 27.20 (25.52-28.67) cm H2O after right neck rotation (p = 0.012) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. In Group 3, intracuff pressure values at the neutral position, after extension by under-shoulder pillow and left or right rotation were 25, 29.41 (27.02-36.94) and 34.55 (28.43-37.31) cm H2O, respectively. There were significant differences between the neutral position and extension by under-shoulder pillow (p < 0.001), and also between neutral position and rotation after extension (p < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant increase of intracuff pressure between extension by under-shoulder pillow and neck rotation after extension positions (p = 0.033). Conclusion Accessing the continuous intracuff pressure value measurements before and during ear and head and neck surgeries is beneficial to avoid possible adverse effects/complications of surgical position-related pressure changes.


Resumo Introdução O manguito ou cuff de um tubo endotraqueal sela as vias aéreas para facilitar a ventilação com pressão positiva e reduzir a aspiração de secreção subglótica. Entretanto, o aumento ou diminuição da pressão intracuff do tubo endotraqueal pode levar a muitas morbidades. Objetivo Investigar o efeito de diferentes posições da cabeça e pescoço da pressão intracuff do tubo endotraqueal durante cirurgias de orelha e cabeça e pescoço. Método Participaram do estudo 90 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia eletiva na orelha direita (Grupo 1: n = 30), orelha esquerda (Grupo 2: n = 30) ou cabeça e pescoço (Grupo 3: n = 30). Um anestésico geral padronizado foi administrado e o tubo endotraqueal com cuff foi colocado em todos os pacientes através de videolaringoscopia. O balão-piloto de cada tubo endotraqueal foi conectado ao transdutor de pressão e o monitoramento-padrão da pressão invasiva foi estabelecido para medir continuamente os valores da pressão intracuff. O primeiro valor de pressão intracuff foi ajustado para 18,4 mmHg (25 cm H2O) na posição supina e neutra do pescoço. Em seguida, os pacientes foram colocados nas posições cirúrgicas apropriadas de cabeça e pescoço antes do início da cirurgia. Essas posições foram rotação esquerda, rotação direita e extensão por rotação esquerda/direita com almofada sob o ombro, para os grupos 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente. As pressões intracuff s foram medidas e anotadas após cada posição, aos 15, 30, 60, 90 minutos e antes da extubação. Se a pressão intracuff saísse do valor desejado de 20 ~ 30 cm H2O a qualquer momento, ela era definida em 25 cm H2O novamente. Resultados Os valores de pressão intracuff aumentaram de 25 para 26,73 (25-28,61) cm H2O após a rotação do pescoço para a esquerda (p = 0,009) e de 25 a 27,20 (25,52-28,67) cm H2O após rotação do pescoço para a direita (p = 0,012) nos grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente. No Grupo 3, os valores da pressão intracuff na posição neutra, após extensão com almofada sob o ombro e rotação para a esquerda ou direita, foram 25, 29,41 (27,02-36,94) e 34,55 (28,43-37,31) cm H2O, respectivamente. Houve diferenças significativas entre a posição neutra e a extensão com almofada sob o ombro (p < 0,001) e também entre a posição neutra e a rotação após a extensão (p < 0,001). Entretanto, não houve aumento estatisticamente significante da pressão intracuff entre extensão com almofada sob o ombro e rotação do pescoço após as posições de extensão (p = 0,033). Conclusão As medições contínuas do valor da pressão intracuff antes e durante cirurgias de orelha e cabeça e pescoço são benéficas para evitar possíveis efeitos adversos/complicações de alterações de pressão relacionadas à posição cirúrgica.

2.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 584-588, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137310

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chylous ascites is the pathologic accumulation of chylous fluid in the peritoneal cavity, caused by lymphomas, metastatic malignancies, and abdominal surgeries, rarely due to surgical trauma of the cisterna chyli or its major branches. A 24-year-old man with history of Marfan syndrome presented to our hospital with abdominal distention, abdominal pain, fluid in the incision region, and weakness. He had underwent an elective open aneurysm repair surgery nine days before for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. Computed tomography revealed massive fluid collection in the abdominal cavity, which was drained surgically. He was diagnosed with chylous ascites and was discharged after conservative treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Chylous Ascites/etiology , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/etiology , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Marfan Syndrome/surgery , Marfan Syndrome/complications , Drainage , Elective Surgical Procedures
3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 581-587, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042051

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of carotid artery stenosis (CAS) using carotid duplex ultrasound in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: This retrospective study was conducted between January 2017 and January 2018 and included 166 consecutive patients [130 males (78.31%), 36 females (21.69%); mean age: 64.25±9.78 years] who underwent elective and isolated CABG. Patients who had significant CAS (≥50% stenosis) were compared with patients who had non-significant CAS (<50% stenosis). Logistic regression analysis was applied across the selected parameters to identify risk factors for significant CAS. Results: Of all patients, 36 (21.68%) had CAS ≥50% and 8 (4.81%) had unilateral carotid stenosis ≥70%. Carotid endarterectomy/CABG was performed simultaneously in five (3.01%) patients. None of these patients had cardiac and neurological problems during the postoperative period. The overall incidence of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) after CABG was 1.20% (n=2). Age (P=0.011) and history of CVA (P=0.035) were significantly higher in the CAS ≥50 group than in the CAS <50 group. Significant CAS was identified as a risk factor for postoperative CVA (P=0.013). Conclusion: Age and history of CVA were identified as risk factors for significant CAS. Furthermore, significant CAS was identified as a risk factor for postoperative CVA. For this reason, carotid screening is recommended for patients undergoing CABG even in the absence of associated risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Logistic Models , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Endarterectomy, Carotid/methods , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Preoperative Period
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