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1.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 286-291, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935384

ABSTRACT

Nipah virus disease (NVD) is a newly emerged zoonosis with a case fatality rate of 40%-75%. NVD is a severe threat to human health and the development of livestock farming. NVD has become one of the emerging infectious diseases with great concern globally during more than 20 years. Nipah virus (NiV) is a pathogen for NVD, the natural host of which is Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family. The clinical spectrum of NiV infection is broad, including asymptomatic infection, acute respiratory infection, fatal encephalitis, and even death. Since NiV was first identified in Malaysia in 1999, it has been prevalent mainly in Southeast Asia and South Asia. NiV is primarily transmitted to humans through bat-pig-human, contaminated food. Currently, there are no specific therapeutic drugs and vaccines for NVD. Although there are no cases of NVD reported in China, which has close personnel and trade exchanges with major NVD-endemic countries, and NiV antibody has also been detected in relevant bats. There is a potential risk of importing NVD and domestic outbreaks in the future in this country. This paper provides a systematic review of the research progress in the prevention and control of NVD etiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and laboratory diagnosis to help relevant staff to understand NVD more comprehensively and systematically.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chiroptera , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Henipavirus Infections/prevention & control , Nipah Virus , Swine , Zoonoses/prevention & control
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888127

ABSTRACT

To analyze the outcome indicators from the randomized controlled trials(RCTs) on traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) treatment for diabetic foot, and to lay a foundation for the establishment of the core index set of the clinical trials on TCM treatment of diabetic foot. Computer retrieval of RCTs on TCM treatment of diabetic foot was performed in CNKI, Wanfang, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase and Web of Science databases. Literature screening and data extraction were conducted independently by two researchers in strict accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Any difference was resolved through discussion. A total of 72 RCTs involving 5 791 patients were included and 204 indicators were used. The number of indicators used in a single study was 2-22, with an average of 3 indicators used for each RCT. The indicators with top 16 frequency were clinical total effective rate, ankle brachial index(ABI), ulcer area, TCM syndrome integral, fibrinogen(FIB), fasting blood glucose(FBG), plasma viscosity(PV), c-reactive protein(CRP), saccharification blood of eggs(HbAlc), 2 h postprandial blood glucose(2 hPG), wound healing time, triglyce-rides(TC), TCM efficacy for syndromes, total cholesterol(TG), percutaneous oxygen partial pressure(TCPO2) and TCM symptom scores. The difference in selection of RCT indicators was large among TCM treatment methods for diabetic foot, and the combination of outcome indicators was arbitrary. The description on indexes was not standardized. Some non-laboratory examination indicators, some indicators not recommended in guidelines or not recognized in clinical practice, and some self-made indicators were not explained in detail. There was a lack of standardized evaluation criteria for indicators. The indicators had large time-point difference in measurement, and the time points were not distinguished in the measurement for diabetic foot patients with different degrees of severity. In addition, the patients with long course of treatment weren't timely measured. The characteristics of TCM or significant endpoint indicators were insufficient. It was urgent to establish the core index set of TCM in treating diabetic foot.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879193

ABSTRACT

To systemically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gingko Ketone Ester Dropping Pills in treating angina pectoris and co-ronary heart disease. CNKI, Wanfang, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMbase databases were retrieved on computer, and the randomized clinical trial(RCT) on Gingko Ketone Ester Dropping Pills in treating angina pectoris and coronary heart disease, which were published from the database establishment to December 31, 2019, were comprehensively collected. Literature screening, data extraction and quality evaluation were conducted independently by two researchers according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Literature methodology quality evaluation was conducted with use of the Cochrane Handbook 5.3.0(bias risk assessment tool). Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3.0 software. A total of 10 RCTs were included. The results of the Meta-analysis showed that as compared with conventional Western medicine alone, the application of Gingko Ketone Ester Dropping Pills combined with conventional Western medicine treatment further improved the total effective rate and electrocardiogram effect(RR=1.43,95%CI[1.20,1.71],P<0.000 1). There were statistically significant differences in the number of angina attacks, the duration of angina and the amount of nitroglycerin used. In terms of safety indicators, four studies reported adverse reactions in the experimental group, including facial flu-shing, tachycardia, dizziness, dyspnea, nausea and other symptoms. Based on the existing findings, in the treatment of angina pectoris and coronary heart disease, Gingko Ketone Ester Dropping Pills combined with conventional Western medicine can improve the clinical total effective rate, electrocardiogram effect, number of angina attacks, duration of angina and the amount of nitroglycerin used. However, in the included studies, due to some methodological quality problems which would impact the reliability of literature results more high-quality randomized controlled trials are still needed for further verification.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris/drug therapy , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Esters , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Ketones/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reproducibility of Results
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878935

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Compound Danshen Injection combined with Western medicine in the treatment of vascular dementia. Databases of Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP, Wanfang Data were electronically retrieved for collecting randomized controlled trial(RCT)about vascular dementia treated with Western medicine alone or combined with Compound Danshen Injection from the year of database establishment to January 2020. Two researchers independently screened out li-teratures, extracted data, and evaluated the risk of bias for inclusion in the study. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 5 RCTs were included, involving 588 patients, with 299 in treatment group and 289 in control group. Meta-analysis results showed that compared with Western medicine alone, Compound Danshen Injection combined with Western medicine was better in the effective rate(RR=1.23,95%CI[1.14,1.33],P<0.000 01), MMSE score(MD=3.54,95%CI[3.01,4.06],P<0.000 01), ADL score(MD=11.49,95%CI[8.05,14.93],P<0.000 01), the level of CRP(MD=-0.72,95%CI[-1.25,-0.20],P=0.007) and the level of IL-6(MD=-7.64,95%CI[-9.65,-5.63],P<0.000 01). Adverse reactions mainly included rash and skin prick, which did not affect the treatment effect. Based on the findings, the combination of Compound Danshen Injection in the treatment of vascular dementia could improve the effective rates, relieve the mental state damage and improve the daily living ability, with mild adverse reactions and a low incidence. However, due to the low quality of the included literatures, high-quality and large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed for further verification.


Subject(s)
Dementia, Vascular/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Injections , Medicine , Salvia miltiorrhiza
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878898

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to comprehensively analyze and compare the differences of different clinical study types currently published in the safety evaluation of Xuebijing Injection. Six databases, namely the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang database, were electronically retrieved to collect all types of studies on the safety of Xuebijing Injection, including randomized controlled trials, case-controlled studies, cohort studies, systematic reviews, and centralized monitoring studies of clinical safety(hospital), in order to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the safety of Xuebijing Injection, and analyze the differences of different research results. A total of 211 literatures were included, involving a total of 46 384 patients treated with Xuebijing Injection, and 423 adverse reactions(ADRs) occurred. They included 191 randomized controlled trials, 3 cohort studies, 15 systematic reviews, and 2 centralized monitoring studies of clinical safety(hospital), and the incidence of adverse reactions was 2.54%(common), 2.31%(common), 0.95%(occasionally), and 0.50%(occasionally). More than half of the 423 cases of ADRs occurred in skin and adnexal system(151 cases) and gastrointestinal system(65 cases), including such manifestations as rash, skin itching, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea. The degree of ADRs was mild. Randomized controlled trials showed that the incidence of ADR was the highest when Xuebijing Injection was used for malignant tumor and multiple organ failure. And the systematic evaluation showed that the incidence of ADR was the highest when Xuebijing Injection was used for spontaneous peritonitis of liver cirrhosis. In conclusion, different study types could lead to significant differences in the results of drug safety evaluation. Sample size, study type, and quality control are the main factors for biased results. Due to large sample size and high-quality, centralized monitoring studies become the better clinical safety evaluation model of drugs at present, and full life cycle management could more objectively reflect drug safety and guide clinical rational drug use.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Injections
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773146

ABSTRACT

To assess the clinical efficacy of Yiqi Huoxue Chinese patent medicine for coronary heart disease with angina pectoris by using network Meta-analysis method. The relative randomized controlled trials( RCTs) of Yiqi Huoxue Chinese patent medicine for coronary heart disease with angina pectoris were retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure( CNKI),Wan Fang,VIP and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database( CBM) in July 2018. Two researchers independently completed the literature screening,data extraction and quality evaluation according to the pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria,and the results were cross-checked.The data were analyzed by Win Bugs,and STATA software was used for plotting. Finally,114 RCTs were included,involving 7 Yiqi Huoxue Chinese patent medicines and 11 775 patients. Network Meta-analysis showed that the total effective rate for improvement in AP symptoms had 7 direct comparisons and 21 indirect comparisons,8 of which were statistically significant. The ECG improvement had 7 direct comparisons and 21 indirect comparisons,7 of which were statistically significant. In terms of the total effective rate of improvement in AP symptoms,the order of efficacy was as follows: Shensong Yangxin Capsules > Shexiang Baoxin Pills > Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pills > Tongxinluo Capsules > Wenxin Granules > Qishen Capsules > Naoxintong Capsules. In terms of ECG improvement,the order of efficacy was as follows: Shexiang Baoxin Pills > Tongxinluo Capsules > Naoxintong Capsules > Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pills> Wenxin Granules > Shensong Yangxin Capsules > Qishen Capsules. The results showed that Shensong Yangxin Capsules and Shexiang Baoxin Pills had certain advantages in the treatment of coronary heart disease with angina pectoris. Due to the small sample size,more studies were required to further verify the evidences.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris , Drug Therapy , China , Coronary Disease , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319810

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate serum IL-18 levels in mice with collagen-induced arthritis treated by recombinant adenoviral vector containing mIL-18BP and mIL-4 fusion gene (AdmIL-18BP/mIL-4).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Arthritis was induced by injection of collagen in male DBA-1/BOM mice. Mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were intra-articularly injected with 10(7)pfu/6μL of AdmIL-18BP/mIL-4; and in mice of control groups AdLacZ or PBS were used. The animals were sacrificed at week 1, 2 and 4 after treatment. Serum IL-18 levels were determined by ELISA at the different time points.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The mean serum levels of IL-18 at weeks 1, 2, and 4 after injection of AdmIL-18BP/mIL-4 were (36.5±5.4)ng/L, (32.5 ± 3.2) ng/L and (28.7 ±2.9)ng/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than those at the same time point of AdLacZ group [(66.2 ±5.1)ng/L, (69.2 ±4.2)ng/L and (77.7 ±3.9)ng/L] and PBS group [(67.3 ±7.1)ng/L, (71.9 ±1.8)ng/L and (78.7±4.1)ng/L] (P<0.01 at all time points). In the therapy group, there were no significant differences in the mean serum concentrations of IL-18 at all time points.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The serum IL-18 levels in CIA mice are down-regulated by treatment of recombinant adenovirus containing mIL-18BP and mIL-4 fuse gene, which might be a promising therapeutic strategy for rheumatoid arthritis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Genetics , Animals , Arthritis, Experimental , Blood , Therapeutics , Gene Fusion , Genetic Therapy , Genetic Vectors , Interleukin-18 , Blood , Genetics , Interleukin-4 , Genetics , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred DBA
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335381

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Salvia miltiorrhizae (Danshen) in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP)- or obstructive jaundice (OJ)-induced heart injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 288 rats were used for SAP- (n=108) and OJ-associated (n=180) experiments. The rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, model control, and Salvia miltiorrhizae-treated groups. According to the difference of time points after operation, SAP rats in each group were subdivided into 3, 6 and 12 h subgroups (n=12), whereas OJ rats were subdivided into 7, 14, 21, and 28 d subgroups (n=15). At the corresponding time points after operation, the mortality rates of the rats, the contents of endotoxin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in blood, and pathological changes of the hearts were investigated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The numbers of dead SAP and OJ rats in the treated groups declined as compared with those in the model control group, but not significantly (P>0.05). The contents of endotoxin (at 6 and 12 h in SAP rats and on 7, 14, 21, and 28 d in OJ rats, respectively) and PLA2 (at 6 and 12 h in SAP rats and on 28 d in OJ rats, respectively) in the treated group were significantly lower than those in the model control group (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). Besides, myocardial pathological injuries were mitigated in SAP and OJ rats.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In this study, we found that Salvia miltiorrhizae improved myocardial pathological changes, reduced the content of PLA2 in blood, and decreased the mortality rates of SAP and OJ rats, exerting protective effects on the hearts of the rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Endotoxins , Blood , Heart Injuries , Blood , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Jaundice, Obstructive , Blood , Drug Therapy , Male , Microscopy, Electron , Pancreatitis , Blood , Drug Therapy , Phospholipases A2 , Metabolism , Phytotherapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Salvia , Chemistry , Survival Rate
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-841536

ABSTRACT

Some enzyme inhibitors derived from the ocean were described briefly in this review.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316377

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To purify Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) from human serum and detect its binding ability to several kinds of bacteria common in infectious diseases of children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MBL was purified from human serum by affinity chromatography on mannan-Sepharose 4B column. Its binding ability to eight species, 97 strains of bacteria was detected by enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>MBL has different binding ability to bacteria and shows strong binding ability to Klebsiella ornithinolytica and Escherichia coli, but shows relatively lower binding ability to Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus epidermidis. To different isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus, MBL shows quite different binding ability.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>MBL has different binding ability to different bacteria, and has relatively stronger binding ability to Gram-negative bacteria. Its binding ability to different isolates of certain kinds of bacteria is quite different.</p>


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Classification , Metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases , Microbiology , Humans , Mannose-Binding Lectin , Blood , Metabolism , Protein Binding , Species Specificity
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355193

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To obtain peptides binding specifically to Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA) from a phage-displayed random peptide library.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>(1) A phage-displayed random hexapeptide library was screened with PSA as target. (2) Dot blot was used to analyze the influence of the alpha-Met-D-mannoside on binding between PSA and phage-displayed peptides. (3) Three peptides (RMWSF, RYDYSY, LRLRQL) were selectively synthesized, and different concentrations were used to inhibit PSA and ConA binding to the HRP.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The enrichment occurred obviously after three rounds of screening. The insert sequences of amino acids, displayed on 22 phage DNAs from the third round of screening, were divided into three groups. The binding of phage-displayed peptides to PSA was specific as shown by dot blot and could be inhibited by alpha-Met-D-mannoside. LRLRQL was not dissolved in water. ARMWSF and RYDYSY inhibited binding of PSA to HRP, but failed to inhibit binding ConA to HRP.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The binding site of peptides ARMWSF and RYDYSY is different to that of alpha-Met-D-mannoside.</p>


Subject(s)
Binding Sites , Peptide Library , Peptides , Metabolism , Plant Lectins , Metabolism , Protein Binding , Recombinant Proteins , Metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-353314

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish an ELISA approach to study the interaction of polysaccharides with cytokine in vitro.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The heparin BSA complexes (HBC) were synthesized with a chemistry method and separated using a 1 X 90 cm column of Separose 4B. After identification of the complex via SDS-PAGE,the wells of ELISA plates were coated with HBC and the interaction of HBC with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was detected. The effects of heparin, low molecular weight heparin (LMW heparin), chondroitin sulfate (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and carrageenans on the binding of HBC to IFN-gamma were tested in this system.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Human recombinant IFN-gamma bound to heparin in a concentration dependent manner, the binding of IFN-gamma to HBC was detected at the concentration of 0.25 ng, and saturated at around 2 ng. Free heparin, LMW heparin, CS,HA and carrageenans competed for the binding of IFN-gamma to HBC with significant different ability. The IC(50)concentrations of heparin and LMW heparin were 2.40 microg/ml and 18.60 microg/ml respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>IFN-gamma is a cytokine with high binding affinity to heparin and carrageenans family but poor to CS-A and CS-C. ELISA is a simple, sensitive approach to detect the interaction of polysaccharides with cytokine in vitro.</p>


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Methods , Heparin , Metabolism , Interferon-gamma , Metabolism , Polysaccharides , Metabolism , Serum Albumin, Bovine , Metabolism
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