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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926962

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Previous studies have reported the protective effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) on gastric epithelial cells in some animal models, but the precise mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the effects of TUDCA on NF-κB signaling in gastric epithelial cells. Moreover, the protective effects of TUDCA in experimental gastritis models induced by ethanol and NSAID were evaluated and compared with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). @*Methods@#After a pretreatment with TUDCA or UDCA, human gastric epithelial MKN-45 cells were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α to activate NF-κB signaling. A real-time PCR (RT-PCR) for human interleukin (IL)-1 mRNA was performed. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and immunoblot analyses were carried out. In murine models, after a pretreatment with TUDCA or UDCA, ethanol and indomethacin were administered via oral gavage. Macroscopic and microscopic assessments were performed to evaluate the preventive effects of TUDCA and UDCA on murine gastritis. @*Results@#A pretreatment with TUDCA downregulated the IL-1α mRNA levels in MKN-45 cells stimulated with TNF-α, as assessed by RT-PCR. As determined using EMSA, a pretreatment with TUDCA reduced the TNF-α-induced NF-κB DNA binding activity. A pretreatment with TUDCA inhibited IκBα phosphorylation induced by TNF-α, as assessed by immunoblot analysis. TUDCA attenuated the ethanol-induced and NSAID-induced gastritis in murine models, as determined macroscopically and microscopically. @*Conclusions@#TUDCA inhibited NF-κB signaling in gastric epithelial cells and ameliorated ethanol- and NSAID-induced gastritis in murine models. These results support the potential of TUDCA for the prevention of gastritis in humans.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925919

ABSTRACT

Background@#No definite guidelines for the management of small esophageal subepithelial tumors (SETs) have been established, because there are limited data and studies on their natural history. We aimed to assess the natural history and propose optimal management strategies for small esophageal SETs. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed as esophageal SETs ≤ 30 mm in size between 2003 and 2017 using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with a minimal follow-up of 3 months were enrolled, and their esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and EUS were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Of 275 esophageal SETs in 262 patients, the initial size was < 10 mm, 10–20 mm, and 20–30 mm in 104 (37.8%), 105 (38.2%), and 66 (24.0%) lesions, respectively. Only 22 (8.0%) SETs showed significant changes in size and/or echogenicity and/or morphology at a median of 40 months (range, 4–120 months). Tissues of 6 SETs showing interval changes were obtained using EUS-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy; 1 was identified as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and was surgically resected, while the other 5 were leiomyomas and were regularly observed. Eight SETs showing interval changes were resected surgically or endoscopically without pathological confirmation; 1 was a GIST, 2 were granular cell tumors, and the other 5 were leiomyomas. @*Conclusion@#Regular follow-up with EGD or EUS may be necessary for esophageal SETs ≤ 30 mm in size considering that small portion of them has a possibility of malignant potential. When esophageal SETs ≤ 30 mm show significant interval changes, pathological confirmation may precede treatment to avoid unnecessary resection.

3.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 381-389, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925798

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The treatment of superficial esophageal neoplasms (SENs) in cirrhotic patients is challenging and rarely investigated. We evaluated the outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to determine the efficacy and safety of treating SENs in patients with liver cirrhosis. @*Methods@#The baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients who underwent ESD for SENs between November 2005 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#ESD was performed in 437 patients with 481 SENs, including 15 cirrhotic patients with 17 SENs. En bloc resection (88.2% vs. 97.0%) and curative resection (64.7% vs. 78.9%) rates were not different between the cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis groups (p=0.105 and p=0.224, respectively). Bleeding was more common in cirrhotic patients (p=0.054), and all cases were successfully controlled endoscopically. The median procedure and hospitalization duration did not differ between the groups. Overall survival was lower in cirrhotic patients (p=0.003), while disease-specific survival did not differ between the groups (p=0.85). @*Conclusions@#ESD could be a safe and effective treatment option for SENs in patients with cirrhosis. Detailed preprocedural assessments are needed, including determination of liver function, esophageal varix status, and remaining life expectancy, to identify patients who will obtain the greatest benefit.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925688

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the real-world efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and to identify clinicolaboratory factors to predict treatment outcomes in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving ICIs. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty patients with metastatic or unresectable ESCC treated with nivolumab (n=48) or pembrolizumab (n=12) as ≥ second-line treatment between 2016 and 2019 at Asan Medical Center were included. @*Results@#The median age of the patients was 68 years (range, 52 to 76 years), and 93.3% were male. Most patients had metastatic disease (81.7%) and had been previously treated with fluoropyrimidines, platinum, and taxane. In 53 patients with measurable disease, the overall response rate and disease control rate were 15.1% and 35.8%, respectively. With a median follow-up duration of 16.0 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54 to 2.19) and 6.4 months (95% CI, 4.77 to 8.11), respectively. After multivariate analysis, recent use of antibiotics, low prognostic nutrition index (< 35.93), high Glasgow Prognosis Score (≥ 1) at baseline, and ≥ 1.4-fold increase in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio after one cycle from baseline were significantly unfavorable factors for both PFS and OS. Younger age (< 65 years) was a significant factor for unfavorable PFS and hyponatremia (< 135 mmol/L) for unfavorable OS. @*Conclusion@#The use of ICIs after the failure of chemotherapy showed comparable efficacy in patients with advanced ESCC in real practice; this may be associated with host immune-nutritional status, which could be predicted by clinical and routine laboratory factors.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 198-206, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925006

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Postprocedural bleeding is known to be relatively low after argon plasma coagulation (APC) for gastric neoplasms; however, there are few studies proving the effect of antithrombotic agents. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of delayed bleeding (DB) based on antithrombotic agents administered and to identify the risk factors for DB in APC for gastric tumors. @*Methods@#A total of 785 patients with 824 lesions underwent APC for single gastric neoplasm between January 2011 and January 2018. After exclusion, 719 and 102 lesions were classified as belonging to the non-antithrombotics (non-AT) and AT groups, respectively. The clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups, and we determined the risk factors for DB in gastric APC. @*Results@#Of the total 821 cases, DB occurred in 20 cases (2.4%): 17 cases in the non-AT group and three cases in the AT group (2.4% vs 2.9%, p=0.728). Multivariate analysis of the risk factors for DB confirmed the following significant, independent risk factors: male sex (odds ratio, 7.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 57.69; p=0.048) and chronic kidney disease (odds ratio, 4.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.57 to 13.02; p=0.005). Thromboembolic events and perforation were not observed in all patients regardless of whether they took AT agents. @*Conclusions@#AT therapy is acceptably safe in gastric APC because it does not significantly increase the incidence of DB. However, patients with chronic kidney disease or male sex need to receive careful follow-up on the incidence of post-APC bleeding.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892142

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endoscopic surveillance after total gastrectomy (TG) for gastric cancer is routinely performed to detect tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events.However, the reports on the clinical benefits of endoscopic surveillance are ambiguous. We investigated the clinical benefit of endoscopic surveillance after TG for gastric cancer. @*Methods@#We analyzed 848 patients who underwent TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer between 2011 and 2012 (380 early gastric cancer and 468 advanced gastric cancer) and underwent regular postoperative surveillance with endoscopy and abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) with contrast. @*Results@#Median follow-up periods were 58 months for both endoscopy (range, 3–96) and abdominopelvic CT (range, 1–96). Tumor recurrence occurred in 167 patients (19.7%), of whom seven (4.2%) were locoregional recurrences in the peri-anastomotic area (n = 5) or regional gastric lymph nodes (n = 2). Whereas the peri-anastomotic recurrences were detected by both endoscopy and abdominopelvic CT, regional lymph node recurrences were only detected by abdominopelvic CT. Out of the 23 events of postoperative adverse events, the majority (87%) were detected by radiologic examinations; three events of benign strictures in the anastomotic site were detected only by endoscopy. @*Conclusion@#Endoscopic surveillance did not have a significant role in detecting locoregional tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events after TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer. Routine endoscopic surveillance after TG may be considered optional and performed according to the capacities of each clinical setting.

7.
Intestinal Research ; : 127-157, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891105

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903620

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The learning curve is essential in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) training to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of procedure-related complications. We compared the outcomes of gastric ESD in live pigs performed by inexperienced endoscopists with or without ex vivo training. @*Materials and Methods@#At the Olympus Medical Training and Education Center, nine endoscopists inexperienced in ESD were randomly divided into two groups (group A: ex vivo training followed by in vivo training; group B: in vivo training only), and they performed gastric ESDs. @*Results@#A total of 18 ESDs were performed. The en bloc resection rate was 88.9% (16/18), and the complete resection rate was 94.4% (17/18). The median specimen size was 2.5 cm in group A and 2.1 cm in group B (P=0.227). There was no significant difference in the procedure time between the two groups, except for the marking time (0′58″ vs. 2′58″, P=0.027). However, group A took a shorter time in dissecting the same area than group B (109 vs. 246 sec/cm2, P=0.083). Complication rates were not significantly different between both groups. @*Conclusions@#The procedure time during in vivo ESD training in pigs may be shortened by prior ex vivo training. However, the ex vivo model presented poor air inflation, unstable fixation, and excessive mucosal hardness for cutting. An advanced simulator or sufficient ex vivo training may be effective in training for the ESD procedure.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899846

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endoscopic surveillance after total gastrectomy (TG) for gastric cancer is routinely performed to detect tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events.However, the reports on the clinical benefits of endoscopic surveillance are ambiguous. We investigated the clinical benefit of endoscopic surveillance after TG for gastric cancer. @*Methods@#We analyzed 848 patients who underwent TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer between 2011 and 2012 (380 early gastric cancer and 468 advanced gastric cancer) and underwent regular postoperative surveillance with endoscopy and abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) with contrast. @*Results@#Median follow-up periods were 58 months for both endoscopy (range, 3–96) and abdominopelvic CT (range, 1–96). Tumor recurrence occurred in 167 patients (19.7%), of whom seven (4.2%) were locoregional recurrences in the peri-anastomotic area (n = 5) or regional gastric lymph nodes (n = 2). Whereas the peri-anastomotic recurrences were detected by both endoscopy and abdominopelvic CT, regional lymph node recurrences were only detected by abdominopelvic CT. Out of the 23 events of postoperative adverse events, the majority (87%) were detected by radiologic examinations; three events of benign strictures in the anastomotic site were detected only by endoscopy. @*Conclusion@#Endoscopic surveillance did not have a significant role in detecting locoregional tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events after TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer. Routine endoscopic surveillance after TG may be considered optional and performed according to the capacities of each clinical setting.

10.
Intestinal Research ; : 127-157, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898809

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : 705-712, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898478

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Data regarding the prognosis of early esophageal cancer are lacking. This study investigated the long-term outcomes and factors affecting the survival of patients with mucosal esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (T1aESCC). @*Methods@#We analyzed the clinical and tumor-specific parameters of 263 patients who received surgical resection (SR; n=63) or endoscopic resection (ER; n=200) for T1aESCC. Underlying comorbidities were scored using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome, and multivariate regression analysis was performed to predict factors for OS. @*Results@#Of the study patients (age, 64.5±8.0 years), the CCI was 1.0±1.4 in the ER group and 0.6±0.9 in the SR group (p=0.107). The 5-year OS rate during follow-up (54.4±20.4 months) was 85.7% (ER group, 86.8%; SR group, 82.4%; p=0.631). The cumulative 5-year incidence of esophageal cancer recurrence was 10.5% in the ER group (vs 0% in the SR group). The overall mortality rate was 12.9% (ER group, 12.0%; SR group, 15.9%; p=0.399). The most common cause of mortality was second primary cancers in the ER group (75%) and organ dysfunction or postoperative complications in the SR group (70%). According to multivariate analysis, only CCI was significantly associated with OS (p2 and in those with a CCI ≤2 was 60.2% and 88.2%, respectively (p<0.001). The treatment method (ER vs SR) was not a significant affecting factor (p=0.238). @*Conclusions@#The long-term prognosis of patients with T1aESCC was significantly associated with underlying comorbidities.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897420

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The association of serum lipids with gastric cancer is controversial. We clarified the role of serum lipids in the development, progression, and prognosis of gastric cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#In total, 412 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer were prospectively recruited, and 2,934 control subjects who underwent screening endoscopy were enrolled from December 2013 to March 2017 to conduct a case-control study in a tertiary center. Serum lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), and apolipoprotein B, and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. @*Results@#The gastric cancer group showed significantly lower HDL-C, higher LDL-C, and lower apoA-I level than the control group. In multivariate analysis, old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.051; p < 0.001), smoking (OR, 1.337; p < 0.001), a family history of gastric cancer (OR, 2.038; p < 0.001), Helicobacter pylori seropositivity (OR, 4.240; p < 0.001), lower HDL-C (OR, 0.712; p=0.020), and higher LDL-C (p=0.002) were significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Lower HDL-C and higher LDL-C remained significant after adjustments for covariates, including age and sex. In a subgroup analysis of the gastric cancer group, lower TG levels were associated with undifferentiated histology. No serum lipids were associated with overall survival. @*Conclusion@#Lower HDL-C and higher LDL-C were associated with the risk of gastric cancer, even after adjusting for age, sex, and other factors. In the gastric cancer group, undifferentiated histology was associated with lower TG levels.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895916

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The learning curve is essential in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) training to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of procedure-related complications. We compared the outcomes of gastric ESD in live pigs performed by inexperienced endoscopists with or without ex vivo training. @*Materials and Methods@#At the Olympus Medical Training and Education Center, nine endoscopists inexperienced in ESD were randomly divided into two groups (group A: ex vivo training followed by in vivo training; group B: in vivo training only), and they performed gastric ESDs. @*Results@#A total of 18 ESDs were performed. The en bloc resection rate was 88.9% (16/18), and the complete resection rate was 94.4% (17/18). The median specimen size was 2.5 cm in group A and 2.1 cm in group B (P=0.227). There was no significant difference in the procedure time between the two groups, except for the marking time (0′58″ vs. 2′58″, P=0.027). However, group A took a shorter time in dissecting the same area than group B (109 vs. 246 sec/cm2, P=0.083). Complication rates were not significantly different between both groups. @*Conclusions@#The procedure time during in vivo ESD training in pigs may be shortened by prior ex vivo training. However, the ex vivo model presented poor air inflation, unstable fixation, and excessive mucosal hardness for cutting. An advanced simulator or sufficient ex vivo training may be effective in training for the ESD procedure.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918985

ABSTRACT

A left gastric artery (LGA) pseudoaneurysm is known to occur as a complication of abdominal surgery, trauma, or pancreatitis. However, an LGA pseudoaneurysm presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding is rare. A 77-year-old man complained of dizziness and three episodes of melena in the last 24 hours. He did not have a history of surgery, trauma, or pancreatitis. He underwent primary coronary intervention for unstable angina and started dual antiplatelet therapy 1 month prior. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a 3-cm ulcer in the lesser curvature of the gastric high body with a pulsating subepithelial tumor-like lesion in the ulcer. Hemostasis was achieved endoscopically. Three days after the endoscopic hemostasis, hematemesis and hypovolemic shock occurred. Emergent angiography of the superior mesenteric artery revealed an LGA pseudoaneurysm with extravasation. Coil embolization was successfully performed. Three days after the angiographic embolization, EGD revealed improvement of the gastric ulcer, which was covered with exudate, and disappearance of the subepithelial tumor-like lesion. At the 2-month follow-up, EGD showed that the ulcer was in the healing stage.

15.
Gut and Liver ; : 705-712, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890774

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Data regarding the prognosis of early esophageal cancer are lacking. This study investigated the long-term outcomes and factors affecting the survival of patients with mucosal esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (T1aESCC). @*Methods@#We analyzed the clinical and tumor-specific parameters of 263 patients who received surgical resection (SR; n=63) or endoscopic resection (ER; n=200) for T1aESCC. Underlying comorbidities were scored using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome, and multivariate regression analysis was performed to predict factors for OS. @*Results@#Of the study patients (age, 64.5±8.0 years), the CCI was 1.0±1.4 in the ER group and 0.6±0.9 in the SR group (p=0.107). The 5-year OS rate during follow-up (54.4±20.4 months) was 85.7% (ER group, 86.8%; SR group, 82.4%; p=0.631). The cumulative 5-year incidence of esophageal cancer recurrence was 10.5% in the ER group (vs 0% in the SR group). The overall mortality rate was 12.9% (ER group, 12.0%; SR group, 15.9%; p=0.399). The most common cause of mortality was second primary cancers in the ER group (75%) and organ dysfunction or postoperative complications in the SR group (70%). According to multivariate analysis, only CCI was significantly associated with OS (p2 and in those with a CCI ≤2 was 60.2% and 88.2%, respectively (p<0.001). The treatment method (ER vs SR) was not a significant affecting factor (p=0.238). @*Conclusions@#The long-term prognosis of patients with T1aESCC was significantly associated with underlying comorbidities.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889716

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The association of serum lipids with gastric cancer is controversial. We clarified the role of serum lipids in the development, progression, and prognosis of gastric cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#In total, 412 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer were prospectively recruited, and 2,934 control subjects who underwent screening endoscopy were enrolled from December 2013 to March 2017 to conduct a case-control study in a tertiary center. Serum lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), and apolipoprotein B, and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. @*Results@#The gastric cancer group showed significantly lower HDL-C, higher LDL-C, and lower apoA-I level than the control group. In multivariate analysis, old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.051; p < 0.001), smoking (OR, 1.337; p < 0.001), a family history of gastric cancer (OR, 2.038; p < 0.001), Helicobacter pylori seropositivity (OR, 4.240; p < 0.001), lower HDL-C (OR, 0.712; p=0.020), and higher LDL-C (p=0.002) were significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Lower HDL-C and higher LDL-C remained significant after adjustments for covariates, including age and sex. In a subgroup analysis of the gastric cancer group, lower TG levels were associated with undifferentiated histology. No serum lipids were associated with overall survival. @*Conclusion@#Lower HDL-C and higher LDL-C were associated with the risk of gastric cancer, even after adjusting for age, sex, and other factors. In the gastric cancer group, undifferentiated histology was associated with lower TG levels.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891547

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899251

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

19.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 705-716, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897707

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is usually performed on patients with chronic underlying diseases in the general ward (GW). This study evaluated the clinical outcomes of PEG performed on patients in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) compared with those of PEG performed in the GW. @*Methods@#The medical records of 27 patients in the SICU and 263 in the GW, who underwent PEG between January 2013 and July 2017, were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#The median age of the 27 SICU patients was 66 years, and their median body mass index was 21.1 kg/m2. In the SICU group, the median baseline Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 4, and the median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 16. The median interval between surgery and PEG in SICU patients was 30 days, with a PEG failure rate of 3.7%. Acute complications in SICU patients included bleeding (7.4%) and ileus (11.1%), while chronic complications included aspiration pneumonia (7.4%) and tube obstruction (3.7%). The rates of acute and chronic complications did not differ significantly between the SICU and GW groups. The 30-day mortality rate was 14.8% in SICU patients and 5.3% in GW patients (p=0.073). @*Conclusions@#PEG is a safe and feasible method of enteral feeding for critically ill patients who require ICU care after surgery.

20.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 705-716, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890003

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is usually performed on patients with chronic underlying diseases in the general ward (GW). This study evaluated the clinical outcomes of PEG performed on patients in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) compared with those of PEG performed in the GW. @*Methods@#The medical records of 27 patients in the SICU and 263 in the GW, who underwent PEG between January 2013 and July 2017, were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#The median age of the 27 SICU patients was 66 years, and their median body mass index was 21.1 kg/m2. In the SICU group, the median baseline Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 4, and the median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 16. The median interval between surgery and PEG in SICU patients was 30 days, with a PEG failure rate of 3.7%. Acute complications in SICU patients included bleeding (7.4%) and ileus (11.1%), while chronic complications included aspiration pneumonia (7.4%) and tube obstruction (3.7%). The rates of acute and chronic complications did not differ significantly between the SICU and GW groups. The 30-day mortality rate was 14.8% in SICU patients and 5.3% in GW patients (p=0.073). @*Conclusions@#PEG is a safe and feasible method of enteral feeding for critically ill patients who require ICU care after surgery.

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