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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924923

ABSTRACT

Carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting (IF) have been rapidly gaining interest among the general population and patients with cardiometabolic disease, such as overweight or obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. However, there are limited expert recommendations for these dietary regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the level of scientific evidence on the benefits and harms of carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF to make responsible recommendations. A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of 66 articles on 50 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of carbohydrate-restricted diets and 10 articles on eight RCTs of IF was performed. Based on the analysis, the following recommendations are suggested. In adults with overweight or obesity, a moderately-low carbohydrate or low carbohydrate diet (mLCD) can be considered as a dietary regimen for weight reduction. In adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, mLCD can be considered as a dietary regimen for improving glycemic control and reducing body weight. In contrast, a very-low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) and IF are recommended against in patients with diabetes. Furthermore, no recommendations are suggested for VLCD and IF in adults with overweight or obesity, and carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF in patients with hypertension. Here, we describe the results of our analysis and the evidence for these recommendations.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892207

ABSTRACT

Background@#The incidence of early-onset diabetes is increasing among young adults.However, there are limited data on the characteristics and management of young Korean adults with diabetes. This study assessed the clinical and demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and mental health among young Korean adults with diabetes mellitus. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study included young Korean adults with diabetes (n = 225) with an onset age of 20–39 years from four university hospitals. Demographic characteristics, management of diabetes, and mental health were assessed using a questionnaire survey. @*Results@#Type 2 diabetes was the most common type (73.3%), and 13.8% of participants were classified as other types or unknown. Approximately, 64.7% of participants had a strong family history of diabetes, and 76% had treatment within three months of diagnosis.Approximately, 11.1% of participants had diabetic complications; 39.1% of participants received insulin injections, including oral anti-diabetic medications. Additionally, 30.4% were smokers, and only 28% had active physical activity; 26.5% of participants had >3 hours of screen time. One third of participants never had breakfast, and 60.5% went out to eat at least three times a week. Half of the participants showed moderate to severe stress perception, and 21.4% of patients had moderate to severe levels of depression based on the Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory score. @*Conclusion@#Early-onset diabetes was associated with a strong family history and early insulin treatment. Young adults with diabetes had poor health behaviors and frequent mental depression. These findings suggest the necessity of health policies for improving health behaviors and mental distress.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899911

ABSTRACT

Background@#The incidence of early-onset diabetes is increasing among young adults.However, there are limited data on the characteristics and management of young Korean adults with diabetes. This study assessed the clinical and demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and mental health among young Korean adults with diabetes mellitus. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study included young Korean adults with diabetes (n = 225) with an onset age of 20–39 years from four university hospitals. Demographic characteristics, management of diabetes, and mental health were assessed using a questionnaire survey. @*Results@#Type 2 diabetes was the most common type (73.3%), and 13.8% of participants were classified as other types or unknown. Approximately, 64.7% of participants had a strong family history of diabetes, and 76% had treatment within three months of diagnosis.Approximately, 11.1% of participants had diabetic complications; 39.1% of participants received insulin injections, including oral anti-diabetic medications. Additionally, 30.4% were smokers, and only 28% had active physical activity; 26.5% of participants had >3 hours of screen time. One third of participants never had breakfast, and 60.5% went out to eat at least three times a week. Half of the participants showed moderate to severe stress perception, and 21.4% of patients had moderate to severe levels of depression based on the Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory score. @*Conclusion@#Early-onset diabetes was associated with a strong family history and early insulin treatment. Young adults with diabetes had poor health behaviors and frequent mental depression. These findings suggest the necessity of health policies for improving health behaviors and mental distress.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831872

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to evaluate site-specific cancer risk in diabetic patients and to investigate causal and temporal relationships by analyzing organ-specific cancer risk according to the duration of diabetes. @*Methods@#Using a database provided by the Korean National Health Insurance Service, we conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥ 30 years from January 2005 to December 2013. To verify the possibility of detection bias or reverse causation, we compared hazard ratios (HRs) for each cancer according to the following duration of diabetes: less than 6 months, 6 months to 3 years, and more than 3 years. @*Results@#The incidence of overall cancer per 1,000 person-years was higher in patients with diabetes than in those without diabetes (20.36 vs. 10.83). The overall cancer risk according to the duration of diabetes was the highest within the first 6 months after diagnosis (HR, 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99 to 2.07), and the HR decreased with the duration of diabetes, ranging from 1.19 (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.21) between 6 months and 3 years to 1.12 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.13) after 3 years. Both overall cancer risk and HR remained significantly higher in patients with diabetes than in those without diabetes. The risk for prostate cancer was higher in men with diabetes than in those without diabetes (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.14). In women, the risk for endometrial cancer was significantly higher in patients with diabetes than in those without diabetes throughout the duration of diabetes. @*Conclusions@#The risk for stomach, colorectum, liver, pancreas, and kidney cancer appeared to be higher in patients with diabetes than in those without diabetes regardless of the sex or duration of diabetes.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739219

ABSTRACT

The Korean Endocrine Society (KES) published clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acromegaly in 2011. Since then, the number of acromegaly cases, publications on studies addressing medical treatment of acromegaly, and demands for improvements in insurance coverage have been dramatically increasing. In 2017, the KES Committee of Health Insurance decided to publish a position statement regarding the use of somatostatin analogues in acromegaly. Accordingly, consensus opinions for the position statement were collected after intensive review of the relevant literature and discussions among experts affiliated with the KES, and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group. This position statement includes the characteristics, indications, dose, interval (including extended dose interval in case of lanreotide autogel), switching and preoperative use of somatostatin analogues in medical treatment of acromegaly. The recommended approach is based on the expert opinions in case of insufficient clinical evidence, and where discrepancies among the expert opinions were found, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Consensus , Expert Testimony , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Octreotide , Somatostatin
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of cortisol and growth hormone are critical counterregulatory responses to severe hypoglycemia. However, the proportion and clinical characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) who fail to show appropriate cortisol and/or growth hormone secretion in response to severe hypoglycemia have not been investigated. METHODS: We measured plasma cortisol and growth hormone levels in type 2 DM patients with severe hypoglycemia who visited the emergency department between 2006 and 2015. RESULTS: Of 112 hypoglycemic patients, 23 (20.5%) had an impaired cortisol response (<18 µg/dL) and 82 patients (73.2%) had an impaired growth hormone response (<5 ng/mL). Nineteen patients (17.0%) had impaired responses to both cortisol and growth hormone. The patients with impaired responses of cortisol, growth hormone, and both hormones were significantly older and more likely to be female, and had higher admission rates, lower growth hormone levels, and lower adrenocorticotropic hormone levels than the patients with a normal hormonal response. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that an impaired growth hormone response was significantly associated with advanced age, shorter DM duration, a higher admission rate, and a higher body mass index (BMI). An impaired cortisol response was significantly associated with growth hormone levels. Patients with an impaired growth hormone response had higher admission rates than patients with a normal response. CONCLUSION: A considerable number of type 2 DM patients had impaired cortisol and/or growth hormone responses to severe hypoglycemia. Advanced age, shorter DM duration, and higher BMI were independently associated with an abnormal growth hormone response.


Subject(s)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Growth Hormone , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hypoglycemia , Logistic Models , Plasma
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of adding basal insulin to initiating dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and metformin and/or sulfonylurea (SU) in achieving the target glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This was a single-arm, multicenter, 24-week, open-label, phase 4 study in patients with inadequately controlled (HbA1c ≥7.5%) T2DM despite the use of DPP-4 inhibitor and metformin. A total of 108 patients received insulin glargine while continuing oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of subjects achieving HbA1c ≤7.0%. Other glycemic profiles were also evaluated, and the safety endpoints were adverse events (AEs) and hypoglycemia. RESULTS: The median HbA1c at baseline (8.9%; range, 7.5% to 11.1%) decreased to 7.6% (5.5% to 11.7%) at 24 weeks. Overall, 31.7% subjects (n=33) achieved the target HbA1c level of ≤7.0%. The mean differences in body weight and fasting plasma glucose were 1.2±3.4 kg and 56.0±49.8 mg/dL, respectively. Hypoglycemia was reported in 36 subjects (33.3%, 112 episodes), all of which were fully recovered. There was no serious AE attributed to insulin glargine. Body weight change was significantly different between SU users and nonusers (1.5±2.5 kg vs. −0.9±6.0 kg, P=0.011). CONCLUSION: The combination add-on therapy of insulin glargine, on metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors with or without SU was safe and efficient in reducing HbA1c levels and thus, is a preferable option in managing T2DM patients exhibiting dysglycemia despite the use of OADs.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Body Weight Changes , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin Glargine , Insulin , Metformin , Morinda
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 485-494, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786308

ABSTRACT

Acromegaly is a chronic disorder caused by excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion. In most cases, the excess GH originates from GH-producing pituitary adenomas. Surgery is the preferred first-line treatment for patients with acromegaly, but medical management is considered when the disease persists after surgery or in cases where patients refuse surgery or are poor candidates for surgery. Somatostatin analogues are commonly used to treat acromegaly. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group have developed a position statement for the use of somatostatin analogues in the medical treatment of acromegaly. This position statement is based on evidence from the current literature and expert opinions. In the case of discrepancies among expert opinions, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Expert Testimony , Growth Hormone , Humans , Octreotide , Pituitary Neoplasms , Somatostatin
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 501-510, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715391

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Previous studies on adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are limited by their retrospective design, small numbers of patients, Western populations, or use of an outdated imaging technique. We investigated the characteristics of AIs in Korean patients and compared them with those reported in the largest retrospective study in Italy to discover the effects of improved imaging techniques and ethnicity differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional observational study including 1005 Korean patients. Levels of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone, 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC), serum cortisol after a 1 mg-dexamethasone suppression test, 24-h urinary fractionated metanephrine, and plasma aldosterone and plasma renin activity were measured. All AIs were characterized using computed tomography (CT). RESULTS: Compared with the results of the Italian study, AIs in Korean patients were observed more frequently in men and predominantly on the left side. Korean patients with AIs were slightly younger, and fewer patients underwent surgery. Most AIs were nonfunctional in both studies, while fewer subclinical hypercortisolism and more primary aldosteronism (PA) cases were detected in Korean patients. In our study, high UFC levels showed very low sensitivity, compared to those in the Italian study. In pheochromocytoma or PA cases, there were no hormonal differences between the studies. AIs in Korean patients were smaller, such that a lower cutoff size for detecting adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) could be warranted. CONCLUSION: Recent advances in CT technology were leveraged to provide accurate characteristics of AIs and to detect smaller ACCs.


Subject(s)
Adrenocortical Carcinoma , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Aldosterone , Cushing Syndrome , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hyperaldosteronism , Italy , Korea , Male , Metanephrine , Observational Study , Pheochromocytoma , Plasma , Prospective Studies , Renin , Retrospective Studies
12.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 138-143, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715083

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While perianal disease (PAD) is a characteristic of patients with Crohn disease, it has been overlooked in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Thus, our study aimed to analyze the incidence and the clinical features of PAD in patients with UC. METHODS: We reviewed the data on 944 patients with an initial diagnosis of UC from October 2003 to October 2015. PAD was categorized as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, abscesses, and fistulae after anoscopic examination by experienced proctologists. Data on patients’ demographics, incidence and types of PAD, medications, surgical therapies, and clinical course were analyzed. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 58 months (range, 12–142 months). Of the 944 UC patients, the cumulative incidence rates of PAD were 8.1% and 16.0% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The incidence rates of bleeding hemorrhoids, anal fissures, abscesses, and fistulae at 10 years were 6.7%, 5.3%, 2.6%, and 3.4%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of perianal sepsis (abscess or fistula) were 2.2% and 4.5% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. In the multivariate analyses, male sex (risk ratio [RR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–12.5) and extensive disease (RR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.6–10.9) were significantly associated with the development of perianal sepsis. CONCLUSION: Although the clinical course of PAD in patients with UC is not serious, in clinical practice, PAD is not rare in such patients. Therefore, careful examination and appropriate management for PAD is needed if the quality of life for patients with UC is to be improved.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Demography , Diagnosis , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Hemorrhoids , Humans , Incidence , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Quality of Life , Sepsis , Ulcer
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220157

ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with a reduced life expectancy, largely because obese individuals are at an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer. Much interest has recently focused on the concept of “all obesity is not created equally.” Obese individuals without the metabolic abnormalities that commonly accompany excess adiposity, a condition known as metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), account for a substantial proportion of the obese adult population. Numerous possible mechanisms underlying MHO have been suggested, including adipose tissue distribution and inflammation. However, the prognostic value of MHO is controversial and considerably challenging. The lack of a standard definition for metabolic health and obesity as well as the dynamic properties of MHO may have contributed to these inconsistent results. This review aimed to present several current issues regarding MHO including its definition, epidemiology, natural course, suggested mechanisms, and clinical implications in the context of patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Adiposity , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Epidemiology , Friends , Humans , Inflammation , Life Expectancy , Obesity , Obesity, Metabolically Benign , Prognosis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the diagnostic rate of diabetes using fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour plasma glucose (2h PG) after 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and we elucidated the pathophysiologic characteristics and risk factors that give rise to diabetes in patients with prediabetes. METHODS: The data of 236 patients who had the OGTT at Konkuk University Hospital were analyzed. Fasting, 30, and 120 minutes blood glucose levels and insulin levels were measured. The diagnostic rate of diabetes was assessed using FPG, 2h PG, and HbA1c levels. The clinical data and insulin resistance and secretion evaluations were compared using indexes according to the fasting glucose level. RESULTS: Among 236 subjects, 97 (41.1%) were diabetics and 102 (43.2%) were prediabetics. The rate of diabetes diagnosis by one of the individual criteria was 56.7%, 53.6%, and 84.5% for FPG, HbA1c, and 2h PG, respectively. When two criteria were used to diagnose diabetes, 72.2% of the diabetic patients were identified by FPG and HbA1c, while 100% were identified by FPG and 2h PG, and 91.7% were identified by 2h PG and HbA1c. The HbA1c cut-off value for 2h PG ≥200 mg/dL was 6.1%, and the FPG cut-off value was 115 mg/dL. In impaired fasting glucose subjects, the HbA1c level, Matsuda index, and insulinogenic index were associated with risk of occurrence of overt diabetes (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that performing additional OGTT for patients with FPG ≥110 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥6.1% is helpful to reclassify their glucose tolerance status and evaluate their potential for progressing to overt diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Fasting , Glucose , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Prediabetic State , Risk Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data. METHODS: Using data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM]), 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM), and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM), we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure > or =140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication) and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg). RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively) compared with non-DM adults (26.2%). Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001) and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020) rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%), compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001) and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004). Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%), compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001) and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Higher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) III (2005) reported that 22.9% of individuals with diabetes have a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or =30 years with diabetes, we excluded 157 individuals who were missing HbA1c data. A total of 1,341 subjects were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of known diabetes was 7.7% (n=1,498, estimated to be 2.32 million people). The proportions of well-controlled diabetes meeting a HbA1c goal of 5 years. HbA1c in the group taking only oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) was significantly lower than that in the group administered only insulin or OHA and insulin in combination. In logistic regression analysis, a longer duration of diabetes, insulin use and the absence of chronic renal failure were associated with HbA1c levels >6.5%. CONCLUSION: The level of adequate glycemic control was similar to but slightly improved compared with previous levels. The glycemic control of long-standing diabetes patients is more difficult even though they receive insulin treatment.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Korea , Logistic Models , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and several cardiovascular diseases. This study was to investigate the trends in the prevalence, awareness, and management status of obesity among the Korean population for recent 13 years. METHODS: The prevalence, subjective awareness, and management of obesity were investigated in adults aged > or =19 years by using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 1998 to 2011. RESULTS: The number of participants was 8,117, 5,826, 5,500, 3,025, 6,756, 7,506, 6,255, and 6,155 in the KNHANES in years 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 26.9%, 29.2%, 32.9%, 32.5%, 32.0%, 32.6%, 32.0%, and 32.0% in 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively, while the overall prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity increased by 1.19-fold and 1.24-fold respectively in 2011 compared against 2001. In general, a gradual increase in the prevalence of severe obesity has been observed as years go by. Furthermore, trends of improvements in obesity awareness and management rates were visible over the period of surveys. CONCLUSION: Although the management status of obesity has improved during the recent years, more effective strategy to control obesity is needed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity , Obesity, Abdominal , Obesity, Morbid , Prevalence , Risk Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Korean patients with diabetes. METHODS: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652), and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011) was used to define CKD (n=21,521). Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. RESULTS: Among subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes. CONCLUSION: Korean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Albuminuria , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dataset , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Korea , Mortality , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Triglycerides
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), side effects, and quality of life (QOL) after a 16-week treatment period with Biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (BIasp30) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had been suboptimally controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). METHODS: The study consisted of a 4-week titration period when concurrent OAD(s) were replaced with BIasp30 and followed by a 12-week maintenance period. All patients completed the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire at the beginning and the end of the trial. Hypoglycemic episodes were recorded by the patient throughout the trial. RESULTS: Sixty patients were included, of whom 55 patients (92%) completed the full 16-week treatment period. Seven-point blood glucose was significantly improved as compared with the baseline, except for the postlunch blood glucose level. HbA1c at the end of period was significantly improved from 9.2% to 8.2% (P<0.001). Eleven percent (n=6) of patients achieved HbA1c values < or =6.5% and 22% (n=12) of patients achieved <7.0%. There were 3.4 episodes/patients-year of minor hypoglycemia and 0.05 episodes/patients-year of major hypoglycemia. QOL showed significant changes only in the acceptability of high blood glucose category (P=0.003). CONCLUSION: Treatment with once or twice daily BIasp30 may be an option for the patients with T2DM suboptimally controlled with OADs in Korea. However, considering the low number of patients achieving the HbA1c target and the high postlunch blood glucose levels, additional management with another modality may be required for optimal control.


Subject(s)
Biphasic Insulins , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin Aspart , Insulin, Isophane , Korea , Quality of Life
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the inconvenience of performing oral glucose tolerance tests and day to day variability in glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been recommended by the American Diabetes Association as a method to diagnose diabetes. In addition, the Korean Diabetes Association has also recommended the use of HbA1c as a diagnostic test for diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of diabetes according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level only or the combination of FPG and HbA1c tests. METHODS: Data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were analyzed. Among 5,811 subjects aged 30 years or older, 5,020 were selected after excluding the data of fasting time or =126 mg/dL, previous diagnosis of diabetes made by a medical doctor, current use of antidiabetic medications, and/or HbA1c > or =6.5%. Prediabetes was defined as FPG of 100 to 125 mg/dL and/or HbA1c of 5.7% to 6.4%. RESULTS: When we used FPG only, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes were 10.5% (men, 12.6%; women, 8.5%) and 19.3% (men, 23.8%; women, 14.9%), respectively. When HbA1c was included as a diagnostic test, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes increased to 12.4% (men, 14.5%; women, 10.4%) and 38.3% (men, 41%; women, 35.7%), respectively. Participants with HbA1c > or =6.5% and fasting glucose level <126 mg/dL were older and had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. CONCLUSION: We concluded that using fasting glucose level only may result in an underestimation of diabetes and prediabetes. HbA1c is an acceptable complementary diagnostic test for diabetes in Korean patients. However, national standardization is needed to order to use HbA1c as a diagnostic method of diabetes and prediabetes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Fasting , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Prediabetic State , Prevalence
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