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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927077

ABSTRACT

The Japanese amberjack Seriolae quinqueradiata is one of the most consumed fish species among the Koreans. However, information regarding parasitic infection in Japanese amberjack is scarce. This study described the morphological and molecular characteristics of a species of philometrid nematode, Philometroides seriolae, which was recovered from Japanese amberjack. This fish was caught in the sea of Goseong-gun, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea (Korea). Six P. seriolae (Nematoda: Philometridae) were recovered from 2 Japanese amberjacks. These parasites were subgravid female which were 325-420 mm long and 2.95-3.27 mm wide. Furthermore, they had typical papillae distributed on their body surface with 14 papillae at the apical view. Sequence analysis of the small subunits of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) showed high sequence identity (99.8%, 1,607/1,611-bp) with that of P. seriolae (GenBank accession no. FJ155811). This nematode species has been newly added to the Korean nematode fauna.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903859

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to provide information on the taxonomic classification and analysis of mitochondrial genomes of Spirometra theileri. One strobila of S. theileri was collected from the intestine of an African leopard (Panthera pardus) in the Maswa Game Reserve, Tanzania. The complete mtDNA sequence of S. theileri was 13,685 bp encoding 36 genes including 12 protein genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs with absence of atp8. Divergences of 12 protein-coding genes were as follow: 14.9% between S. theileri and S. erinaceieuropaei, 14.7% between S. theileri and S. decipiens, and 14.5% between S. theileri with S. ranarum. Divergences of 12 proteins of S. theileri and S. erinaceieuropaei ranged from 2.3% in cox1 to 15.7% in nad5, while S. theileri varied from S. decipiens and S. ranarum by 1.3% in cox1 to 15.7% in nad3. Phylogenetic relationship of S. theileri with eucestodes inferred using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences exhibited identical tree topologies. A clade composed of S. decipiens and S. ranarum formed a sister species to S. erinaceieuropaei, and S. theileri formed a sister species to all species in this clade. Within the diphyllobothridean clade, Dibothriocephalus, Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra formed a monophyletic group, and sister genera were well supported.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903853

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Taenia asiatica or a hybrid between Taenia saginata and T. asiatica has not been reported in Cambodia. We detected for the first time a hybrid form between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. An adult tapeworm specimen, i.e., 75 cm long strobila without scolex, was expelled from a 27-year-old man after praziquantel medication and purging. It was morphologically indistinguishable between T. saginata and T. asiatica. Several proglottids were molecularly analyzed to confirm the tapeworm species. The mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear genes encoding elongation factor-1α (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp) were sequenced, and a single-allele analysis was performed to confirm the haploid genotype. The results revealed that our sample showed a discrepancy between the mitochondrial and 2 nuclear genes. It possessed homozygous sequences typical of T. saginata at cox1 and ef1 loci. However, it was heterozygous at the elp locus, with 1 allele in T. asiatica (elpA) and 1 in T. saginata (elpC), which indicates that it is a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica. The present results confirmed the presence of a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Cambodia and strongly suggest the existence of also ‘pure’ T. asiatica in Cambodia.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919320

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus species. Tanzania is one of the endemic countries with cystic echinococcosis. This study focussed on identifying genotypes of Echinococcus spp. in Tanzania. We collected 7 cysts from cattle in Mwanza municipal (n=4) and Loliondo district (n=3). The cysts from Mwanza were all E. ortleppi and fertile. In contrast, the cysts from Loliondo were all E. granulosus sensu stricto and sterile. Two from the 4 cysts were a new haplotype of E. ortleppi (G5). These results can improve the preventive and control programs for humans and livestock in Tanzania. To our knowledge, this study is considered the first to identify the genotype and haplotype of Echinococcus spp. in Tanzania.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896155

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to provide information on the taxonomic classification and analysis of mitochondrial genomes of Spirometra theileri. One strobila of S. theileri was collected from the intestine of an African leopard (Panthera pardus) in the Maswa Game Reserve, Tanzania. The complete mtDNA sequence of S. theileri was 13,685 bp encoding 36 genes including 12 protein genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs with absence of atp8. Divergences of 12 protein-coding genes were as follow: 14.9% between S. theileri and S. erinaceieuropaei, 14.7% between S. theileri and S. decipiens, and 14.5% between S. theileri with S. ranarum. Divergences of 12 proteins of S. theileri and S. erinaceieuropaei ranged from 2.3% in cox1 to 15.7% in nad5, while S. theileri varied from S. decipiens and S. ranarum by 1.3% in cox1 to 15.7% in nad3. Phylogenetic relationship of S. theileri with eucestodes inferred using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences exhibited identical tree topologies. A clade composed of S. decipiens and S. ranarum formed a sister species to S. erinaceieuropaei, and S. theileri formed a sister species to all species in this clade. Within the diphyllobothridean clade, Dibothriocephalus, Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra formed a monophyletic group, and sister genera were well supported.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896149

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Taenia asiatica or a hybrid between Taenia saginata and T. asiatica has not been reported in Cambodia. We detected for the first time a hybrid form between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. An adult tapeworm specimen, i.e., 75 cm long strobila without scolex, was expelled from a 27-year-old man after praziquantel medication and purging. It was morphologically indistinguishable between T. saginata and T. asiatica. Several proglottids were molecularly analyzed to confirm the tapeworm species. The mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear genes encoding elongation factor-1α (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp) were sequenced, and a single-allele analysis was performed to confirm the haploid genotype. The results revealed that our sample showed a discrepancy between the mitochondrial and 2 nuclear genes. It possessed homozygous sequences typical of T. saginata at cox1 and ef1 loci. However, it was heterozygous at the elp locus, with 1 allele in T. asiatica (elpA) and 1 in T. saginata (elpC), which indicates that it is a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica. The present results confirmed the presence of a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Cambodia and strongly suggest the existence of also ‘pure’ T. asiatica in Cambodia.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903846

ABSTRACT

Spirometra tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) collected from carnivorous mammals in Tanzania were identified by the DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), and by morphological characteristics. A total of 15 adult worms were collected from stool samples and carcasses of Panthera leo, Panthera pardus, and Crocuta crocuta in the Serengeti and Selous ecosystems of Tanzania. Three Spirometra species: S. theileri, S. ranarum and S. erinaceieuropaei were identified based on morphological features. Partial cox1 sequences (400 bp) of 10 specimens were revealed. Eight specimens showed 99.5% similarity with Spirometra theileri (MK955901), 1 specimen showed 99.5% similarity with the Korean S. erinaceieuropaei and 1 specimen had 99.5% similarity with Myanmar S. ranarum. Sequence homology estimates for the ITS1 region of S. theileri were 89.8% with S. erinaceieuropaei, 82.5% with S. decipiens, and 78.3% with S. ranarum; and 94.4% homology was observed between S. decipiens and S. ranarum. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with 4 species of Spirometra and 2 species of Dibothriocephalus (=Diphyllobothrium). By both ML and BI methods, cox1 and ITS1 gave well supported, congruent trees topology of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. theileri with S. decipiens and S. ranarum forming a clade. The Dibothriocephalus species were sisters of each other and collectively forming successive outgroups. Our findings confirmed that 3 Spirometra species (S. theileri, S. ranarum, and S. erinaceieuropaei) are distributed in the Serengeti and Selous ecosystems of Tanzania.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833814

ABSTRACT

A 22-year-old Thai man from the Northeast region presented with acute eye swelling, itching, and discharge on his left eye. He was suspected of having gnathostomiasis and treated with albendazole and prednisolone for 3 weeks. Nine months later, he was treated with high-dose oral prednisolone for the preliminary and differential diagnoses with thyroid-associated orbitopathy and lymphoma. He had been administered prednisolone intermittently over a few years. Then he developed a painless movable mass at the left upper eyelid and recurrent pseudotumor oculi was suspected. The surgical removal of the mass was performed. A white pseudosegmented worm revealed a definite diagnosis of ocular sparganosis by a plerocercoid larva. Molecular diagnosis of the causative species was made based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. Proper technique of extraction and amplification of short fragments DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue successfully identified parasite species. The result from the sequencing of the PCR-amplified cox1 fragments in this study showed 99.0% sequence homology to Spirometra ranarum. This is the first report of S. ranarum in Thailand.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833804

ABSTRACT

We intended to describe 2 digenean trematodes found from a Chinese sea snake, Laticauda semifasciata, as the new fauna in the Republic of Korea. The snake was caught offshore of Aewol-eup, Jeju-do, in August 2017. Two species of fluke were found in the lung and intestinal tract of the snake in the process of necropsy. They were identified as Pulmovermis cyanovitellosus Coil and Kuntz, 1960 and Harmotrema laticaudae Yamaguti, 1933, respectively based on the morphological characters. Pulmovermis cyanovitellosus showed elongated body with well-developed and elongated male genital system and compact vitelline. And H. laticaudae was characterized by linguiform body with heavily armed cirrus with excretory system. This is the first time both species have been reported and described off the Korean coast. We provide morphological descriptions with some comments on their biology and geographical distribution. In addition, the taxonomic validity of the genus Hydrophitrema Sandars, 1960 was discussed, in terms of morphological descriptions and host ranges. This study provides novel insight into digenean fluke species existing off the coast of Korea.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833800

ABSTRACT

In November 2019 a 5-month-old mixed-breed rabbit presented to Chungbuk National University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea (Korea) with symptoms comprising pruritus, crusts on skin, poor appetite and reduced defecation. The rabbit was purchased 2 months prior from a pet shop located in a big market, and that the symptoms were first observed about 2 weeks prior to the hospital visit. Physical examination revealed that the patient had crust formation and alopecia on the nose together with lesions on the digits. A skin scraping test was performed using mineral oil and a high density of mites was observed by microscopy. Each mite showed a round, tortoise-like body with 4 comparatively short pairs of legs. The anus was located at the terminal unlike with suspected pathogen, Notoedres cati. Based on morphological characteristics, we identified the mite as Sarcoptes sp. Ivermectin was administered weekly by subcutaneous injection at a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg, and 4 weeks of follow-up study revealed the patient was fully recovered. And no more mites were detected from the case. This is the first case report of sarcoptic mange in a pet rabbit in Korea.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833787

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Echinostoma aegyptica Khalil and Abaza, 1924 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) is extremely rare. In this study, we confirmed E. aegyptica infection in 5 riparian residents living along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. The patients revealed eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes, echinostomes, and other parasites in fecal examinations using the Kato-Katz technique. Following treatment with praziquantel 30-40 mg/kg and pyrantel pamoate 10-15 mg/kg in a single dose and purging with magnesium salts, adult specimens of various helminth species were collected. Among the trematodes, echinostome flukes of 4.5-7.6 mm in length (n = 134; av. 22.3 specimens per case) were of taxonomic interest and subjected in this study. The flukes were morphologically characterized by having total 43-45 collar spines arranged in 2 alternating rows (corner spines usually 5 on each side) and compatible with previous descriptions of E. aegyptica. The patients were mixed-infected with other helminths, so specific clinical manifestations due to this echinostome fluke were difficult to determine. The present paper describes for the first time human E. aegyptica infections in Lao PDR. This is the second report of human infection (2nd-6th cases) with E. aegyptica in the world following the first one from China.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833766

ABSTRACT

Soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma haematobium affect more than 3 billion people globally and mainly occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study assessed the overall infection status of a 1716-student cohort of school-children in Zanzibar and applied mass drug administration (MDA) to the cohort from 2007 to 2009. Schools in Pemba, Zanzibar, had a much higher prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections than those in Unguja, and the Chaani, Ghana, and Machui schools of Unguja exhibited high S. haematobium infection rates. The MDA program only partially controlled parasite infections, owing to high rates of re-infection. The infection rate of S. haematobium across all 10 schools, for example, was only reduced by 1.8%, and even this change not significant, even though the S. haematobiuminfection rates of the Chaani and Mzambarauni schools were significantly reduced from 64.4 and 23.4%, respectively, at the first screening, to 7.3 and 2.3% at the last screening. The overall infection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was reduced from 36.0% at the first screening to 22.6% at the last screening. However, the infection rates for both Trichuris trichiuraand hookworm were generally unaffected by MDA. In the future, parasite control programs should involve strategically designed MDA schedules and holistic intervention (e.g., sanitation improvement, hygiene behavior changes, and control of intermediated hosts).

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896142

ABSTRACT

Spirometra tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) collected from carnivorous mammals in Tanzania were identified by the DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), and by morphological characteristics. A total of 15 adult worms were collected from stool samples and carcasses of Panthera leo, Panthera pardus, and Crocuta crocuta in the Serengeti and Selous ecosystems of Tanzania. Three Spirometra species: S. theileri, S. ranarum and S. erinaceieuropaei were identified based on morphological features. Partial cox1 sequences (400 bp) of 10 specimens were revealed. Eight specimens showed 99.5% similarity with Spirometra theileri (MK955901), 1 specimen showed 99.5% similarity with the Korean S. erinaceieuropaei and 1 specimen had 99.5% similarity with Myanmar S. ranarum. Sequence homology estimates for the ITS1 region of S. theileri were 89.8% with S. erinaceieuropaei, 82.5% with S. decipiens, and 78.3% with S. ranarum; and 94.4% homology was observed between S. decipiens and S. ranarum. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with 4 species of Spirometra and 2 species of Dibothriocephalus (=Diphyllobothrium). By both ML and BI methods, cox1 and ITS1 gave well supported, congruent trees topology of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. theileri with S. decipiens and S. ranarum forming a clade. The Dibothriocephalus species were sisters of each other and collectively forming successive outgroups. Our findings confirmed that 3 Spirometra species (S. theileri, S. ranarum, and S. erinaceieuropaei) are distributed in the Serengeti and Selous ecosystems of Tanzania.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761778

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial DNA sequence variability of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei in GenBank was observed by reinvestigation of mitochondrial cox1 and cytb sequences. The DNA sequences were analyzed in this study, comprising complete DNA sequences of cox1 (n=239) and cytb (n=213) genes. The 10 complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Spirometra species were compared with those of Korea, China and Japan. The sequences were analyzed for nucleotide composition, conserved sites, variable sites, singleton sites and parsimony-informative sites. Phylogenetic analyses was done using neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood on cox1 and cytb sequences of Spirometra species. These polymorphic sites identified 148 (cox1) and 83 (cytb) haplotypes within 239 and 213 isolates from 3 Asian countries. Phylogenetic tree topologies were presented high-level confidence values for the 2 major branches of 2 Spirometra species containing S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens, and S. decipiens sub-clades including all sequences registered as S. erinaceieuropaei in cox1 and cytb genes. These results indicated that mitochondrial haplotypes of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens were found in the 3 Asian countries.


Subject(s)
Asians , Base Sequence , China , Databases, Nucleic Acid , DNA, Mitochondrial , Haplotypes , Humans , Japan , Korea , Mitochondria , Spirometra , Trees
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761750

ABSTRACT

Adult specimens of Echinochasmus caninus n. comb. (Verma, 1935) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) (syn. Episthmium caninum Yamaguti, 1958) were recovered from 11 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, the cases revealed eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes, hookworms, and in 2 cases echinostome eggs. To recover the adult helminths, praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg and pyrantel pamoate 10–15 mg/kg in a single dose were given and purged with magnesium salts. Various species of trematodes (including O. viverrini and Haplorchis spp.), cestodes, and nematodes were recovered from their diarrheic stools. Among the trematodes, small echinostome flukes (n=42; av. 3.8 specimens per case) of 0.7–1.2 mm in length are subjected in this study. They are morphologically characterized by having 24 collar spines interrupted dorsally and anterior extension of vitellaria from the cirrus sac or genital pore level to the posterior end of the body. Particularly based on this extensive distribution of vitellaria, the specific diagnosis was made as Echinochasmus caninus. The cases were co-infected with various other helminth parasites; thus, clinical manifestations specific for this echinostome infection were difficult to determine. The present paper describes for the first time human E. caninus infections in Lao PDR. Our cases marked the 4–14th human infections with this echinostome around the world following the 3 previous cases reported from Thailand.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Animals , Cestoda , Comb and Wattles , Diagnosis , Eggs , Helminths , Humans , Magnesium , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Parasites , Praziquantel , Pyrantel Pamoate , Rivers , Salts , Spine , Thailand , Trematoda
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761738

ABSTRACT

A clonorchiasis case in a captive leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, was confirmed by ultrasonographic findings and egg morphologies found in the bile juice sample in the Korea. The leopard cat was introduced from the wild habitat of Gyeongsangnam-do, to Cheongju Zoo in Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea in August 2014. Physical examinations were basically performed for quarantine and check-up health. The cat was comparatively good in health except anorexia. The cyst-like bile duct dilation and the increased echogenicity of gall bladder wall and hepatic parenchyma were observed by ultrasonography. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy was conducted for collecting bile juice and the specimens were observed under light microscope. The numerous small trematode eggs were detected in the bile juice sample of the light microscopy. The eggs were 25–33 (28±3) μm by 18–22 (20±1) μm in size and showed typical characteristics of Clonorchis sinensis egg, i.e., a dominantly developed operculum, shoulder rim and dust-like wrinkles in surface. To treat the liver fluke infection, 20 mg/kg of praziquantel was orally administered only once to the case. Follow-up studies including fecal examinations were conducted during 2 years after treatment. But no more eggs were detected from the case. In the present study, we described the first clonorchiasis case of leopard cat, which was confirmed by ultrasonographic findings and egg morphologies from the bile juice sample in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anorexia , Bile , Bile Ducts , Biopsy, Needle , Cats , Clonorchiasis , Clonorchis sinensis , Ecosystem , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Microscopy , Ovum , Panthera , Physical Examination , Praziquantel , Quarantine , Republic of Korea , Shoulder , Ultrasonography , Urinary Bladder
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786638

ABSTRACT

In the present study, a Spirometra species of Tanzania origin obtained from an African leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) was identified based on molecular analysis of cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (nad1) as well as by morphological observations of an adult tapeworm. One strobila and several segments of a Spirometra species were obtained from the intestine of an African male leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Maswa Game Reserve of Tanzania. The morphological characteristics of S. theileri observed comprised 3 uterine loops on one side and 4 on the other side of the mid-line, a uterine pore situated posterior to the vagina and alternating irregularly either to the right or left of the latter, and vesicular seminis that were much smaller than other Spirometra species. Sequence differences in the cox1 and nad1 genes between S. theileri (Tanzania origin) and S. erinaceieuropaei were 10.1% (cox1) and 12.0% (nad1), while those of S. decipiens and S. ranarum were 9.6%, 9.8% (cox1) and 13.0%, 12.6% (nad1), respectively. The morphological features of the Tanzania-origin Spirometra specimens coincided with those of S. theileri, and the molecular data was also consistent with that of S. theileri, thereby demonstrating the distribution of S. theileri in Tanzania. This places the leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) as new definitive hosts of this spirometrid tapeworm.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cestoda , Electron Transport Complex IV , Humans , Hyaenidae , Intestines , Male , NADH Dehydrogenase , Panthera , Spirometra , Tanzania , Vagina
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786637

ABSTRACT

Isthmiophora hortensis (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is a dominant echinostome in animal reservoir hosts and humans in the Republic of Korea (Korea). We intended to investigate the infection status with this echinostome species in the several species of wild animals and describe the morphological characteristics in the faunistic view point. A total of 175 animal carcasses belonging to 3 families, i.e., Canidae, Felidae and Mustelidae, were collected from the southern regions of Korea from March 2010 to July 2017. Isthmiophora spp. worms were recovered from the small intestines of each animal under a stereomicroscope after washing of intestinal contents. Isthmiophora hortensis was recovered from 4 species of wild carnivores, i.e., Nyctereutes procyonoides (3/107: 2.8%), Mustela sibirica (11/31: 35.5%), Meles lucurus (2/3: 33.3%) and Martes flavigula (1/2: 50%). The other 3 carnivores comprising stray dogs, cat and leopard cat were negative for I. hortensis infection (0/2, 0/10 and 0/12, respectively). Specimens obtained from the Lutra lutra (6/8: 75%) were identified as a distinct species, I. inermis, by morphological comparison. Isthmiophora inermis has thinner body, elongate testes and different anterior limits of vitelline fields. Detailed morphological descriptions and comparisons with the morphological characteristics are provided. Conclusively, it was confirmed for the first time that 3 species of mustelid mammals, i.e., M. sibirica, M. lucurus, and M. flavigula, are to be the new definitive hosts of I. hortensis in Korea. Additionally, I. inermis is to be newly added in the Korean echinostome fauna.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Canidae , Cats , Dogs , Felidae , Gastrointestinal Contents , Humans , Intestine, Small , Korea , Mammals , Mustelidae , Otters , Panthera , Raccoon Dogs , Republic of Korea , Testis , Vitellins
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786636

ABSTRACT

We identified the echinostome metacercariae in Chinese mystery snails, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, from Xiengkhuang Province, Lao PDR with morphologies of adult worms recovered. Total 20 snails were examined with artificial digestion method and then the collected metacercariae were orally infected to a mouse and a rat. Adult worms recovered from experimental animals were observed with a light microscope and a SEM. The metacercariae were round, 125×123 μm in average size, with a moderately thick cyst wall, collar spines distributed in the head collar and excretory granules in 2 canals of excretory tube. Adult flukes (3-week-old in a rat) were elongated, ventrally curved and 5.310×1.023 mm in average size. Head collar distinct, bearing 43 collar spines with 5 end group ones on each side. Oral sucker subterminal, prepharynx very short, pharynx well developed, and esophagus relatively short. Cirrus sac well developed, with a saccular seminal vesicle, and ventral sucker very large. Ovary round and on the median line of the body. Testes tandom and elongated. Eggs operculated, elliptical and 90×57 μm in average size. In the SEM observation, the head crown prominent, with 43 collar spines resembled with horns of younger stag. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the surface between the head collar and ventral sucker, and their densities were decreased posteriorly. Conclusively, the metacercariae detected in C. chinensis malleata from Lao PDR were identified as those of Echinostoma macrorchis based on the morphological characteristics of adult worms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Asians , Crowns , Digestion , Echinostoma , Eggs , Esophagus , Female , Head , Horns , Humans , Metacercariae , Methods , Mice , Ovary , Ovum , Pharynx , Rats , Seminal Vesicles , Snails , Spine , Testis , Trematoda
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742304

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to determine the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence and structure of the mitochondrial genome of Spirometra ranarum, and to compare it with those of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens. The aim of this study was to provide information of the species level taxonomy of Spirometra spp. using the mitochondrial genomes of 3 Spirometra tapeworms. The S. ranarum isolate originated from Myanmar. The mitochondrial genome sequence of S. ranarum was compared with that of S. erinaceieuropaei (GenBank no. KJ599680) and S. decipiens (Gen-Bank no. KJ599679). The complete mtDNA sequence of S. ranarum comprised 13,644 bp. The S. ranarum mt genome contained 36 genes comprising 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. The mt genome lacked the atp8 gene, as found for other cestodes. All genes in the S. ranarum mitochondrial genome are transcribed in the same direction and arranged in the same relative position with respect to gene loci as found for S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens mt genomes. The overall nucleotide sequence divergence of 12 protein-coding genes between S. ranarum and S. decipiens differed by 1.5%, and 100% sequence similarity was found in the cox2 and nad6 genes, while the DNA sequence divergence of the cox1, nad1, and nad4 genes of S. ranarum and S. decipiens was 2.2%, 2.1%, and 2.6%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cestoda , Classification , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genes, vif , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Myanmar , RNA, Transfer , Spirometra
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