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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837084

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a part of the normal skin flora of humans. However, it can cause serious infections in people exposed to foreign bodies or in immunocompromised patients. A 13-year-old boy was hospitalized with fever and myalgia. Painful nodular lesions were detected on the scalp, arms, and legs. Pancytopenia and blasts were present in the peripheral blood. He was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the whole body showed multiple peripheral rim-enhancing, cyst-like lesions. Ultrasonography showed echogenic nodules inside the cystic lesions in the intramuscular space of the arms and legs. Therefore, cysticercosis was strongly suggested initially. However, an abscess was confirmed on sono-guided biopsy and S. epidermidis was isolated from a microbial culture of the tissue. We report a case of multiple disseminated lesions caused by S. epidermidis in a leukemia patient, initially mistaken for cysticercosis.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832104

ABSTRACT

Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is the most common inherited red cell membrane disorder. Its main laboratory finding is anemia with reticulocytosis. However, in the case of an aplastic crisis, there may be no reticulocytosis, making the diagnosis of HS difficult. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy who initially presented with persistent fever and sore throat. His 8-year old brother also had anemia of unknown etiology, and his father had a history of splenectomy in his 20s. Physical examination revealed anemic conjunctivae and hepatosplenomegaly, and laboratory findings showed anemia with decreased reticulocyte count and elevated ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase levels. A peripheral blood smear showed microcytic hypochromic anemia with severe poikilocytosis (spherocytes, acanthocytes, schistocytes), and bone marrow examination revealed decreased erythroid cells and increased hemophagocytosis. Increased osmotic fragility was observed, and parvovirus B19 was detected using polymerase chain reaction. Hence, we established the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis manifested as an aplastic crisis caused by parvovirus B19 infection

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831549

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) is a rare disease characterized by premature red blood cell (RBC) destruction due to intrinsic RBC defects. The RBC Disorder Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology established and updated the standard operating procedure for making an accurate diagnosis of HHA since 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate a nationwide epidemiology of Korean HHA. @*Methods@#We collected the data of a newly diagnosed pediatric HHA cohort (2007–2016) and compared this cohort's characteristics with those of a previously surveyed pediatric HHA cohort (1997–2006) in Korea. Each participant's information was retrospectively collected by a questionnaire survey. @*Results@#A total of 369 children with HHA from 38 hospitals distributed in 16 of 17 districts of Korea were investigated. RBC membranopathies, hemoglobinopathies, RBC enzymopathies, and unknown etiologies accounted for 263 (71.3%), 59 (16.0%), 23 (6.2%), and 24 (6.5%) of the cases, respectively. Compared to the cohort from the previous decade, the proportions of hemoglobinopathies and RBC enzymopathies significantly increased (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). Twenty-three of the 59 hemoglobinopathy patients had immigrant mothers, mostly from South-East Asia. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, thalassemia traits have increased over the past 10 years, reflecting both increased awareness of this disease and increased international marriages. The enhanced recognition of RBC enzymopathies is due to advances in diagnostic technique; however, 6.5% of HHA patients still do not have a clear diagnosis. It is necessary to improve accessibility of diagnosing HHA.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1251-1261, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831133

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor found in children. To identify significant genetic factors for the risk of NB, several genetic studies was conducted mainly for Caucasians and Europeans. However, considering racial differences, there is a possibility that genetic predispositions that contribute to the development of NB are different, and GWAS study has not yet been conducted on Korean NB patients. @*Materials and Methods@#To identify the genetic variations associated with the risk of pediatric NB in Korean children, we performed a genome-wide association analysis with 296 NB patients and 1000 unaffected controls (total n = 1,296) after data cleaning and filtering as well as imputation of non-genotyped SNPs using IMPUTE v2.3.2. @*Results@#After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found 21 statistically significant SNPs associated with the risk of NB (Pcorr < 0.05) within 12 genes (RPTN, MRPS18B, LRRC45, KANSL1L, ARHGEF40, IL15RA, L1TD1, ANO7, LAMA5, OR7G2, SALL4, and NEUROG2). Interestingly, out of these, 12 markers were nonsynonymous SNPs. The SNP rs76015112 was most significantly associated with the risk of NB (p = 8.1E-23, Pcorr = 2.3E-17) and was located in the RPTN gene. In addition, significant nonsynonymous SNPs in ADGRE1 were found in patients with MYCN amplification (rs7256147, p = 2.6E-05). In high-risk group, rs7256147 was observed as a significant SNP (p = 5.9E-06). @*Conclusion@#Our findings might facilitate improved understanding of the mechanism of pediatric NB pathogenesis. However, functional evaluation and replication of these results in other populations are still needed.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831054

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosomes 1p and 16q is a poor prognostic factor infavorable histology Wilms tumor (FHWT). This study investigated the prevalence of LOH at1p and 16q and evaluated its prognostic value in Korean children with FHWT. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed 101 FHWT patients who were diagnosed between 1996 and 2016 in KoreanSociety of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Group hospitals. Using paraffin-embedded kidneytissue samples sent from each center, we reviewed LOH at 1p and 16q in each patient andassessed the prognostic value of LOH status for clinical parameters affecting event-freesurvival (EFS). @*Results@#Of the 101 patients, 12 (11.9%) experienced recurrence; the 3-year EFS was 87.6%. LOHat 1p or 16q was detected in 19 patients (18.8%), with five having LOH at both 1q and 16q.The frequency of LOH at 1p was higher among younger patients (p=0.049), but there wasno difference in LOH prevalence according to tumor stage. In the multivariate analysis, LOHat 16q was a significant negative prognostic factor affecting EFS (3-year EFS, 73.7% vs.91.1%; hazard ratio, 3.95; p=0.037), whereas LOH at 1p was not (p=0.786). @*Conclusion@#LOH at 16q was a significant negative prognostic factor affecting outcome in Korean pediatricFHWT patients. Due to the small sample size of this study, large-scale multicenter trialsare warranted to investigate the prognostic value of LOH at 1p and 16q in Korean childrenwith FHWT.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785340

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While there is an urgent need for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), current genetic tests have drawbacks. We retrospectively reviewed the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) as a quick tool for immunophenotyping and functional assays in patients suspected to have PIDs at a single tertiary care institute.METHODS: Between January 2001 and June 2018, patients suspected of having PIDs were subjected to FCM tests, including lymphocyte subset analysis, detection of surface- or intracellular-target proteins, and functional analysis of immune cells, at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. The genetic diagnosis was performed using Sanger or diagnostic exome sequencing.RESULTS: Of 60 patients diagnosed with definite or probable PID according to the European Society of Immune Deficiencies criteria, 24 patients were provided with useful information about immunological dysfunction after initial FCM testing. In 10 patients, the PID diagnosis was based on abnormal findings in FCM testing without genetic tests. The FCM findings provided strong evidence for the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (n = 6), X-linked chronic granulomatous diseases (CGD) (n = 6), leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (n = 3), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 11), autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-FASLG (n = 1), and familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 2 (n = 1), and probable evidence for autosomal recessive-CGD (n = 2), autosomal dominant-hyper-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-syndrome (n = 1), and STAT1 gain-of-function mutation (n = 1). In PIDs derived from PIK3CD (n = 2), LRBA (n = 2), and CTLA4 mutations (n = 3), the FCM test provided useful evidence of immune abnormalities and a tool for treatment monitoring.CONCLUSIONS: The initial application of FCM, particularly with known protein targets on immune cells, would facilitate the timely diagnosis of PIDs and thus would support clinical decisions and improve the clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , Diagnosis , Exome , Flow Cytometry , Genetic Testing , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Korea , Leukocytes , Lymphocyte Subsets , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency , Tertiary Healthcare
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765167

ABSTRACT

In the initial published version of this article, there was a mistake in the title. The correct title should be “Impact of Day 14 Peripheral Blood Chimerism after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation on the Treatment Outcome of Non-Malignant Disease”.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of early peripheral blood chimerism on the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is unclear. We aimed to determine whether day 14 peripheral blood chimerism after allo-HSCT predicts outcomes in patients with non-malignant diseases. METHODS: Data from 56 patients who received allo-HSCT between April 2007 and March 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Chimerism was evaluated using short-tandem repeat polymerase chain reaction, with mixed chimerism (MC) defined as greater than 1% recipient cells which was further categorized into low-level MC (> 1% and < 15% of recipient-derived cells) and high-level MC (≥ 15% of the recipient-derived cells). RESULTS: Thirty-six patients showed complete donor chimerism (CC), 14 low-level MC, and 6 high-level MC at day 14 post-transplant. The estimated 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was higher in the CC or low-level MC groups than in the high-level MC group (86.1% vs. 71.4% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.001). In BM or peripheral blood stem cell (BM/PBSC) transplants, the 5-year EFS was higher in the CC or low-level MC group than in the high-level MC group (93.1% vs. 66.7% vs. 0%; P < 0.001). However, in cord blood transplants, the 5-year OS and EFS according to the day 14 peripheral blood chimerism did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Although CC is not always necessary after allo-HSCT for non-malignant diseases, our data suggest that day 14 peripheral blood chimerism may predict outcomes in patients with non-malignant diseases who underwent BM/PBSC transplants.


Subject(s)
Bone Transplantation , Chimerism , Disease-Free Survival , Fetal Blood , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a member of the NT family, has only been considered an ancillary compound that provides anti-apoptotic benefits by inactivating tropomyosin receptor kinase C (TrkC)-induced apoptotic signals. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of NT-3 expression itself in neuroblastoma. The purpose of this study was to assess NT-3 expression in patients with neuroblastoma and its relevance to clinicopathologic findings and treatment outcomes. METHODS: In this study, expression of NT-3 and TrkC was analyzed using immunohistochemistry in 240 patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. RESULTS: The results of the study revealed that NT-3 expression was associated with older age at diagnosis, localized tumors, and more differentiated tumors but was not associated with early treatment response (degree of residual tumor volume after three cycles of chemotherapy) and progression-free survival (PFS). However, when analysis was confined to patients with MYCN amplified tumors, NT-3 expression was associated with better early treatment response with borderline significance (P = 0.092) and higher PFS (86.9% vs. 58.2%; P = 0.044). In multivariate analysis in patients with MYCN amplified tumors, NT-3 was independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 0.246; 95% confidence interval, 0.061–0.997; P = 0.050). In another subgroup analysis, the early treatment response was better if NT-3 was expressed in patients without TrkC expression (P = 0.053) while it was poorer in patients with TrkC expression (P = 0.023). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that NT-3 expression in neuroblastoma has its own clinical significance independent of TrkC expression, and its prognostic significance differs depending on the status of MYCN amplification and/or TrkC expression.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm, Residual , Neuroblastoma , Phosphotransferases , Tropomyosin
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718233

ABSTRACT

Scabies is a highly contagious skin infestation caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Complex responses to scabies mites in the innate, humoral, and cellular immune systems can cause skin inflammation and pruritus. Diagnosis can be challenging because scabies resembles other common skin conditions. We report the first Korean case of scabies in a hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipient, initially suspected of skin graft versus host disease (GVHD). A T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia patient underwent a sibling-matched allogeneic HCT and developed pruritus after cell engraftment. Treatment for GVHD did not improve the symptoms. He was diagnosed with scabies 30 days after the onset of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Graft vs Host Disease , Humans , Immune System , Inflammation , Mites , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Pruritus , Sarcoptes scabiei , Scabies , Skin , Transplants
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By estimating the survival rates and exploring prognostic factors in pediatric patients with relapsed or progressed solid tumors, our purpose was to generate background data for future studies. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 258 patients with solid tumors who experienced relapse/progression and received subsequent salvage treatment between 1996 and 2016. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients remained progression-free during first-line salvage treatment, while the remaining 198 patients experienced relapse/progression again; 149 underwent second-line salvage treatment. A total of 76 patients underwent high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT), and 44 patients received allogeneic SCT. The 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from relapse/progression were 18.4% ± 2.7% and 24.5% ± 3.0%, respectively. Survival rates were relatively higher in patients with anaplastic ependymoma, initially non-high-risk neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, Wilms tumor and retinoblastoma. A multivariate analysis showed that relapse/progression during initial treatment, metastatic relapse/progression, and impossible debulking surgery were independent poor prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. Patients who exhibited a complete response or partial response during conventional salvage treatment showed significantly higher survival after SCT than those with stable disease or progressive disease (10-year OS: 54.8% ± 7.0% vs. 7.0% ± 3.5%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prognosis of relapsed/progressed pediatric solid tumors still remains unsatisfactory. New, effective treatment strategies are needed to overcome limitations of current approaches. Hopefully, the background data generated herein will be used in future clinical trials involving patients with relapsed/progressed solid tumors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Ependymoma , Humans , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neuroblastoma , Osteosarcoma , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retinoblastoma , Salvage Therapy , Stem Cell Transplantation , Survival Rate , Wilms Tumor
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the value of random urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) as a surrogate marker for monitoring tumor response and predicting outcome in patients with neuroblastoma (NB). METHODS: Medical records of 91 patients newly diagnosed with NB at the Samsung Medical Center between June 2014 and August 2017 were reviewed. Clinical associations and other prognostic factors, including age at diagnosis, stage, pathologic subtype, MYCN amplification, and other cytogenetic aberrations, were analyzed. Furthermore, the significance of random urinary VMA level in predicting outcome and tumor response was also evaluated. RESULTS: The median random urinary VMA level at diagnosis was 27.9 (range: 1.7–600) mg/g creatinine. Abdominal primary site, male sex, advanced stage, less differentiated pathology (poorly differentiated, undifferentiated), 11q deletion, and high-risk tumor were associated with a higher VMA level at diagnosis. The VMA level decreased during chemotherapy (28.4%, 16.9%, and 9.6% of the VMA level at diagnosis after 3, 6, and 9 cycles of chemotherapy, respectively). A higher VMA level at diagnosis tends to be associated with a better overall survival in high-risk patients with borderline significance (58.3±18.6% vs. 76.5±13.4%, P=0.050). However, in the multivariate analysis, the VMA level was not a significant predictor of survival. A slower reduction in VMA level during chemotherapy was not associated with a worse overall survival. However, event free survival was significantly better in the rapid responder group. CONCLUSION: A higher VMA level was associated with high-risk features at diagnosis of NB. Random urinary VMA is a valuable marker for monitoring NB response during chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Chromosome Aberrations , Creatinine , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neuroblastoma , Pathology , Prognosis , Vanilmandelic Acid
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715970

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to identify the impact of NUDT15 variants on thiopurine intolerance and 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) levels in Korean children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genotyping of NUDT15 was tested in 258 patients with ALL registered at Samsung Medical Center. Patients were classified into normal-activity (wild-type), intermediate-activity (heterozygous variant), and low-activity groups (homozygous or compound heterozygous variant). Clinical and laboratory features during the first year of maintenance therapy were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 182 patients were included in the final analysis. There were five (2.7%), 46 (25.3%), and 131 (72.0%) patients in low-, intermediate-, and normal-activity groups, respectively. The lowest 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) dose (mg/m2/day) was administered to the low-activity group (low-activity group 7.5 vs. intermediate-activity group 24.4 vs. normalactivity group 31.1, p < 0.01) from three months to a year after beginning maintenance therapy. The low-activity group experienced the longest duration of therapy interruption during the first year (low-activity group 169 days vs. intermediate-activity group 30 days vs. normal-activity group 16 days, p < 0.01). They also showed the lowest blood cell counts and had a longer duration of leukopenia (low-activity group 131 days vs. intermediate-activity group 92 days vs. normal-activity group 59 days, p < 0.01). 6-TGN level and its ratio to 6-MP dose were lowest in the low-activity group. CONCLUSION: NUDT15 variants cause hematopoietic toxicity with low 6-TGN levels. NUDT15 genotyping should be conducted before administering thiopurine, and dose adjustments require caution regardless of 6-TGN levels.


Subject(s)
Mercaptopurine , Blood Cell Count , Child , Humans , Leukemia , Leukopenia , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Thioguanine
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741359

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the prognosis is generally good in patients with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma, no consensus has been reached on the ideal treatment regimen. This study analyzed treatment outcomes and toxicities in patients younger than 18 months with stage 4 MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients younger than 18 months newly diagnosed with stage 4 MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma between January 2009 and December 2015. Patients received 9 cycles of chemotherapy and surgery, with or without local radiotherapy, followed by 12 cycles of differentiation therapy with 13-cis-retinoic acid. Chemotherapy consisted of alternating cycles of cisplatin, etoposide, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (CEDC) and ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) regimens. RESULTS: The most common primary tumor site was the abdomen (85%), and the most common metastatic sites were the lymph nodes (65%), followed by the bones (60%), liver (55%), skin (45%), and bone marrow (25%). At the end of induction therapy, 14 patients (70%) achieved complete response, with 1 achieving very good partial response, 4 achieving partial response, and 1 showing mixed response. Nine patients (45%) received local radiotherapy. At a median follow-up of 47 months (range, 17–91 months), none of these patients experienced relapse, progression, or secondary malignancy, or died. Three years after chemotherapy completion, none of the patients had experienced grade ≥3 late adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Patients younger than 18 months with stage 4 MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma showed excellent outcomes, without significant late adverse effects, when treated with alternating cycles of CEDC and ICE, followed by surgery and differentiation therapy.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Bone Marrow , Carboplatin , Child , Cisplatin , Consensus , Cyclophosphamide , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Etoposide , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ice , Ifosfamide , Infant , Isotretinoin , Liver , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroblastoma , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Skin
17.
Blood Research ; : 100-105, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21), defined as the presence of three or more RUNX1 signals on one marker chromosome, is a distinct cytogenetic subgroup of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) that is known to have a poor prognosis when treated with standard therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of Korean children with iAMP21. METHODS: The cytogenetic data from BCP-ALL children were reviewed. The ETV6/RUNX1 ES Dual Color Probe was used for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). RESULTS: In total, 295 children were included. Of these, 10 patients (3.4%) had iAMP21. The median age of iAMP21 patients was 9 years, and the median value of white blood cell count was 5.09×10⁹/L. Slow early treatment response was observed more in iAMP21 patients. Patients with iAMP21 had a higher incidence of relapse and worse survival rates. In patients with iAMP21, the estimated 10-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 53.3%. The estimated 10-year event-free survival and overall survival rate were 46.7% and 64.8%, respectively. Most cases of leukemic relapse developed in the late period (median, 43 mo). In multivariate analysis, high risk group was the only factor that had a significant impact on death. CONCLUSION: The existence of iAMP21 was related to delayed treatment response and was likely to affect increased relapse and death in the late period. Further studies are needed to reveal its effect on BCP-ALL treatment outcomes and its role as an independent prognostic factor.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Child , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 , Cytogenetics , Disease-Free Survival , Fluorescence , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Incidence , Leukocyte Count , Multivariate Analysis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Recurrence , Survival Rate
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115137

ABSTRACT

With the aim to investigate the outcome of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) for high-grade gliomas (HGGs), we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients with HGGs (16 glioblastomas, 7 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 7 other HGGs) between 2006 and 2015. Gross or near total resection was possible in 11 patients. Front-line treatment after surgery was radiotherapy (RT) in 14 patients and chemotherapy in the remaining 16 patients including 3 patients less than 3 years of age. Eight of 12 patients who remained progression free and 5 of the remaining 18 patients who experienced progression during induction treatment underwent the first HDCT/auto-SCT with carboplatin + thiotepa + etoposide (CTE) regimen and 11 of them proceeded to the second HDCT/auto-SCT with cyclophosphamide + melphalan (CyM) regimen. One patient died from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) during the second HDCT/auto-SCT; otherwise, toxicities were manageable. Four patients in complete response (CR) and 3 of 7 patients in partial response (PR) or second PR at the first HDCT/auto-SCT remained event free: however, 2 patients with progressive tumor experienced progression again. The probabilities of 3-year overall survival (OS) after the first HDCT/auto-SCT in 11 patients in CR, PR, or second PR was 58.2% ± 16.9%. Tumor status at the first HDCT/auto-SCT was the only significant factor for outcome after HDCT/auto-SCT. There was no difference in survival between glioblastoma and other HGGs. This study suggests that the outcome of HGGs in children and adolescents after HDCT/auto-SCT is encouraging if the patient could achieve CR or PR before HDCT/auto-SCT.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Astrocytoma , Brain Neoplasms , Carboplatin , Child , Cyclophosphamide , Drug Therapy , Etoposide , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease , Humans , Medical Records , Melphalan , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Thiotepa
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the overall survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approaches 85-90%, the prognosis of relapsed or refractory (R/R) ALL is grave. This study aimed to identify the treatment pattern, treatment response, and overall survival of these patients.METHODS: We reviewed data of 64 patients with R/R ALL whose initial diagnosis of ALL had been made between 1 and 21 years of age. Patients who received clofarabine as part of an induction regimen were excluded. Relapsed patients were limited to those who relapsed after ≥2 prior induction regimens. Treatment patterns, response rates, and overall survival were analyzed.RESULTS: Patients' median age was 15.0 years (range, 6.0-25.0) at the diagnosis of R/R ALL. The most frequently used agents other than steroid were vincristine (54.0%), cytarabine (44.6%), and idarubicin (36.5%), while L-asparaginase was used in only one patient. The complete remission (CR) and overall response (OR) rates were 38.1 and 42.9%, respectively. Sixteen patients (25.4%) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The 5-year overall survival was 6.7%. The survival of patients with HSCT was significantly higher compared with those without HSCT (35.2% vs 0%, P=0.0097). Among 14 patients who achieved CR or CR without platelet recovery (CRp) before HSCT, the 3-year survival was 46.9%.CONCLUSION: The survival of Korean patients with R/R childhood ALL was dismal despite a reasonable CR rate, whereas that of those who received HSCT after CR or CRp was excellent. More treatment options are needed to improve the overall outcome of R/R childhood ALL.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Cytarabine , Diagnosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Idarubicin , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Vincristine
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49314

ABSTRACT

This multicenter, prospective trial was conducted to develop an effective and safe reinduction regimen for marrow-relapsed pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by modifying the dose of idarubicin. Between 2006 and 2009, the trial accrued 44 patients, 1 to 21 years old with first marrow-relapsed ALL. The reinduction regimen comprised prednisolone, vincristine, L-asparaginase, and idarubicin (10 mg/m²/week). The idarubicin dose was adjusted according to the degree of myelosuppression. The second complete remission (CR2) rate was 72.7%, obtained by 54.2% of patients with early relapse < 24 months after initial diagnosis and 95.0% of those with late relapse (P = 0.002). Five patients entered remission with extended treatment, resulting in a final CR2 rate of 84.1%. The CR2 rate was not significantly different according to the idarubicin dose. The induction death rate was 2.3% (1/44). The 5-year event-free and overall survival rates were 22.2% ± 6.4% and 27.3% ± 6.7% for all patients, 4.2% ± 4.1% and 8.3% ± 5.6% for early relapsers, and 43.8% ± 11.4% and 50.0% ± 11.2% for late relapsers, respectively. Early relapse and slow response to reinduction chemotherapy were predictors of poor outcomes. In conclusion, a modified dose of idarubicin was effectively incorporated into the reinduction regimen for late marrow-relapsed ALL with a low toxic death rate. However, the CR2 rate for early relapsers was suboptimal, and the second remission was not durable in most patients.

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