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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927076

ABSTRACT

Global efforts to identify groups at high risk for schistosomiasis have mainly concentrated on identifying their geographical distribution. Investigations on the socioeconomic characteristics of high-risk groups are relatively scarce. This study aimed to explore the associations between schistosomiasis among students and their parents’ occupations. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted targeting 105,167 students in 1,772 primary schools across Sudan in 2017. From these students, 100,726 urine and 96,634 stool samples were collected to test for Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection. A multi-level mixed effect analysis was used with age and sex as fixed factors, and school as a random factor. The odd ratios (ORs) of practicing open defecation among farmers’ children were almost 5 times higher than their counterparts whose parents were government officials (OR=4.97, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 4.57-5.42, P<0.001). The ORs of contacting water bodies for watering livestock among farmers’ children were more than 4 times higher than those of children whose parents were government officials (OR=4.59, 95% CIs: 4.02-5.24, P<0.001). This study shows that schistosomiasis represents a disease of poverty and that farmers’ children constituted a high-risk group.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875528

ABSTRACT

Echinostoma mekongi was reported as a new species in 2020 based on specimens collected from humans in Kratie and Takeo Province, Cambodia. In the present study, its metacercarial stage has been discovered in Filopaludina martensi cambodjensis snails purchased from a local market nearby the Tonle Sap Lake, Pursat Province, Cambodia. The metacercariae were fed orally to an experimental hamster, and adult flukes were recovered at day 20 post-infection. They were morphologically examined using light and scanning electron microscopes and molecularly analyzed by sequencing of their mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 genes. A total of 115 metacercariae (1-8 per snail) were detected in 60 (60.0%) out of 100 Filopaludina snails examined. The metacercariae were round, 174 µm in average diameter (163-190 µm in range), having a thin cyst wall, a head collar armed with 37 collar spines, and characteristic excretory granules. The adult flukes were elongated, ventrally curved, 7.3 (6.4-8.2)×1.4 (1.1-1.7) mm in size, and equipped with 37 collar spines on the head collar (dorsal spines in 2 alternating rows), being consistent with E. mekongi. In phylogenetic analyses, the adult flukes showed 99.0-100% homology based on cox1 sequences and 98.9-99.7% homology based on nad1 sequences with E. mekongi. The results evidenced that F. martensi cambodjensis snails act as the second intermediate host of E. mekongi, and hamsters can be used as a suitable experimental definitive host. As local people favor to eat undercooked snails, these snails seem to be an important source of human infection with E. mekongi in Cambodia.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903864

ABSTRACT

A 12-year nationwide survey (2008-2019) was performed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Seoul, 4 large cites (Busan, Incheon, Daegu, and Ulsan), and 9 provinces (grouped into 5 localities) in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). The survey was carried out once a year by 16 regional offices of the Korea Association of Health Promotion. The cello-tape perianal swab method (1 smear per child) was applied to detect eggs of E. vermicularis and other helminths. According to the results, the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis infection in 2008-2009 was 1.8-2.0%, but it decreased gradually to 0.6% in 2019 (P<0.05). The prevalence was significantly higher in boys (0.7-5.0%, mean 1.8%) than in girls (0.5-2.8%, mean 1.3%) (P<0.05). The 2 most southern localities, Jejudo (Province) and Jeolla-do (inclusive of Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do) and a mid-western province, Gyeonggi-do, revealed higher prevalences, whereas Seoul and Gangwon-do showed lower prevalences. The results indicate that a low-grade prevalence of E. vermicularis infection (less than 4%) has been maintained for the recent 12 years among preschool children in Korea. Continuous monitoring of enterobiasis in the child age group is necessary in Korea.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903853

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Taenia asiatica or a hybrid between Taenia saginata and T. asiatica has not been reported in Cambodia. We detected for the first time a hybrid form between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. An adult tapeworm specimen, i.e., 75 cm long strobila without scolex, was expelled from a 27-year-old man after praziquantel medication and purging. It was morphologically indistinguishable between T. saginata and T. asiatica. Several proglottids were molecularly analyzed to confirm the tapeworm species. The mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear genes encoding elongation factor-1α (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp) were sequenced, and a single-allele analysis was performed to confirm the haploid genotype. The results revealed that our sample showed a discrepancy between the mitochondrial and 2 nuclear genes. It possessed homozygous sequences typical of T. saginata at cox1 and ef1 loci. However, it was heterozygous at the elp locus, with 1 allele in T. asiatica (elpA) and 1 in T. saginata (elpC), which indicates that it is a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica. The present results confirmed the presence of a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Cambodia and strongly suggest the existence of also ‘pure’ T. asiatica in Cambodia.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896160

ABSTRACT

A 12-year nationwide survey (2008-2019) was performed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Seoul, 4 large cites (Busan, Incheon, Daegu, and Ulsan), and 9 provinces (grouped into 5 localities) in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). The survey was carried out once a year by 16 regional offices of the Korea Association of Health Promotion. The cello-tape perianal swab method (1 smear per child) was applied to detect eggs of E. vermicularis and other helminths. According to the results, the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis infection in 2008-2009 was 1.8-2.0%, but it decreased gradually to 0.6% in 2019 (P<0.05). The prevalence was significantly higher in boys (0.7-5.0%, mean 1.8%) than in girls (0.5-2.8%, mean 1.3%) (P<0.05). The 2 most southern localities, Jejudo (Province) and Jeolla-do (inclusive of Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do) and a mid-western province, Gyeonggi-do, revealed higher prevalences, whereas Seoul and Gangwon-do showed lower prevalences. The results indicate that a low-grade prevalence of E. vermicularis infection (less than 4%) has been maintained for the recent 12 years among preschool children in Korea. Continuous monitoring of enterobiasis in the child age group is necessary in Korea.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896149

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Taenia asiatica or a hybrid between Taenia saginata and T. asiatica has not been reported in Cambodia. We detected for the first time a hybrid form between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. An adult tapeworm specimen, i.e., 75 cm long strobila without scolex, was expelled from a 27-year-old man after praziquantel medication and purging. It was morphologically indistinguishable between T. saginata and T. asiatica. Several proglottids were molecularly analyzed to confirm the tapeworm species. The mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear genes encoding elongation factor-1α (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp) were sequenced, and a single-allele analysis was performed to confirm the haploid genotype. The results revealed that our sample showed a discrepancy between the mitochondrial and 2 nuclear genes. It possessed homozygous sequences typical of T. saginata at cox1 and ef1 loci. However, it was heterozygous at the elp locus, with 1 allele in T. asiatica (elpA) and 1 in T. saginata (elpC), which indicates that it is a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica. The present results confirmed the presence of a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Cambodia and strongly suggest the existence of also ‘pure’ T. asiatica in Cambodia.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919311

ABSTRACT

The Chinese edible frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (n=20), and the striped snakehead fish, Channa striata (n=34), were purchased from local markets in 3 administrative regions of Cambodia (Phnom Penh, Pursat, and Takeo Provinces) from May 2017 to April 2019, and their infection status with Gnathostoma sp. larvae was investigated. The frogs and fish were transported to the laboratory with ice and examined using the artificial digestion method. Advanced 3rd-stage larvae (AdL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum, 24 in total number (1-6 larvae/frog), were detected from 6 (60.0%) out of 10 frogs purchased from Phnom Penh. No gnathostome larvae were detected in 10 frogs purchased from Takeo Province and 34 snakeheads from Phnom Penh, Pursat, and Takeo Provinces. AdL3 isolated from the frogs were 2.55- 3.90 mm long and 0.31-0.36 mm wide. They had a characteristic head bulb (0.081×0.191 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, a muscular long esophagus (0.950-1.230 mm long), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.530-0.890 mm long). The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. These features were consistent with G. spinigerum AdL3. By the present study, it has been first confirmed that the Chinese edible frog, H. rugulosus, from Phnom Penh serves as a second intermediate host for G. spinigerum, although their intensity of infection was not so high compared to other previously reported localities.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919309

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and intensity of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OvMc) were investigated in fish from 3 southern administrative regions along the Mekong River in Cambodia, i.e., Phnom Penh, Takeo, and Kandal Provinces from 2017 to 2020. A total of 295 freshwater fish (24 species) were transported to our laboratory with ice and examined using the artificial digestion method. In Phnom Penh, among 4 fish species positive for OvMc, 9 (23.7%) of 38 specimens examined were infected, and their intensity of infection averaged 4.3 metacercariae per infected fish. In Takeo Province, among 10 fish species positive for OvMc, 24 (38.1%) out of 63 fish examined were infected, and their intensity of infection was av. 14.4 metacercariae per infected fish. In particular, all of 3 Osteochilus schlegelii fish examined were infected, and their infection intensity was high, 34.7 metacercariae per fish. In Kandal Province, among 6 fish species positive for OvMc, 46 (90.2%) out of 51 specimens examined were infected, and their infection intensity was 24.0 metacercaraie per infected fish. All fish of Systomus orphoides (n=17), Barbonymus altus (n=14), and Rasbora aurotaenia (n=2) were infected, and their intensity of infection averaged 37.7, 21.6, and 18.5 metacercariae per fish, respectively. Metacercariae of Haplochis yokogawai, Haplorchis taichui, and Centrocestus formosanus were detected in fish from Takeo and Kandal Provinces. From these results, it has been confirmed that a variety of fish species from Phnom Penh, Takeo, and Kandal Provinces are commonly infected with OvMc, and preventive measures to avoid human O. viverrini infection should be performed in Cambodia.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903849

ABSTRACT

Human hookworm infections caused by adult Ancylostoma spp. and Necator americanus are one of the most important tropical diseases. We performed a survey of intestinal helminths using the Kato-Katz fecal examination technique targeting 1,156 villagers residing in 2 northern provinces (Preah Vihear and Stung Treng) of Cambodia in 2018. The results revealed a high overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths (61.9%), and the egg positive rate of hookworms was 11.6%. Nine of the hookworm egg positive cases in Preah Vihear Province were treated with 5-10 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate followed by purging with magnesium salts, and a total of 65 adult hookworms were expelled in diarrheic stools. The adult hookworms were analyzed morphologically and molecularly to confirm the species. The morphologies of the buccal cavity and dorsal rays on the costa were observed with a light microscope, and the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were analyzed. The majority of the hookworm adults (90.7%) were N. americanus, whereas the remaining 9.3% were Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a rare hookworm species infecting humans. The results revealed a high prevalence of hookworm infections among people in a northern part of Cambodia, suggesting the necessity of a sustained survey combined with control measures against hookworm infections.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903840

ABSTRACT

Present study was performed to know the infection status of Gnathostoma sp. larvae in swamp eels from Cambodia. We purchased total 30 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from local markets in Pursat and Takeo Provinces and Phnom Penh on May and November 2017 and May 2018. All collected eels were transferred to our laboratory with ice and each of them was examined by artificial digestion method. A total of 15 larval gnathostomes (1-5 larvae) were detected from 55.6% (5/9) swamp eels in Pursat Province. No larval gnathostomes were found in 21 swamp eels in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) detected were 2.575-3.825 (3.250) mm in length and 0.375-0.425 (0.386) mm in width. They had the characteristic head bulb (av. 0.104×0.218 mm) with 4 rows of hooklets, long muscular esophagus (1.048 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.615 mm). The number of hooklets in 4 rows on the head bulb was 41, 44, 47, and 50. In scanning electron microscopy, characteristic features were 4 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, cervical papillae, tegumental spines regularly arranged in transverse striations, and anus. The larval gnathostomes were identified as AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum based on the morphological characters. By the present study, it has been confirmed that G. spinigerum larvae are infected in Asian swamp eels, M. albus, in Pursat Province, Cambodia.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903839

ABSTRACT

A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic helminth larvae in fish from a local market of North Dagon District in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 486 fish in 13 species were collected 8 times from December 2015 to December 2019. All fish were transported under ice to a laboratory in Korea and examined for helminth larvae using artificial digestion method. Larval gnathostomes and metacercariae of more than 8 zoonotic trematode species, i.e., Opisthorchis viverrini, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp., were detected. Larval gnathostomes were found in 58 (16.0%) out of 362 fish of 6 species, with mean intensity of 2.8 per fish infected. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were detected in 10 (2.9%) out of 349 fish of 5 species, with mean intensity of 16.9 per fish infected. Metacercarial prevalences of 4 intestinal flukes, H. taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, and Centrocestus spp., were 16.8%, 26.0%, 12.5%, and 15.0% in the positive fish species, respectively, and mean metacercarial intensity was 63.3, 26.8, 86.2, and 8.7 per fish infected. Metacercariae of S. falcatus and P. cambodiensis were detected only from the mullet, Chelon macrolepis. Metacercariae of Procerovum sp. were found in Channa striata and Anabas testudineus. Collectively, it was confirmed that the fish were infected with gnathostome larvae and metacercariae of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes in Yangon City, Myanmar.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896145

ABSTRACT

Human hookworm infections caused by adult Ancylostoma spp. and Necator americanus are one of the most important tropical diseases. We performed a survey of intestinal helminths using the Kato-Katz fecal examination technique targeting 1,156 villagers residing in 2 northern provinces (Preah Vihear and Stung Treng) of Cambodia in 2018. The results revealed a high overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths (61.9%), and the egg positive rate of hookworms was 11.6%. Nine of the hookworm egg positive cases in Preah Vihear Province were treated with 5-10 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate followed by purging with magnesium salts, and a total of 65 adult hookworms were expelled in diarrheic stools. The adult hookworms were analyzed morphologically and molecularly to confirm the species. The morphologies of the buccal cavity and dorsal rays on the costa were observed with a light microscope, and the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were analyzed. The majority of the hookworm adults (90.7%) were N. americanus, whereas the remaining 9.3% were Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a rare hookworm species infecting humans. The results revealed a high prevalence of hookworm infections among people in a northern part of Cambodia, suggesting the necessity of a sustained survey combined with control measures against hookworm infections.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896136

ABSTRACT

Present study was performed to know the infection status of Gnathostoma sp. larvae in swamp eels from Cambodia. We purchased total 30 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from local markets in Pursat and Takeo Provinces and Phnom Penh on May and November 2017 and May 2018. All collected eels were transferred to our laboratory with ice and each of them was examined by artificial digestion method. A total of 15 larval gnathostomes (1-5 larvae) were detected from 55.6% (5/9) swamp eels in Pursat Province. No larval gnathostomes were found in 21 swamp eels in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) detected were 2.575-3.825 (3.250) mm in length and 0.375-0.425 (0.386) mm in width. They had the characteristic head bulb (av. 0.104×0.218 mm) with 4 rows of hooklets, long muscular esophagus (1.048 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.615 mm). The number of hooklets in 4 rows on the head bulb was 41, 44, 47, and 50. In scanning electron microscopy, characteristic features were 4 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, cervical papillae, tegumental spines regularly arranged in transverse striations, and anus. The larval gnathostomes were identified as AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum based on the morphological characters. By the present study, it has been confirmed that G. spinigerum larvae are infected in Asian swamp eels, M. albus, in Pursat Province, Cambodia.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896135

ABSTRACT

A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic helminth larvae in fish from a local market of North Dagon District in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 486 fish in 13 species were collected 8 times from December 2015 to December 2019. All fish were transported under ice to a laboratory in Korea and examined for helminth larvae using artificial digestion method. Larval gnathostomes and metacercariae of more than 8 zoonotic trematode species, i.e., Opisthorchis viverrini, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp., were detected. Larval gnathostomes were found in 58 (16.0%) out of 362 fish of 6 species, with mean intensity of 2.8 per fish infected. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were detected in 10 (2.9%) out of 349 fish of 5 species, with mean intensity of 16.9 per fish infected. Metacercarial prevalences of 4 intestinal flukes, H. taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, and Centrocestus spp., were 16.8%, 26.0%, 12.5%, and 15.0% in the positive fish species, respectively, and mean metacercarial intensity was 63.3, 26.8, 86.2, and 8.7 per fish infected. Metacercariae of S. falcatus and P. cambodiensis were detected only from the mullet, Chelon macrolepis. Metacercariae of Procerovum sp. were found in Channa striata and Anabas testudineus. Collectively, it was confirmed that the fish were infected with gnathostome larvae and metacercariae of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes in Yangon City, Myanmar.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833755

ABSTRACT

Soil-transmitted helminths, including Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, are important intestinal parasites mostly affecting younger people in developing countries. In 2014-2015, we performed mass fecal examinations targeting a total of 2,227 schoolchildren in 3 districts (South Dagon, North Dagon, and Hlaing-thar-yar) of Yangon Region, Myanmar, using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The egg positive children were subjected to a mass drug administration (MDA) using a single oral dose of 400 mg albendazole. The pre-treatment egg positive rate (EPG/person) of A. lumbricoides averaged 17.2% (15,532); it was 25.2% (21,796), 14.2% (11,816), and 12.8% (12,983) in 3 districts, respectively, and that of T. trichiura averaged 19.4% (1,074), and was 24.1% (1,040), 12.3% (852), and 21.2% (1,330) in 3 districts, respectively. Follow-up fecal examinations performed 4 months post-MDA revealed considerable decreases of A. lumbricoides prevalence (EPG/person) to av. 8.3% (12,429), and 13.7% (17,640), 8.0% (7,797), and 4.5% (11,849) in 3 districts, respectively. However, T. trichiura did not show any recognizable decrease in the prevalence (EPG/person) remaining at av. 18.2% (862), and 18.5% (888), 11.5% (812), and 23.3% (887) in 3 districts, respectively. The results demonstrated difficulty in short-term control of T. trichiura by MDA using albendazole and suggested necessity of either a long-term MDA (>10 years) or changing the albendazole regimen into 2~3-day course (total 800 or 1,200 mg), or using an alternative drug/drug combination.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833754

ABSTRACT

Taenia saginata infection has seldom been reported in Cambodia. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in 1,156 residents of Preah Vihear and Stung Treng Provinces in 2018. The results revealed that 26 (2.4%) cases were positive for Taenia spp. eggs. In order to obtain the strobilae of the tapeworms, 2 patients in Preah Vihear were treated with praziquantel and purged with magnesium salts. The proglottids expelled after the medication were morphologically and molecularly analyzed to determine the species. The main uterine lateral braches in gravid proglottids were >15 in number suggesting that they are either T. saginata or Taenia asiatica. The sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and 2 nuclear loci, elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin-like protein (elp), were identical to the sequences of T. saginata available in GenBank but distant from Taenia solium, T. asiatica, and T. saginata-T. asiatica hybrid. This is the first report of the presence of T. saginata in the northern part of Cambodia bordering Lao PDR based on a molecular confirmation.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786630

ABSTRACT

Gymnophalloides seoi (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) is a human intestinal trematode contracted by eating raw oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). It has been known to be highly endemic in Aphae Island, Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do (Province). However, recent epidemiological status of G. seoi has not been reported since the 1990s. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of G. seoi metacercariae in natural and cultured oysters collected from 3 islands and 2 coastal areas in western parts of Korea. The oysters were examined using the artificial digestion method followed by stereomicroscopy. The overall positive rate of G. seoi metacercariae in natural oysters was 66.0% (99/150), and the oysters collected from Yubu Island showed the highest infection rate (74.0%). However, the metacercarial density per oyster was relatively low (1.5–2.4 per oyster). By contrast, no metacercaria was found in cultured oysters purchased from 2 coastal areas in Chungcheongnam-do. Thus, we could confirm that natural oysters produced from 3 western coastal islands are infected with G. seoi metacercariae, whereas cultured oysters purchased from 2 coastal areas were free from infection.


Subject(s)
Digestion , Eating , Humans , Islands , Korea , Metacercariae , Methods , Ostreidae , Prevalence , Republic of Korea
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166322

ABSTRACT

Although intestinal protozoans are common etiologies of diarrhea, few studies have been conducted in Myanmar. This study planned to investigate the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana among schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. We performed a cross-sectional survey among schoolchildren and their guardians from 7 primary schools in South Dagon and Hlaing Thar Yar districts, Yangon, Myanmar. Stool samples were observed with a microscope after concentration technique and iodine staining. Total 821 stool samples, including 556 from schoolchildren and 265 from guardians, were examined. The median age was 6 years old for schoolchildren and 36 years old for guardians. A 53.1% of the school children and 14.6 % of the guardians were males. The overall prevalence of each intestinal protozoan species was as follows: 3.4% (28/821) for G. lamblia; 3.5% (29/821) for E. coli; 1.2% (10/821) for E. histoytica, and 3.0% for E. nana. This study showed that intestinal protozoans are common in primary schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. Health interventions, such as hand washing education, improvement of sanitation, and establishment of water purification systems are urgently needed in this area.


Subject(s)
Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Education , Endolimax , Entamoeba , Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia , Giardia lamblia , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Iodine , Male , Myanmar , Prevalence , Sanitation , Water Purification
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146174

ABSTRACT

Opisthorchis viverrini infection was found to be highly prevalent in 3 riverside villages (Ang Svay Chek A, B, and C) of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province. This area is located in the southern part of Cambodia, where the recovery of adult O. viverrini worms was recently reported. From May 2006 until May 2010, fecal examinations were performed on a total of 1,799 villagers using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. In the 3 villages, the overall positive rate for helminth eggs ranged from 51.7 to 59.0% (av. 57.4%), and the percentage positive for O. viverrini was 46.4-50.6% (47.5%). Other helminths detected included hookworms (13.2%), echinostomes (2.9%), Trichuris trichiura (1.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.6%), and Taenia spp. (0.06%). The prevalence of O. viverrini eggs appeared to reflect a lower infection in younger individuals (20 years). Men (50.4%) revealed a significantly higher (P=0.02) prevalence than women (44.3%). The Ang Svay Chek villages of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province, Cambodia have been confirmed to be a highly endemic area for human O. viverrini infection.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Cambodia/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Opisthorchiasis/epidemiology , Opisthorchis/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Rural Population , Young Adult
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219740

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of liver and intestinal fluke infections was surveyed on residents of Savannakhet Province, Laos. Fecal specimens were collected from a total of 981 residents in 4 Mekong riverside villages and examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The results revealed that the overall helminth egg positive rate was 84.2%, and the positive rate for small trematode eggs, including Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, or lecithodendriids, was 67.1%. To obtain adult flukes, 38 small trematode egg positive cases were treated with a 20-30 mg/kg single dose of praziquantel and purged. Diarrheic stools were then collected from 29 people and searched for helminth parasites using stereomicroscopes. Mixed infections with O. viverrini and 6 kinds of intestinal flukes were found, namely, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis yokogawai, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, and echinostomes. The total number of flukes collected was 7,693 specimens (av. no. per treated person; 265.3). The most common species was O. viverrini, followed by H. taichui, P. molenkampi, echinostomes, H. pumilio, P. bonnei, and H. yokogawai. The results indicate that foodborne liver and intestinal fluke infections are prevalent among residents of Savannakhet Province, Laos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Feces/parasitology , Female , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy , Laos/epidemiology , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Parasite Egg Count , Population Surveillance , Praziquantel/administration & dosage , Prevalence , Trematoda/classification , Trematode Infections/drug therapy
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