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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891034

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) have been verified in many human and animal studies. Although some tissues contain MSCs, the number of cells harvested from those tissues and rate of proliferation in vitro are not enough for continuous transplantation. In order to produce and maintain stable MSCs, many attempts are made to induce differentiation from pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into MSCs. In particular, it is also known that the paracrine action of stem cell-secreted factors could promote the regeneration and differentiation of target cells in damaged tissue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), one of the secreted factors, are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the translation of a gene. It is known that miRNAs help communication between stem cells and their surrounding niches through exosomes to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. While studies have so far been underway targeting therapeutic miRNAs of MSDs, studies on specific miRNAs secreted from MSCs are still minimal. Hence, our ultimate goal is to obtain sufficient amounts of exosomes from iPSC-MSCs and develop them into therapeutic agents, furthermore to select specific miRNAs and provide safe cell-free clinical setting as a cell-free status with purpose of delivering them to target cells. This review article focuses on stem cell therapy on MSDs, specific microRNAs regulating MSDs and updates on novel approaches.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874186

ABSTRACT

Background@#Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) has been established as a non-invasive biomarker for liver fibrosis. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of M2BPGi compared with those of other liver fibrosis markers in liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). @*Methods@#We analyzed serum M2BPGi levels in 113 NAFLD patients. A pathologist graded liver fibrosis histopathologically. The diagnostic efficacies of serum M2BPGi and other liver fibrosis markers (aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index, fibrosis index based on four factors, and NAFLD fibrosis score [NFS]) were evaluated using correlation, area under the ROC curve (AUC), logistic regression, and C-statistics. @*Results@#Serum M2BPGi level and other liver fibrosis markers showed a moderate correlation with fibrosis grade. The AUC values of M2BPGi were 0.761, 0.819, 0.866, and 0.900 for diagnosing fibrosis (F) > 0, F > 1, F > 2, and F > 3, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed M2BPGi as the only independent factor associated with F > 2 and F > 3. Although C-statistics showed that NFS was the best diagnostic factor for F > 2 and F > 3, M2BPGi with NFS had an increased C-statistics value, indicating that it is a better diagnostic model. @*Conclusions@#The serum M2BPGi level increased with liver fibrosis severity and could be a good biomarker for diagnosing advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in NAFLD patients. A well-controlled, prospective study with a larger sample size is needed to validate the diagnostic power of M2BPGi and other fibrosis markers in NAFLD.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898738

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) have been verified in many human and animal studies. Although some tissues contain MSCs, the number of cells harvested from those tissues and rate of proliferation in vitro are not enough for continuous transplantation. In order to produce and maintain stable MSCs, many attempts are made to induce differentiation from pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into MSCs. In particular, it is also known that the paracrine action of stem cell-secreted factors could promote the regeneration and differentiation of target cells in damaged tissue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), one of the secreted factors, are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the translation of a gene. It is known that miRNAs help communication between stem cells and their surrounding niches through exosomes to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. While studies have so far been underway targeting therapeutic miRNAs of MSDs, studies on specific miRNAs secreted from MSCs are still minimal. Hence, our ultimate goal is to obtain sufficient amounts of exosomes from iPSC-MSCs and develop them into therapeutic agents, furthermore to select specific miRNAs and provide safe cell-free clinical setting as a cell-free status with purpose of delivering them to target cells. This review article focuses on stem cell therapy on MSDs, specific microRNAs regulating MSDs and updates on novel approaches.

4.
Immune Network ; : e4-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740210

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding RNAs of more than 200 nucleotides in length. Despite the term “noncoding”, lncRNAs have been reported to be involved in gene expression. Accumulating evidence suggests that lncRNAs play crucial roles in the regulation of immune system and the development of autoimmunity. lncRNAs are expressed in various immune cells including T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and NK cells, and are also involved in the differentiation and activation of these immune cells. Here, we review recent studies on the role of lncRNAs in immune regulation and the differential expression of lncRNAs in various autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , B-Lymphocytes , Clinical Coding , Dendritic Cells , Gene Expression , Immune System , Killer Cells, Natural , Macrophages , Neutrophils , Nucleotides , RNA , RNA, Long Noncoding , T-Lymphocytes
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6986

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various cellular functions, including development, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Different signatures associated with various tissue types, diagnosis, progression, prognosis, staging, and treatment response have been identified by miRNA expression profiling of human tumors. miRNAs function as oncogenes or as tumor suppressors. The relationship between gastric cancer and miRNA garnered attention due to the high incidence of gastric cancer in Asian countries. miR-222/221 expression increases in gastric tumor tissues. The oncogenic effect of miR-222/221 was previously determined in functional studies and xenograft models. In this study, transgenic mice over-expressing miR-222/221 were generated to confirm the effect of miR-222/221 on gastric carcinogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At 6 weeks of age, 65 transgenic mice and 53 wild-type mice were given drinking water containing N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) for 5 alternating weeks to induce gastric cancer. The mice were euthanized at 36 weeks of age and histologic analysis was performed. RESULTS: Hyperplasia was observed in 3.77% of the wild-type mice and in 18.46% of the transgenic mice (p=0.020). Adenoma was observed in 20.75% of the wild-type mice and 26.15% of the transgenic mice (p=0.522). Carcinoma was observed in 32.08% of the wild-type mice and 41.54% of the transgenic mice (p=0.341). The frequency of hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma was higher in transgenic mice, but the difference was statistically significant only in hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that hyperplasia, a gastric pre-cancerous lesion, is associated with miR-222/221 expression but miR-222/221 expression does not affect tumorigenesis itself.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Animals , Apoptosis , Asians , Carcinogenesis , Cell Proliferation , Diagnosis , Drinking Water , Heterografts , Humans , Hyperplasia , Incidence , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , MicroRNAs , Oncogenes , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms
6.
Gut and Liver ; : 948-954, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein and is known to be related to the metastatic potential and prognosis of cancer. However, few studies have investigated the expression level of periostin and its association with prognoses in hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, we analyzed periostin overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma and its implication for prognoses. METHODS: We evaluated 149 patients who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2010. Tissue microarrays were constructed from hepatocellular carcinoma tissue and adjacent nontumor tissue, and immunohistochemistry was performed. RESULTS: A high periostin level was observed more frequently in cases of multiple tumors (odds ratio [OR], 2.826; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.224 to 6.527; p=0.013), positive microvascular invasion (OR, 2.974; 95% CI, 1.431 to 6.181; p=0.003), and advanced stage disease (OR, 3.032; 95% CI, 1.424 to 6.452; p=0.003). Patients with high periostin expression had significantly (p=0.002) lower overall survival rates than those with low periostin expression (90.3%, 66.1%, and 56.2% vs 97.7%, 85.1%, and 77.5% at 1, 3, and 5 years). CONCLUSIONS: We found that a combination of periostin overexpression and microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma was correlated with a poor prognosis and can be a good prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Extracellular Matrix , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Tissue Array Analysis
7.
Gut and Liver ; : 948-954, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein and is known to be related to the metastatic potential and prognosis of cancer. However, few studies have investigated the expression level of periostin and its association with prognoses in hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, we analyzed periostin overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma and its implication for prognoses. METHODS: We evaluated 149 patients who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2010. Tissue microarrays were constructed from hepatocellular carcinoma tissue and adjacent nontumor tissue, and immunohistochemistry was performed. RESULTS: A high periostin level was observed more frequently in cases of multiple tumors (odds ratio [OR], 2.826; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.224 to 6.527; p=0.013), positive microvascular invasion (OR, 2.974; 95% CI, 1.431 to 6.181; p=0.003), and advanced stage disease (OR, 3.032; 95% CI, 1.424 to 6.452; p=0.003). Patients with high periostin expression had significantly (p=0.002) lower overall survival rates than those with low periostin expression (90.3%, 66.1%, and 56.2% vs 97.7%, 85.1%, and 77.5% at 1, 3, and 5 years). CONCLUSIONS: We found that a combination of periostin overexpression and microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma was correlated with a poor prognosis and can be a good prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Extracellular Matrix , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Tissue Array Analysis
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121564

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic validity of peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer cells by performing multiple genetic marker analysis via quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in gastric cancer cell lines and gastric cancer tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on 12 human gastric cancer cell lines and 10 gastric cancer tissues with four mRNAs of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Cytokeratin 20 (CK20), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), and L-3-phosphoserine phosphatase (L3PP). RESULTS: Out of the 12 human gastric cancer cell lines we tested, CEA was overexpressed in four cell lines (33%), CK20 in one (8%), DDC in six (50%) and L3PP was expessed in all the lines (100%). Out of the 10 gastric cancer tissues we tested, CEA was overexpressed in nine tissues, CK20 in eight, DDC in nine and L3PP was overexpressed in all the tissues. L3PP was overexpressed in all the gastric cancer cell lines and tissues, but the levels of overexpression were lower than those of CEA and DDC. CONCLUSION: Multiple genetic marker analysis can compensate for the weak points of single marker analysis when testing gastric cancer, and three mRNAs of CEA, DDC and L3PP can be used as candidate genes.


Subject(s)
Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Cell Line , Dopa Decarboxylase , Genetic Markers , Humans , Keratin-20 , RNA, Messenger , Stomach Neoplasms
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170992

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to evaluate histopathologic and physical characteristics of anterior capsule during capsulorhexis with a new high-frequency diathermy.The authors investigated the histopathologic characteristics of anterior capsule according to coagulation time and anterior capsular diameter in diathermy capsulorhesxis(DC),comparing with those in continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis(CCC). Thermally induced histopathologic alter-ation was localized at anterior capsule with coagulation for 0.5 second, while it was extended into cortex with coagulation for 2 seconds.When capsulorhexis was performed with diameter of 6 mmand the margin was pulled with iris retractor,anterior capsular edge was fully extended both in CCC and DC.But with diameter of 3.5 mm,DC mostly led to tear of capsular edge on its extension,while CCC permitted full extension of anterior capsular edge.These results suggest that strength of anterior capsular edge in DC is inferior to that in CCC.However diathermy capsulorhexis is a useful alternative technique in cases,which CCC is difficult to perform,such ashypermature or congenital cataracts.


Subject(s)
Capsulorhexis , Cataract , Diathermy , Iris
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18951

ABSTRACT

Glassy cell carcinoma is a histologic subtype of cervical cancer with distinct pathologic features and it has an aggressive biologic course. It was first described by Glucksmann and Cherry in 1956 as a poorly differentiated adenoquamous carcinoma and commented on its poor prognosis, unresponsiveness to traditional modes of therapy, and often associated with pregnancy. The characteristic histologic features are defined as follows: 1) cells with a moderate amount of cytoplasm resembling ground glass, 2) a fairly distinct cell membrane that stains with eosin or PAS, 3) large nuclei with prominent nucleoli. We present two cases of glassy cell carcinoma of the cervix successfullyl treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical hyterectorny, with a brief review of literatures.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane , Cervix Uteri , Coloring Agents , Cytoplasm , Drug Therapy , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Female , Glass , Hysterectomy , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Prunus , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
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