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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834845

ABSTRACT

Endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT) has been a standard of care for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large artery occlusion (LAO) within 6 hours after onset since the five landmark ERT trials up to 2015 demonstrated its clinical benefit. Recently, two randomized clinical trials demonstrated that ERT, even in the late time window up to 16 hours or 24 hours after last known normal time, improved the outcome of patients who had a target mismatch defined as either clinical-core mismatch or perfusion-core mismatch, which prompted the update of national guidelines in several countries. Accordingly, to provide evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations for ERT in patients with acute LAO in Korea, the Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee of the Korean Stroke Society decided to revise the previous Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines of Stroke for ERT. For this update, the members of the writing group were appointed by the Korean Stroke Society and the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology. After thorough reviewing the updated evidence from two recent trials and relevant literature, the writing members revised recommendations, for which formal consensus was achieved by convening an expert panel composed of 45 experts from the participating academic societies. The current guidelines are intended to help healthcare providers, patients, and their caregivers make their well-informed decisions and to improve the quality of care regarding ERT. The ultimate decision for ERT in a particular patient must be made in light of circumstances specific to that patient.

2.
Journal of Stroke ; : 108-118, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834639

ABSTRACT

Background@#and purpose Whether pharmacologically altered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) affects the risk of cardiovascular events is unknown. Recently, we have reported the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Asian Patients with Ischaemic Stroke at High Risk of Cerebral Haemorrhage (PICASSO) trial that demonstrated the non-inferiority of cilostazol to aspirin and superiority of probucol to non-probucol for cardiovascular prevention in ischemic stroke patients (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01013532). We aimed to determine whether on-treatment HDL-C changes by cilostazol and probucol influence the treatment effect of each study medication during the PICASSO study. @*Methods@#Of the 1,534 randomized patients, 1,373 (89.5%) with baseline cholesterol parameters were analyzed. Efficacy endpoint was the composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis examined an interaction between the treatment effect and changes in HDL-C levels from randomization to 1 month for each study arm. @*Results@#One-month post-randomization mean HDL-C level was significantly higher in the cilostazol group than in the aspirin group (1.08 mmol/L vs. 1.00 mmol/L, P<0.001). The mean HDL-C level was significantly lower in the probucol group than in the non-probucol group (0.86 mmol/L vs. 1.22 mmol/L, P<0.001). These trends persisted throughout the study. In both study arms, no significant interaction was observed between HDL-C changes and the assigned treatment regarding the risk of the efficacy endpoint. @*Conclusions@#Despite significant HDL-C changes, the effects of cilostazol and probucol treatment on the risk of cardiovascular events were insignificant. Pharmacologically altered HDL-C levels may not be reliable prognostic markers for cardiovascular risk.

3.
Journal of Stroke ; : 42-59, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740619

ABSTRACT

Despite the great socioeconomic burden of stroke, there have been few reports of stroke statistics in Korea. In this scenario, the Epidemiologic Research Council of the Korean Stroke Society launched the “Stroke Statistics in Korea” project, aimed at writing a contemporary, comprehensive, and representative report on stroke epidemiology in Korea. This report contains general statistics of stroke, prevalence of behavioral and vascular risk factors, stroke characteristics, pre-hospital system of care, hospital management, quality of stroke care, and outcomes. In this report, we analyzed the most up-to-date and nationally representative databases, rather than performing a systematic review of existing evidence. In summary, one in 40 adults are patients with stroke and 232 subjects per 100,000 experience a stroke event every year. Among the 100 patients with stroke in 2014, 76 had ischemic stroke, 15 had intracerebral hemorrhage, and nine had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke mortality is gradually declining, but it remains as high as 30 deaths per 100,000 individuals, with regional disparities. As for stroke risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is decreasing in men but not in women, and the prevalence of alcohol drinking is increasing in women but not in men. Population-attributable risk factors vary with age. Smoking plays a role in young-aged individuals, hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged individuals, and atrial fibrillation in the elderly. About four out of 10 hospitalized patients with stroke are visiting an emergency room within 3 hours of symptom onset, and only half use an ambulance. Regarding acute management, the proportion of patients with ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment was 10.7% and 3.6%, respectively. Decompressive surgery was performed in 1.4% of patients with ischemic stroke and in 28.1% of those with intracerebral hemorrhage. The cumulative incidence of bleeding and fracture at 1 year after stroke was 8.9% and 4.7%, respectively. The direct costs of stroke were about ₩1.68 trillion (KRW), of which ₩1.11 trillion were for ischemic stroke and ₩540 billion for hemorrhagic stroke. The great burden of stroke in Korea can be reduced through more concentrated efforts to control major attributable risk factors for age and sex, reorganize emergency medical service systems to give patients with stroke more opportunities for reperfusion therapy, disseminate stroke unit care, and reduce regional disparities. We hope that this report can contribute to achieving these tasks.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Ambulances , Atrial Fibrillation , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology , Female , Hemorrhage , Hope , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Korea , Male , Mortality , Prevalence , Reperfusion , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Writing
4.
Journal of Stroke ; : 69-77, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombectomy within 24 hours can improve outcomes in selected patients with a clinical-infarct mismatch. We devised an easy-to-use visual estimation tool that allows infarct volume estimation in centers with limited resources. METHODS: We identified 1,031 patients with cardioembolic or large-artery atherosclerosis infarction on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained before recanalization therapy and within 24 hours of onset, and occlusion of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery. Acute DWIs were mapped onto a standard template and used to create visual reference maps with known lesion volumes, which were then used in a validation study (with 130 cases) against software estimates of infarct volume. RESULTS: The DWI reference map chart comprises 144 maps corresponding to 12 different infarct volumes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 mL) in each of 12 template slices (Montreal Neurological Institute z-axis –15 to 51 mm). Infarct volume in a patient is estimated by selecting a slice with a similar infarct size at the corresponding z-axis level on the reference maps and then adding up over all slices. The method yielded good correlations to software volumetrics and was easily learned by both experienced and junior physicians, with approximately 1 to 2 minutes spent per case. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detecting threshold infarct volumes ( 90%). CONCLUSIONS: We developed easy-to-use reference maps that allow prompt and reliable visual estimation of infarct volumes for triaging patients to thrombectomy in acute stroke.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Cerebral Infarction , Decision Making , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Infarction , Medical Staff, Hospital , Methods , Middle Cerebral Artery , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stroke , Thrombectomy
5.
Neurointervention ; : 71-81, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760600

ABSTRACT

Endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT) has been a standard of care for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large artery occlusion (LAO) within 6 hours after onset, since five landmark ERT trials conducted by 2015 demonstrated its clinical benefit. Recently, two randomized clinical trials demonstrated that ERT, even in the late time window of up to 16 hours or 24 hours after last known normal time, improved the outcome of patients who had a target mismatch, defined as either clinical-core mismatch or perfusion-core mismatch, which prompted the update of national guidelines in several countries. Accordingly, to provide evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations for ERT in patients with acute LAO in Korea, the Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee of the Korean Stroke Society decided to revise the previous Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines of Stroke for ERT. For this update, the members of the writing group were appointed by the Korean Stroke Society and the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology. After thoroughly reviewing the updated evidence from two recent trials and relevant literature, the writing members revised recommendations, for which formal consensus was achieved by convening an expert panel composed of 45 experts from the participating academic societies. The current guidelines are intended to help healthcare providers, patients, and their caregivers make well-informed decisions and to improve the quality of care regarding ERT. The ultimate decision for ERT in a particular patient must be made in light of circumstances specific to that patient.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Caregivers , Cerebral Infarction , Consensus , Health Personnel , Humans , Korea , Mechanical Thrombolysis , Reperfusion , Standard of Care , Stroke , Writing
6.
Journal of Stroke ; : 259-275, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766264

ABSTRACT

Non-Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been extensively investigated in medical conditions at high risk of venous or arterial thrombosis other than atrial fibrillation (AF), including hip or knee arthroplasty, acute venous thromboembolism (VTE), cancer-associated VTE, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stable atherosclerotic vascular disease, chronic heart failure, and embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). Two large ESUS trials failed to show the benefit of rivaroxaban or dabigatran, and large randomized controlled trial (RCT) data of NOACs are lacking for another potential candidates of patent foramen ovale-related stroke, acute ischemic stroke, and cerebral venous thrombosis. On the other hand, high quality evidences of NOACs have been compiled for VTE prophylaxis after hip or knee arthroplasty, acute VTE, cancer-associated VTE, and concomitant ACS and AF, which have been reflected in clinical practice guidelines. In addition, RCTs showed the benefit of very low dose rivaroxaban in combination with antiplatelet therapy in patients with ACS and in those with stable cardiovascular disease. This article summarizes the accumulated evidences of NOACs in cardiovascular diseases beyond AF, and aims to inform healthcare providers of optimal regimens tailored to individual medical conditions and help investigators design future clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Anticoagulants , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Atrial Fibrillation , Cardiovascular Diseases , Dabigatran , Hand , Health Personnel , Heart Failure , Hip , Humans , Research Personnel , Rivaroxaban , Stroke , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis , Vascular Diseases , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis
7.
Journal of Stroke ; : 231-240, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766240

ABSTRACT

Endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT) has been a standard of care for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large artery occlusion (LAO) within 6 hours after onset, since five landmark ERT trials conducted by 2015 demonstrated its clinical benefit. Recently, two randomized clinical trials demonstrated that ERT, even in the late time window of up to 16 hours or 24 hours after last known normal time, improved the outcome of patients who had a target mismatch, defined as either clinical-core mismatch or perfusion-core mismatch, which prompted the update of national guidelines in several countries. Accordingly, to provide evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations for ERT in patients with acute LAO in Korea, the Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee of the Korean Stroke Society decided to revise the previous Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines of Stroke for ERT. For this update, the members of the writing group were appointed by the Korean Stroke Society and the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology. After thoroughly reviewing the updated evidence from two recent trials and relevant literature, the writing members revised recommendations, for which formal consensus was achieved by convening an expert panel composed of 45 experts from the participating academic societies. The current guidelines are intended to help healthcare providers, patients, and their caregivers make well-informed decisions and to improve the quality of care regarding ERT. The ultimate decision for ERT in a particular patient must be made in light of circumstances specific to that patient.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Caregivers , Cerebral Infarction , Consensus , Health Personnel , Humans , Korea , Mechanical Thrombolysis , Reperfusion , Standard of Care , Stroke , Writing
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using data from a large national stroke registry, we aimed to investigate the incidence and determinants of in-hospital and post-discharge recovery after acute ischemic stroke and the independence of their occurrence. METHODS: In-hospital recovery was defined as an improvement of 4 points or > 40% in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score from admission to discharge. Post-discharge recovery was defined as any improvement in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from discharge to 3 months after stroke onset. Two analytic methods (multivariate and multivariable logistic regression) were applied to compare the effects of 18 known determinants of 3-month outcome and to verify whether in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occur independently. RESULTS: During 54 months, 11,088 patients with acute ischemic stroke meeting the eligibility criteria were identified. In-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 36% and 33% of patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression with an equality test for odds ratios showed that 7 determinants (age, onset-to-admission time, NIHSS score at admission, blood glucose at admission, systolic blood pressure, smoking, recanalization therapy) had a differential effect on in-hospital and post-discharge recovery in the way of the opposite direction or of the same direction with different degree (all P values < 0.05). Both in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 12% of the study population and neither of them in 43%. The incidence of post-discharge recovery in those with in-hospital recovery was similar to that in those without (33.8% vs. 32.7%, respectively), but multivariable analysis showed that these 2 types of recovery occurred independently. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in-hospital and post-discharge recovery may occur independently and largely in response to different factors.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Registries , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients who survive an acute phase of stroke are at risk of falls and fractures afterwards. However, it is largely unknown how frequent fractures occur in the Asian stroke population. METHODS: Patients with acute (< 7 days) ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between January 2011 and November 2013 were identified from a prospective multicenter stroke registry in Korea, and were linked to the National Health Insurance Service claim database. The incidences of fractures were investigated during the first 4 years after index stroke. The cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were estimated by the Gray's test for competing risk data. Fine and Gray model for competing risk data was applied for exploring risk factors of post-stroke fractures. RESULTS: Among a total of 11,522 patients, 1,616 fracture events were identified: 712 spine fractures, 397 hip fractures and 714 other fractures. The CIFs of any fractures were 2.63% at 6 months, 4.43% at 1 year, 8.09% at 2 years and 13.00% at 4 years. Those of spine/hip fractures were 1.11%/0.61%, 1.88%/1.03%, 3.28%/1.86% and 5.79%/3.15%, respectively. Age by a 10-year increment (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–1.30), women (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.54–1.97), previous fracture (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.54–1.92) and osteoporosis (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.27–1.63) were independent risk factors of post-stroke fracture. CONCLUSION: The CIFs of fractures are about 8% at 2 years and 13% at 4 years after acute ischemic stroke in Korea. Older age, women, pre-stroke fracture and osteoporosis raised the risk of post-stroke fractures.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Epidemiology , Female , Hip Fractures , Humans , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Osteoporosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spine , Stroke
10.
Journal of Stroke ; : 99-109, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Additional folic acid (FA) treatment appears to have a neutral effect on reducing vascular risk in countries that mandate FA fortification of food (e.g., USA and Canada). However, it is uncertain whether FA therapy reduces stroke risk in countries without FA food fortification. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of FA therapy on stroke prevention in countries without FA food fortification. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and clinicaltrials.gov from January 1966 to August 2016 were searched to identify relevant studies. Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as a measure of the association between FA supplementation and risk of stroke, after pooling data across trials in a random-effects model. RESULTS: The search identified 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving treatment with FA that had enrolled 65,812 participants, all of which stroke was reported as an outcome measure. After all 13 RCTs were pooled, FA therapy versus control was associated with a lower risk of any future stroke (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.95). FA alone or combination of FA and minimal cyanocobalamin (≤0.05 mg/day) was associated with a lower risk of future stroke (RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.86) whereas combination of FA and cyanocobalamin (≥0.4 mg/day) was not associated with a lower risk of future stroke (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: FA supplement reduced stroke in countries without mandatory FA food fortification. The benefit was found mostly in patients receiving FA alone or combination of FA and minimal cyanocobalamin.


Subject(s)
Folic Acid , Food, Fortified , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Stroke , Vitamin B 12
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The quality of anticoagulation is critical for ensuring the benefit of warfarin, but this has been less well studied in Korean ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who had an AF-related ischemic stroke and were treated with long-term warfarin therapy in 16 Korean centers. The quality of warfarin therapy was primarily assessed by the time in therapeutic range [TTR; international normalized ratio (INR), 2.0–3.0] and additionally by the proportion of INR values within the therapeutic range. RESULTS: The long-term warfarin-treated cohort comprised 1,230 patients. They were aged 70.1±9.7 years (mean±SD), 42.5% were female, and their CHA₂DS₂-VASc score was 4.75±1.41. The TTR analysis included 33,941 INR measurements for 27,487 months: per patients, 27.6 (SD, 22.4) INR measurements for 22.4 (SD, 12.9) months. The mean TTR of individual patients was 49.1% (95% confidence interval, 47.9–50.3%), and the TTR quartiles were 64.5%. None of the 16 centers achieved a mean TTR of >60%. Of all INR measurements, 44.6% were within the therapeutic range, 41.7% were 3.0. CONCLUSIONS: In Korean ischemic stroke patients who had AF, the quality of warfarin therapy was low and might be inadequate to effectively prevent recurrent stroke or systemic embolism.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Embolism , Female , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Warfarin
13.
Journal of Stroke ; : 119-120, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72825

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Trichothecenes
14.
Journal of Stroke ; : 152-165, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72821

ABSTRACT

Elevated blood pressure (BP) is the leading modifiable risk factor for stroke and the benefit of BP lowering therapy on the stroke risk reduction is well established. The optimal BP target for preventing stroke and other vascular events have been controversial, but the evidences from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support intensive BP lowering for greater vascular protection, particularly for stroke prevention. For secondary stroke prevention, the evidence of intensive BP lowering benefit is limited since only a single RCT for patients with lacunar infarctions was conducted and most data were driven by exploratory analyses. In acute intracerebral hemorrhage, immediate BP lowering targeting systolic BP<140 mm Hg is recommended by guidelines based on the results from RCTs. In contrast, in acute ischemic stroke, early BP lowering is not usually recommended because of no benefit on functional outcome and future vascular events and potential harm of stroke progression. This review aims to summarize the updated evidence for optimal BP management for primary and secondary stroke prevention and in patients with acute stroke.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior , Stroke , Stroke, Lacunar
16.
Journal of Stroke ; : 304-311, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated blood pressure (BP) is associated with greater severity of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) and increased risk of ischemic stroke. Because little is known about the relationship of maintained BP level with progression of symptomatic ICAS (sICAS), we evaluated the independent association of maintained systolic BP (SBP) with risk of sICAS progression. METHODS: We analyzed the Trial of cilOstazol in Symptomatic intracranial Stenosis 2, which evaluated 402 stroke patients with sICAS (mean age, 64.5±11.3 years; male, 52.2%). Study participants were categorized into four groups according to mean SBP level: low-normal ( < 120 mm Hg), normal to high-normal (120 to 139 mm Hg), high (140 to 159 mm Hg), and very-high (≥160 mm Hg). Progression of sICAS was defined as worsening in the degree of stenosis by ≥1 grade on the 7-month magnetic resonance angiography follow-up. RESULTS: sICAS progression was observed in 52 (12.9%) subjects. Percentages of sICAS progression by mean SBP category showed a J-shape pattern: low-normal (21.4%), normal to high-normal (10.7%), high (11.4%), and very-high (38.9%). In multivariable analysis, compared to the normal to high-normal SBP group, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were low-normal, 1.88 (0.62–5.67); high, 1.06 (0.47–2.37); and very-high, 8.75 (2.57–29.86). Rate of sICAS progression by 10-mm Hg strata showed a similar pattern to findings from mean SBP category (9.47; 2.58–34.73 for SBP ≥160 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with a recent ICAS stroke, very-high SBP level during the short-term period after the index stroke was associated with significantly greater odds of sICAS progression.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Constriction, Pathologic , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Odds Ratio , Stroke
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197555

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction share common risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms. Unrecognized coronary artery disease typically occurs in 20-30% of patients with ischemic stroke, and its presence helps to predict the outcome. Coronary artery disease is also an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with ischemic stroke. Therefore, applying a screening test for asymptomatic coronary artery disease may be considered in ischemic stroke patients who have a high cardiovascular risk profile. Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography, myocardial perfusion imaging, or stress echocardiography can be used as a screening test. Coronary CT angiography is recommended in the absence of allergy to contrast media and renal insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Contrast Media , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Echocardiography, Stress , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Mass Screening , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Renal Insufficiency , Risk Factors , Stroke
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65871

ABSTRACT

Cardioembolic stroke related to atrial fibrillation is problematic due to high recurrence, mortality, and morbidity rates. The optimal anticoagulant therapy therefore needs to be applied to prevent the occurrence of a second stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The oral anticoagulant warfarin has traditionally been used, but it is limited by its narrow efficacy window, complex pharmacokinetics, and multiple drug interactions, thus requiring frequent blood monitoring. New oral anticoagulants have recently been developed that target a specific coagulation component. Dabigatran (a direct thrombin inhibitor) and rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban (inhibitors of factor Xa) have advantages of rapid action time, short half-life, stable plasma concentration, and few drug interactions. Large randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses have recently been published on the efficacy and safety of these new oral anticoagulants. Based on the results obtained in recent clinical trials, we have revised the recommendations for selecting optimal anticoagulant therapy in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation , Dabigatran , Drug Interactions , Half-Life , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Mortality , Pharmacokinetics , Plasma , Recurrence , Rivaroxaban , Secondary Prevention , Stroke , Thrombin , Warfarin
19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 169-178, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113531

ABSTRACT

After recent randomized control trials (RCTs), non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NAOAs) are now widely being used in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) worldwide. However, current guidelines for the use of NOACs in patients with AF are derived mostly using a Caucasian population and non-stroke patients. Relatively few Asian patients with AF and stroke are included in the recent RCTs. As a result, the optimal use of NOACs in this particular group of patients is remains to be settled. The optimal dose of NOACs and response to current dose of NOACs of Asian patients with AF and stroke may differ from those of westerners and patients without stroke. We reviewed available research on NOACs by searching PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov published in English up to December 2015. In this review, the characteristics of Asian AF patients with prior stroke/transient ischemic attack, which might influence the efficacy and safety profiles of NOACs, are discussed. In addition, we summarize the risk factors for bleeding complications on NOACs, which are related or unrelated with the blood level of NOACs. Lastly, we provide recent data of reduced dose of NOACs from RCTs or large cohorts. The results reviewed herein call for clinical trials to test whether a reduced dose of NOACs is beneficial in Asian patients with AF and stroke. In the meantime, further researches are needed to establish the safety and efficacy of dose-adjusted NOACs considering both blood levels of NOACs and fragility of patients in Asian patients with AF and stroke.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Risk Factors , Stroke
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A substantial proportion of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are not treated optimally; however, the inappropriateness of drug therapy has never been evaluated before or after a stroke event. We investigated the adherence to guidelines for therapy in AF patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) before stroke onset and at discharge, with the aim of identifying the factors associated with inappropriate therapy. METHODS: AIS patients with AF hospitalized within 7 days of onset were identified from a prospective nine-center stroke registry database. Two cohorts were defined: patients diagnosed with AF prior to the stroke event (admission cohort) and patients diagnosed with AF at discharge from hospital (discharge cohort). Any of the following conditions were regarded as nonadherence to guidelines in this study: use of anticoagulant or nonuse of antithrombotics with CHADS2 score=0, nonuse of antithrombotics with CHADS2 score=1, or nonuse of anticoagulant with CHADS2 score > or =2. RESULTS: Overall, 406 patients were enrolled in the admission cohort and 518 in the discharge cohort. The rates of nonadherence before a stroke event and at discharge were 77.8% and 33.3%, respectively. These rates varied widely for both cohorts, with interhospital differences being statistically significant. Multivariable analysis revealed that old age, stroke history, and congestive heart failure were associated with nonadherence before stroke. At discharge, males, coronary heart disease, inappropriate antithrombotic use before stroke, and functional disability at discharge were associated with nonadherence. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that antithrombotic use in AIS patients with AF might be not optimal before and after stroke in Korea.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cerebral Infarction , Cohort Studies , Coronary Disease , Drug Therapy , Drug Utilization Review , Guideline Adherence , Heart Failure , Humans , Korea , Male , Morinda , Observational Study , Prospective Studies , Stroke
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