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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874870

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Gastroparesis is identified as a subject that is understudied in Asia. The scientific committee of the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association performed a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices survey on gastroparesis among doctors in Asia. @*Methods@#The questionnaire was created and developed through a literature review of current gastroparesis works of literature by the scientific committee of Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association. @*Results@#A total of 490 doctors from across Asia (including Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam) participated in the survey. Gastroparesis is a significant gastrointestinal condition. However, a substantial proportion of respondents was unable to give the correct definition and accurate diagnostic test. The main reason for lack of interest in diagnosing gastroparesis was “the lack of reliable diagnostic tests” (46.8%) or “a lack of effective treatment” (41.5%). Only 41.7% of respondents had access to gastric emptying scintigraphy. Most doctors had never diagnosed gastroparesis at all (25.2%) or diagnosed fewer than 5 patients a year (52.1%). @*Conclusions@#Gastroparesis can be challenging to diagnose due to the lack of instrument, standardized method, and paucity of research data on normative value, risk factors, and treatment studies in Asian patients. Future strategies should concentrate on how to disseminate the latest knowledge of gastroparesis in Asia. In particular, there is an urgent need to estimate the magnitude of the problems in high risk and idiopathic patients as well as a standardized diagnostic procedure in Asia.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833883

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Adverse early life experiences are associated with the development of stroke, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory and ischemic heart diseases. These negative experiences may also play a role in the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)––a functional gastrointestinal disease. This review discusses the research to date on the parental, perinatal, and childhood risk and protective factors associated with the development of IBS. @*Methods@#A literature search was completed for studies published between 1966 and 2018 that investigated premorbid factors occurring during the perinatal and childhood periods as well as parental factors that were associated with the development of IBS. @*Results@#Twenty-seven studies fulfilled the review criteria. Risk factors that appeared in more than one study included: (1) parental IBS, substance abuse, parental punishment, and rejection as parental risk factors; (2) low birth weight as a perinatal risk factor; and (3) crowded living conditions in low-income families, childhood anxiety, depression, or child abuse as childhood risk factors. Protective factors for IBS were emotional warmth from the parents and being born to an older mother. @*Conclusions@#More effort is needed to identify what fetal and maternal factors are associated with low birth weight and IBS. A well-executed prospective birth cohort with a collection of bio-samples and functional data will provide a better understanding of how adversity and the interplay between genetics, epigenetics, and numerous risk factors affect the development of IBS.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833871

ABSTRACT

During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, practices of gastrointestinal procedures within the digestive tract require special precautions due to the risk of contraction of severe acute respiratoy syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Many procedures in the gastrointestinal motility laboratory may be considered moderate to high-risk for viral transmission. Healthcare staff working in gastrointestinal motility laboratories are frequently exposed to splashes, air droplets, mucus, or saliva during the procedures. Moreover, some are aerosol-generating and thus have a high risk of viral transmission. There are multiple guidelines on the practices of gastrointestinal endoscopy during this pandemic. However, such guidelines are still lacking and urgently needed for the practice of gastrointestinal motility laboratories. Hence, the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association had organized a group of gastrointestinal motility experts and infectious disease specialists to produce a position statement paper based-on current available evidence and consensus opinion with aims to provide a clear guidance on the practices of gastrointestinal motility laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic. This guideline covers a wide range of topics on gastrointestinal motility activities from scheduling a motility test, the precautions at different steps of the procedure to disinfection for the safety and well-being of the patients and the healthcare workers. These practices may vary in different countries depending on the stages of the pandemic, local or institutional policy, and the availability of healthcare resources. This guideline is useful when the transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 is high. It may change rapidly depending on the situation of the epidemic and when new evidence becomes available.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833828

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The relationship between animal exposure and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is debated. Epidemiological studies have shown that atopy is more prevalent in IBS patients and vice versa. We set out to examine the association between animal danders sensitization and IBS-like symptoms in atopic patients. @*Methods@#We recruited 69 consecutive atopic patients from the allergy clinic of a tertiary hospital. Subjects completed validated bowel questionnaires, underwent skin prick test, blood was collected for serum total immunoglobulin E, and ImmunoCAP immune solidphase allergen chip (ISAC) IgE multiplex assay. @*Results@#Twenty-eight (41.0%) atopic patients fulfilled the Rome III IBS criteria (atopy-IBS). There were no differences in gender, age, pet ownership, total serum IgE, or food allergen sensitization between atopy-IBS group and atopy-non-IBS group. We found that atopy- IBS group had significantly higher number of positive skin prick test for cat dander (64.3% vs 24.4%, P < 0.001), dog dander (64.3% vs 41.5%, P = 0.015) and weed pollens (32.1% vs 14.6%, P = 0.050) compared to atopy-non-IBS group. Out of 112 components from 51 allergen sources (both aeroallergen and food allergens), only Fel d1 (a major cat dander antigen) IgE is significantly higher in atopy-IBS group than atopy-non-IBS group (21.4% vs 2.4%, P = 0.029). Majority of atopy-IBS patients had mixed-type IBS. @*Conclusions@#We demonstrated an association between animal danders sensitization, in particular cat dander sensitization, and IBS-like symptoms in atopic patients. Future studies are needed to explore the relationship between aeroallergen and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Sensitization may be related to the pathophysiology of IBS or it could be that we are missing aeroallergen-induced gut allergy.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has risen considerably over the past decade in Singapore. We aim to explore the contribution of changes in diet, lifestyle and habits that may contribute to the increased prevalence and development of IBS. METHODS: This is a survey-based cross-sectional population study aimed to gather demographic, socio-economical, lifestyle, dietary, antibiotic usage and other related information. Subjects were adult male or female Singaporeans aged 21 years or above. Association of the factors gathered with the presence or absence of IBS (by Rome III criteria) was assessed using chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Variables with a level of statistical significance of 0.1 or less in the univariate analysis were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 297 subjects participated in the study (female 60.3%). Overall, 20.9% subjects fulfilled the Rome III IBS criteria. Univariate analysis showed that IBS was associated with pet ownership, antibiotic usage, late dinner, (> 9 PM) and consumption of Western meals, coffee, and bread. The multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IBS was independently associated with being a pet owner (P = 0.008; OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.278–5.037). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of IBS was 20.9% using the Rome III criteria in our study. The association between IBS and pet ownership will need further investigation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bread , Coffee , Diet , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Life Style , Logistic Models , Male , Meals , Ownership , Pets , Prevalence , Singapore
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14532

ABSTRACT

BAome III criteria. METHODS: After EAR3Q was developed by Asian experts by cCKGROUND/AIMS: The development-processes by regional socio-cultural adaptation of an Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q), a cultural adaptation of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire (R3DQ), and its translation-validation in Asian languages are presented. As English is not the first language for most Asians, translation-validation of EAR3Q is essential. Hence, we aimed to culturally adapt the R3DQ to develop EAR3Q and linguistically validate it to show that the EAR3Q is able to allocate diagnosis according to Ronsensus, it was translated into Chinese, Hindi-Telugu, Indonesian, Korean, and Thai, following Rome Foundation guidelines; these were then validated on native subjects (healthy [n = 60], and patients with irritable bowel syndrome [n = 59], functional dyspepsia [n = 53] and functional constipation [n = 61]) diagnosed by clinicians using Rome III criteria, negative alarm features and investigations. RESULTS: Experts noted words for constipation, bloating, fullness and heartburn, posed difficulty. The English back-translated questionnaires demonstrated concordance with the original EAR3Q. Sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaires were high enough to diagnose respective functional gastrointestinal disorders (gold standard: clinical diagnoses) in most except Korean and Indonesian languages. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping functional gastrointestinal disorders. Test-retest agreement (kappa) values of the translated questionnaires were high (0.700-1.000) except in Korean (0.300-0.500) and Indonesian (0.100-0.400) languages at the initial and 2-week follow-up visit. CONCLUSIONS: Though Chinese, Hindi and Telugu translations were performed well, Korean and Indonesian versions were not. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping FGIDs, which were quite common.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asians , Constipation , Diagnosis , Dyspepsia , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Heartburn , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sensitivity and Specificity , Translations
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