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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191123, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394050


Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a problem, often occurs in patient. Inspite of high bioavailability, the demerits such as: hepatic first pass metabolism and invasive nature of oral and parenteral dosage forms can be avoided with anti-emetic therapy of transdermal device. The major objective of the present study is to modify the hydrochloride (HCl) form of Ondansetron (OND) to the base form followed by improvement of solubility and permeability of OND by employing solid dispersion (SD) loaded patches. Preformulation study, as observed, begins with an approach to enthuse solubility of OND by SD technique choosing different carriers. The choice of carriers was rationalized by phase solubility study. Several combinations of transdermal films were prepared with pure drug, carriers and SDs with plasticizer Ka values of OND-HPßCD binary system were found lower (54.43 to 187.57 M-1) than that of OND-PVP K-30 binary system (1156.77 to 12203.6 M-1). The drug content of SDs and patches were found satisfactory. Better permeation rate (236.48±3.66 µg/3.935 cm2) with promising flux enhancement (8.30 fold) was found with DBP loaded SD patch (P6*). Hence, enhancement of solubility and permeability of P6* ensures that it can successfully enhance the bioavailability

Plasticizers/adverse effects , Solubility , Ondansetron/antagonists & inhibitors , Patients/classification , Vomiting , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Dosage Forms , Drug Therapy/instrumentation , Methods , Motion Pictures/classification
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18910, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345454


Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is an issue, which usually occurs in cancer patient. Despite high bioavailability of oral and intravenous administration, these have some drawbacks. The oral route causes hepatic first pass metabolism and intravenous route is invasive in nature. Hence, antiemetic drug by means of transdermal route is necessary to administer in such cases. The aim of the present investigation is to develop suitable Transdermal Therapeutic System (TTS) with an objective to enhance solubility and skin permeability properties of metoclopramide base. Preformulation study begins with an approach to enhance solubility of 40 metoclopramide base by solid dispersion technique. transdermal films were prepared with 41 the solid dispersion as well as with pure drug. Phase solubility study at various temperatures reveals binding constants (Ka, 95-350 M-1 for PVP K30; 56-81 M-1 for HPßCD). Spontaneity of solubilization was justified by AL type linear profiles. The films showed satisfactory diffusion (%), permeation rate and flux after 8 h study. The transdermal patches as prepared were analyzed under FTIR, DSC and SEM. Both solubility and permeability rate in this investigation have been enhanced. So, it can be affirmed that this route would effectively enhance bioavailability

Solubility , Metoclopramide/antagonists & inhibitors , Patients/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Biological Availability , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Diffusion/drug effects , Drug Therapy , Administration, Intravenous/instrumentation , Motion Pictures , Neoplasms/pathology
Indian J Pediatr ; 2006 Sep; 73(9): 795-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-78952


OBJECTIVE: To assess the iodine nutritional status of school children in selected areas of Imphal West District of Manipur where endemic goitre and associated iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are prevalent in the post-salt iodization period. METHODS: A total of 961 school children in the age group 6-12 yrs of both sexes were clinically examined for goiter from three study areas- one from rural block and two from urban areas. One hundred twenty urine samples were analysed for iodine and thiocyanate respectively. One hundred and five edible salt samples were also collected from the households to evaluate the iodine content. Drinking water samples from different sources were collected and iodine level was analysed to study the bioavailability of iodine in the region. RESULTS: The total goiter rate was 34.96% (Grade 1- 32.15%; Grade 2- 2.81%) showing that IDD is a severe public health problem. The median urinary iodine levels in the studied areas were in the ranges from 12.5-17.5 microg/dl indicating no biochemical iodine deficiency in the region. Mean urinary thiocyanate level was 0.839+/-0.33 mg/dl showing that the people consume sufficient foods containing thiocyanate precursors. About 82% salt samples had iodine level more than 30 ppm and the iodine content in salt samples less than 15 ppm was only about 3% indicating the salt samples at house hold contain adequate iodine. CONCLUSION: Iodine content in drinking water samples ranged from 1.8-2.6 microg/l showing that the studied region is environmentally iodine deficient. Inspite of the consumption of adequate iodine, the existing goiter prevalence among school children during post salt iodization phase ensures that environmental factors other than iodine deficiency may have the possible role in the persistence of endemic goiter in the population. The role of thiocyanate in this regard may not be ruled out.

Child , Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Goiter/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Iodine/analysis , Nutritional Status , Prevalence , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/analysis , Thiocyanates/urine , Water/chemistry