Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a medical condition associated with abnormally high levels of glucose (or sugar) in the blood. Keeping this view, we demonstrate the phylogenetic motifs (PMs) identification in type 2 diabetes mellitus very likely corresponding to protein functional sites. In this article, we have identified PMs for all the candidate genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glycine 310 remains conserved for glucokinase and potassium channel KCNJ11. Isoleucine 137 was conserved for insulin receptor and regulatory subunit of a phosphorylating enzyme. Whereas residues valine, leucine, methionine were highly conserved for insulin receptor.Occurrence of proline was very high for calpain 10 gene and glucose transporter.
Subject(s)Amino Acid Motifs/genetics , Binding Sites/genetics , Catalytic Domain/genetics , Conserved Sequence , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/enzymology , Humans , Phylogeny , Predictive Value of Tests , Proteins/genetics , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Menthol is a highly valued monoterpene produced by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) as a natural product with wide applications in cosmetics, confectionery, flavours, beverages and therapeutics. Selection of high menthol yielding genotypes is therefore the ultimate objective of all genetic improvement programmes in Mentha arvensis. A positive correlation was observed in the present study between menthol content in oils of evaluated genotypes and the level of tolerance to externally supplied menthol of explants of these genotypes in culture medium. The easy use of this relationship as a selectable biochemical marker opens the practical applicability of large scale in vitro screening of the germplasm, clones and breeders' material for selection of elite genotypes.
Subject(s)Drug Resistance , Genotype , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Menthol/chemistry , Plant Shoots/drug effects
Plasmids containing Rhizobium meliloti symbiotic promoters P1 (promoter of nifHDK) and P2 (promoter of fixABCX) when mobilized into the cells of Azorhizobium caulinodans strain IRBG 46 showed strong expression of these promoters under free-living microaerobic as well as symbiotic conditions. Under free-living conditions microaerobiosis (3% or less O2) was found to be sufficient to activate these promoters; expression being higher at 1% than at 3% O2 concentration. Under symbiotic conditions the expression was much more stronger-with bacteroids in stem nodules showing higher expression than those in root nodules. Under both the conditions expression of the promoters in the native R. meliloti strain Rm102F34 was lower than that in the A. caulinodans strain IRBG 46. The results suggest a functional homology of these promoters in the heterologous background of A. caulinodans.
Subject(s)Fabaceae/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Nitrogenase/genetics , Oxidoreductases , Plants, Medicinal , Plasmids , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Rhizobium/genetics , Symbiosis
Wide host range vector plasmids pRK290 and pLAFRI carrying genomic fragments of Rhizobium are transferable both ways between R. meliloti and R. leguminosarum cells on the one hand and to E. coli cells on the other, in triparental matings involving E. coli cells carrying pRK2013, the helper for Tra functions to the vector plasmids. The vector plasmids pRK290 and pLAFRI can be employed for recovering clones harbored by R. leguminosarum and R. meliloti by transfer to Rhizobium cells by direct matings of the library with them.