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Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-192001


Background: To improve coverage of key child health community practices, Home Based Infant Care (HBNC+) was implemented with support of Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI) in 4 States of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Odisha. The innovation aimed at improving coverage of key child health interventions through home visits by community health worker, Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA). Aims & Objective: This paper elucidates the results from the assessment of implementation in intervention versus control districts of Rajasthan. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional intervention-control design with a sample size of 3211 mothers of children in age group 0 to 23 months was adopted. Results: 85 percent of the children (aged 3-23 months) received at least one infant care home visit in the intervention districts in comparison to 32 percent in control. Significant improvements were found in terms of exclusive breastfeeding, weighing and Iron Folic Acid (IFA) consumption and availability of ORS and Iron Syrup in intervention districts. 15 percent additional children had weight plotted in growth charts and 24 percent more consumed IFA syrup bi-weekly in intervention districts. Conclusion: Home visits in infancy is a scalable model and can lead to improvement of community child health practices.

Indian J Exp Biol ; 2001 Jan; 39(1): 70-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56038


Lead (100 ppm) was given in doubly deionised water for 30 days to one group of rats. The other groups received lead along with exogenous antioxidants like vitamin E (50 IU/kg), vitamin C (800 mg/kg) or Spirulina (1500 mg/kg) in food for a similar period. Levels of lipid peroxidation products such as malondialdehyde, conjugated diene and hydroperoxide were measured in liver, lung and kidney of treated rats. In lead treated animals there was a significant increase in the levels of these lipid peroxidative products. Administration of exogenous antioxidants in the lead treated animals reduced the levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated diene and hydroperoxide. It indicated that vitamin E, vitamin C and Spirulina had significant (P < 0.001) antioxidant activity thereby protecting the animals from lead induced toxicity.

Animals , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Female , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Lead/pharmacology , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Spirulina , Vitamin E/pharmacology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111677


Epidemic emergencies have shown increasing trend in India and most parts of the country appear to be vulnerable to these emergencies. In this paper we present a profile of epidemic emergencies attended by the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in the last five years, to delineate aspects that will promote better preparedness and management. Water borne and water related disease epidemics constituted more than 70% of the epidemic emergencies in India. Non 01 cholera epidemics constituted one fourth of total cholera epidemics during 1991-95. Most of the hepatitis outbreaks were attributed to Non A Non B. The source of infection in majority of the cholera and jaundice epidemics was contaminated water. Dengue and resistant typhoid fever were among other emergencies reported during last five years. Some of these epidemic were reported to local health authorities as mysterious diseases due to lack of public health laboratory facilities. Encephalitis and encephalitis like epidemics in the form of Liquor poisoning and chronic Heat syndrome encephalopathy were also observed. The re-emerging disease epidemics like plague in Beed, Pneumonic plague in Surat and malaria in Rajasthan were also investigated during 1994. These observations indicate the weakness in the epidemiological and laboratory surveillance besides inadequacy in water management practices and other socio environmental reasons.

Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergencies , Humans , India/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Public Health Administration
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111820


A uniform method of collection is imperative for generating comparable entomological data in connection with studies on efficacy of vector control measures against sandflies. Two commonly employed methods for sandfly collections i.e. hand collection by aspirator and sticky paper traps were compared under similar ecological conditions to determine the optimum time and method for generating data on relevant indices. Only two P. argentipes male specimens were collected at dusk time from 12 cattle sheds and 40 human dwelling by aspirator method. By sticky traps placed in the same resting shelters, 243 P. argentipes and 58 specimens of 5 other species were collected. However, the collection by sticky traps comprised only males and unfed females. In the morning collection by aspirators 268 sandflies of 8 species in all stages of gonotropic cycle were collected. It is concluded that morning collections by aspirator method can provide objective assessment of control measures. Sticky traps may be useful as additional method for confirming presence of P. argentipes in sprayed areas.

Animals , Circadian Rhythm , Female , Insect Control/methods , Male , Psychodidae
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111998


Epidemiological investigation of a focal outbreak of jaundice in the KD block of Pitampura, Delhi during February-March 1992 revealed that 7.0 per cent of the population of the block suffered from viral hepatitis. There was no age or sex predilection. Epidemiological findings and Serological studies suggest that the epidemic was due to Hepatitis E (Enterically transmitted Non A and Non B) virus.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Jaundice/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Seasons , Urban Health , Water Pollution
Indian Heart J ; 1993 Jan-Feb; 45(1): 33-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-4393


The indications for the outcome of use of intraaortic balloon pulsation (IABP) in 66 patients (65 males, 1 female), in addition to the usual conventional medical therapy, are reported here. IABP was used for treatment of cardiogenic shock (5 patients), acute myocardial infarction with rupture of interventricular septum (2 patients), acute myocardial infarction with refractory left ventricular failure (2 patients), resistant ventricular tachyarrhythmias (5 patients), refractory angina (50 patients) and for hypotension following high risk coronary angiography (2 patients). A Datascope 10.5 F percutaneous balloon was inserted in all, mostly using the left femoral artery. Either definitive treatment (coronary artery bypass surgery or coronary angioplasty) was offered when feasible or the balloon was weaned off. Twelve patients underwent coronary angiography on IABP; while 31 patients had undergone the angiography earlier. Surgery was possible in 33 patients with 90% survival rate. The non surgical group showed 30% survival rate. The complications of IABP encountered were: leg ischaemia (2 patients), septicemia (4 patients) and balloon rupture (2 patients). Our experience suggests that percutaneous IABP is a very useful management procedure for seriously sick high risk patients prior to definitive therapy. Patients who could have a definitive treatment while on IABP, especially the group with refractory angina, did best on a short term follow up. Vascular complications are minimal while on IABP.

Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronary Care Units , Counterpulsation/adverse effects , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome