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Experimental Neurobiology ; : 376-388, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832464


ymptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons are accompanied by movement disorders, including tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, and akinesia. Non-human primate (NHP) models with PD play an essential role in the analysis of PD pathophysiology and behavior symptoms. As impairments of hand dexterity function can affect activities of daily living in patients with PD, research on hand dexterity function in NHP models with chronic PD is essential. Traditional rating scales previously used in the evaluation of animal spontaneous behavior were insufficient due to factors related to subjectivity and passivity. Thus, experimentally designed applications for an appropriate apparatus are necessary. In this study, we aimed to longitudinally assess hand dexterity function using hand dexterity task (HDT) in NHP-PD models. To validate this assessment, we analyzed the alteration in Parkinsonian tremor signs and the functionality of presynaptic dopaminergic neuron using positron emission tomography imaging of dopamine transporters in these models. In addition, a significant inverse correlation between HDT and DAT level was identified, but no local bias was found. The correlation with intention tremor signs was lower than the resting tremor. In conclusion, the evaluation of HDT may reflect behavioral symptoms of NHP-PD models. Furthermore, HDT was effectively used to experimentally distinguish intention tremors from other tremors.

Experimental Neurobiology ; : 300-313, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832446


Ischemic stroke results from arterial occlusion and can cause irreversible brain injury. A non-human primate (NHP) model of ischemic stroke was previously developed to investigate its pathophysiology and for efficacy testing of therapeutic candidates; however, fine motor impairment remains to be well-characterized. We evaluated hand motor function in a cynomolgus monkey model of ischemic stroke. Endovascular transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with an angiographic microcatheter induced cerebral infarction. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging mapped and measured the ischemia-induced infarct lesion. In vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the stroke lesion to assess the neuroplastic changes and fiber tractography demonstrated three-dimensional patterns in the corticospinal tract 12 weeks after MCAO. The hand dexterity task (HDT) was used to evaluate fine motor movement of upper extremity digits. The HDT was modified for a home cage-based training system, instead of conventional chair restraint training. The lesion was localized in the middle cerebral artery territory, including the sensorimotor cortex. Maximum infarct volume was exhibited over the first week after MCAO, which progressively inhibited ischemic core expansion, manifested by enhanced functional recovery of the affected hand over 12 weeks after MCAO. The total performance time decreased with increasing success rate for both hands on the HDT. Compensatory strategies and retrieval failure improved in the chronic phase after stroke. Our findings demonstrate the recovery of fine motor skill after stroke, and outline the behavioral characteristics and features of functional disorder of NHP stroke model, providing a basis for assessing hand motor function after stroke.

Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15723


PURPOSE: Ghrelin is the known orexigenic hormone as well as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and has been shown to be related with the regulation of energy homeostasis. To investigate the changes of plasma ghrelin levels in response to weight loss induced by exercise, we measured fasting plasma ghrelin levels in obese and control groups before and after exercise intervention. METHODS: According to body mass index (BMI), total 32 adult women were divided into obese group (n=14, BMI> or =25 kg/m2) and control group (n=18, BMI<25 kg/m2). All subjects underwent weight reduction exercise intervention for 3 months. Before and after exercise, we measured body compositions, serum lipid profiles, serum glucose, plasma ghrelin levels in all subjects. RESULTS: At baseline, the plasma ghrelin levels in obese group were significantly lower than those in the control group. After the exercise intervention, the plasma ghrelin levels increased significantly from 174.8+/-40.8 to 235.9+/-53.1 pg/mL (P<0.05) in obese group and from 244.4+/-42.6 to 276.5+/-45.1 pg/mL (P<0.05) in control group. The changes of plasma ghrelin levels in obese group (38.7+/-30.8 pg/mL) were significantly higher than those of the control group (14.6+/-20.3 pg/mL, P<0.05). However, there was no significant relationship between the changes of plasma ghrelin levels and various parameters in the obese group after exercise. CONCLUSION: In this study, the plasma ghrelin levels in obese adults were significantly increased than those in the control group associated with exercise-induced weight loss. Further studies are needed to establish the precise roles of ghrelin in the regulation of energy homeostasis in obesity.

Adult , Blood Glucose , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Fasting , Female , Ghrelin , Homeostasis , Humans , Obesity , Plasma , Receptors, Ghrelin , Weight Loss
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122453


The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure and energy intake of normal-weight and overweight Korean adults. We recruited 242 adults to determine resting energy expenditure, physical activity and energy intake. Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Energy intake for consecutive two days was assessed by 24 hour recall method. Daily activity pattern for 24 hour was collected from each subject. Body weight, lean body mass and percentage body fat were measured by INBODY 3.0. The subjects were divided into normal (20 or = 25) groups by BMI. There was no significant difference in intake of energy between two groups. Energy intake of each group was lower than the 7th Korean RDA of energy. Overweight subjects showed significantly lower REE/kg body weight. However, REE/kg lean body mass (LBM) did not differ between the two groups. Total activity energy was significantly higher in the overweight group compared to the normal group. Daily activity coefficient of overweight group in male was lower than that of normal group. Daily activity coefficient was almost same in two female groups. LBM was highly correlated with REE and total energy expenditure. We concluded that the overweight group consumed more energy than the normal group due to the heavier body weight.

Adipose Tissue , Adult , Body Weight , Calorimetry, Indirect , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Motor Activity , Overweight
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164947


The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data for revising the recommended energy intake for Korean adults. We recruited 290 adults so as to determine their resting energy expenditure (REE) and energy intake. The REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. We also calculated the REE from prediction equations formulated by World Health Organization (WHO). The energy intake for two consecutive days was assessed using the 24 hour recall method. The body weight, lean body mass (LBM) and percentage body fat were measured using the INBODY 3.0 system. We compared the results of three age groups; 20 to 29 years, 30 to 49 years and 50 years or more. The average energy intake of each age group was below the 7th Korean Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). The average energy intake was lower in the older age groups. However, no difference was observed among the age groups when the energy intake as a percentage of the Korean RDA was compared. Our measurement of the REE was higher than the REE calculated by the WHO's method. Correlation coefficients between the measured and the calculated values of REE for all age groups showed significant correlations (r = 0.475-0.672). As the ages of all the subjects increased, the REE/kg of body weight decreased. There were no significant differences in the REE / kg of the LBM between the different age groups; however, the REE/kg of the LBM was higher in the female group than in the male group. Negative correlations of the REE with the age (r = -0.242) and body fat ratio (r = -0.313) were observed; positive correlations of the REE with the BMI (r = 0.265), height (r = 0.570), weight (r = 0.562) and LBM (r = 0.586) were also found (p < 0.01).

Adipose Tissue , Adult , Body Weight , Calorimetry, Indirect , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Recommended Dietary Allowances , World Health Organization
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195287


A new bioelectrical impedance method has been developed and evaluated. The electrodes; were made of stainless steel and electrical interfaces were created by an upright subject gripping hand electrodes and stepping onto foot electrodes. Eight tactile electrodes were in contact with surfaces of both hands and feet; thumb, palm and fingers, front sole, and rear sole. Automatic on-off switches were used to change current pathways and to measure voltage differences for target segments. Segmental body resistances and whole body resistance(RWHOLE)were measured in 60 healthy subjects. Segmental resistances of right arm(RRA), left arm(RLA), trunk(RT), right leg(RRL) and left leg(RLL)were310.0+/-61.6 omega, 316.9+/-64.6 omega, 25.1+/-3.4 omega, 236.8+/-31.2 omega and 237.6+/-30.4 omega, respectively. Individual segmental impedance indexes(Ht2/RRA, Ht2/RT, and Ht2 /RLA) were closely related to lean body mass(LBM)as measured by densitometry ranged from r=0.925 to 0.960. Ht2/(RRA+RT+RLA) predicted LBM slightly better(r=0.969) than the traditional index, Ht2/RWHOLE(r=0.964), supporting the accuracy of the segmental measurement. A multiple regression equation utilizing Ht2/RRA, Ht2/RT and Ht2/RRL predicted LBM with r=0.971. Ht2/RRA term of the regression contributed to more than 40% of the LBM prediction, indicating that lean mass of arm represented whole body LBM more closely than other body segments. The new bioimpedance method was characterized by upright posture, eight tactile electrodes, segmental measurements and utilization of electronic switches in comparison with the traditional method. The measurement with this new method was extremely reproducible, quick and easy to use.

Adipose Tissue , Arm , Body Composition , Densitometry , Electric Impedance , Electrodes , Fingers , Foot , Hand , Hand Strength , Posture , Stainless Steel , Thumb