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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831248

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate variations in the effects of prehospital advanced airway management (AAM) on outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients according to regional emergency medical service (EMS) systems in four Asian cities. @*Methods@#We enrolled adult patients with EMS-treated OHCA of presumed cardiac origin between 2012 and 2014 from Osaka (Japan), Seoul (Republic of Korea), Singapore (Singapore), and Taipei (Taiwan). The main exposure variable was prehospital AAM. The primary endpoint was neurological recovery. We compared outcomes between the prehospital AAM and non-AAM groups using multivariable logistic regression with an interaction term between prehospital AAM and the four Asian cities. @*Results@#A total of 16,510 patients were included in the final analyses. The rates of prehospital AAM varied among Osaka, Seoul, Singapore, and Taipei (65.0%, 19.2%, 84.9%, and 34.1%, respectively). The non-AAM group showed better outcomes than the AAM group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for neurological recovery 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24–0.38]). In the interaction model for neurological recovery, the aORs for AAM in Osaka and Singapore were 0.12 (95% CI, 0.06–0.26) and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.16–0.28), respectively. In Seoul and Taipei, the association between prehospital AAM and neurological recovery was not significant (aOR 0.58 [95% CI, 0.31–1.10] and 0.79 [95% CI, 0.52–1.20], respectively). The interaction between prehospital AAM and region was significant (P=0.01). @*Conclusion@#The effects of prehospital AAM on outcomes of OHCA patients differed according to regional variability in the EMS systems.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the epidemiological characteristics of bicycle injuries and the wearing of a helmet. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using the emergency department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance data from 2013 to 2016. The study population consisted of patients related to bicycles of all ages. The variables associated with helmet wearing were sex, age, type of location, activity at injury, alcohol use at injury, and time of injury. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the risks of nonuse of helmets. RESULTS: Among the 31,923 eligible patients, 3,304 patients (10.3%) were wearing helmets at the time of the injury. The adjusted logistic regression model showed that females (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.675; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.614–0.742), teenagers (aOR, 0.265; 95% CI, 0.232–0.302), old age (aOR, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.326–0.438), road except for bicycle lanes (aOR, 0.510; 95% CI, 0.467-0.557), leisure (aOR, 0.290; 95% CI, 0.252–0.334) or vital activity (aOR, 0.188; 95% CI, 0.162–0.218) at injury, alcohol use at injury (aOR, 0.329; 95% CI, 0.253–0.427), night time (aOR, 0.609; 95% CI, 0.560–0.663), and winter (aOR 0.734; 95% CI 0.619–0.872) were significantly associated with the nonuse of helmets. CONCLUSION: This study identified the factors associated with helmet use during bicycle riding. Strategies aimed at increasing the use of bicycle helmets targeting the risk population are needed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Bicycling , Emergencies , Female , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Leisure Activities , Logistic Models , Morinda , Observational Study , Odds Ratio
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758436

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the opinions of experts to identify problems and prepare an improvement plan when applying the Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) to pediatric patients in the emergency department. METHODS: The experts comprised 15 researchers at a pediatric emergency center designated by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and research team members of the Korean Society of Pediatric Emergency Medicine. The first survey was an open-ended question about the problems, application results, and remedies of applying KTAS to children through e-mail. The problems were categorized by topic, and degree of agreement was presented using a 9-point Likert scale. RESULTS: In the first survey, 67% of experts participated and 18 problems were identified. In the second survey, 73% of experts participated and eight problems were identified in four categories, validity, reliability, feasibility and other opinions. All experts pointed out that resources were not considered during pediatric triage in the KTAS. Ninety-one percent of experts said that peak expiratory flow rate measurement and Glasgow Coma Scale evaluation were unlikely to be feasible. Moreover, 91% experts were concerned that the triage level could be distorted if KTAS was interlocked with medical costs. Eighty-two percent of the respondents pointed to the high triage result of febrile children and the difference in pain score between the evaluators, etc. CONCLUSION: Based on the problems pointed out by experts and the reality of Korea's emergency departments, it is necessary to consider revision of KTAS for children.


Subject(s)
Child , Delphi Technique , Electronic Mail , Emergencies , Emergency Medicine , Emergency Service, Hospital , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Surveys and Questionnaires , Triage
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714048

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to achieve expert consensus for the development of strategies emergency medical services system (EMSS) after reunification of Korean using the Delphi method. METHODS: The Delphi study was performed through several rounds from January to February in 2017. Experts who have experiences of emergency medical support in North Korea and developing countries participated in the study. Respondents were asked to express their level of agreement following 7 categories: (1) emergency medical manpower, (2) communication system, (3) emergency facilities, (4) patient transfer system, (5) consumer participation and public education, (6) insurance system, (7) disaster planning. Score 1–3 was classified as disagreement, 4–6 as medium agreement, and 7–9 as agreement and consensus was considered being achieved when more than two thirds of respondents agreed in each question. RESULTS: Response rate were 80% in the first round and 75% in the second round. Consensus was achieved in emergency medical manpower, communication system, emergency facilities, patient transfer system, and disaster planning for the important factors immediately after reunification within 5 years. Consensus was achieved in emergency medical manpower, communication system, emergency facilities, patient transfer system, consumer participation and public education, and disaster planning for the prior factors when the reunification would happen rapidly without enough preparation. CONCLUSION: Consensus was achieved in emergency medical manpower, communication system, emergency facilities, patient transfer system, disaster planning for the essential EMSS elements. The consensus was expected to utilize as a basic data for the development of EMSS preparing for reunification.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Community Participation , Delphi Technique , Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Developing Countries , Disaster Planning , Education , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Expert Testimony , Insurance , Korea , Methods , Patient Transfer , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of injuries of school-aged children transported via emergency medical services (EMS) that occurred in schools by comparing with injuries that occurred outside of school. METHODS: Data from the 119 EMS from 2012 to 2014 were analyzed. School and non-school injuries were analyzed in children 6 to 17 years of age. The epidemiologic characteristics were assessed according to school-age groups; low-grade primary (6–8 years), high-grade primary (9–13 years), middle (13–15 years) and high (15–17 years) school. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the risks of school injury in each age group. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 167,104 children with injury were transported via 119 ambulances. Of these injuries, 13.3% occurred at schools. Boys accounted for 76.9% of school injuries and middle school children accounted for a significantly greater proportion (39.6%) of school injuries (P < 0.001). The most frequent mechanisms of injury at school were falls (43.8%). The peak times for school injury occurrence were lunch time (13:00–13:59) in all age groups. Multivariate regression identified the risky age groups as high-grade primary (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.20) and middle school-aged boys (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.74–1.90) and middle school-aged girls (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.21–1.40). CONCLUSION: Notable epidemiologic differences exist between in- and out-of-school injuries. The age groups at risk for school injuries differ by gender.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Ambulances , Child , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Lunch
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Due to their developmental characteristics, adolescents have a higher probability than other age groups of experiencing injuries caused by accidents, violence, and intentional self-harm. The severity and characteristics of injuries vary by the intentionality and mechanism of injury; therefore, there is a need for a national-level estimate of the scale and the severity of injuries in adolescents that takes these factors into account. METHODS: By using data from the Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance Data, National Emergency Department Information System, the Korean National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey, and cause of death statistics, we calculated the emergency department (ED) visit rate, hospitalization rate, and death rate of injuries per 100 000 adolescents for each injury mechanism. The calculated rates were used to generate the injury pyramid ratio (ratio of death rate to hospitalization rate to ED visit rate) to visualize the scale and the severity of the injury. RESULTS: The mortality rate in adolescents due to injury was 10/100 000; the corresponding rates for hospitalization and ED visits were 1623 and 4923, respectively, resulting in an injury pyramid ratio with the general pyramid form, with a 1:162:492 ratio of deaths to hospitalizations to ED visits. The mortality rate due to suicide/intentional self-harm was 5/100 000, while 35 were hospitalized for this reason and 74 made ED visits. The pyramid ratio of 1:7:15 for intentional self-harm/suicide showed a steep pyramidal form, indicating considerable lethality. The mortality rate due to motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) was 3/100 000; 586 were hospitalized for this reason, while 1023 made ED visits. The pyramid ratio of 1:195:341 for MVCs showed a gradual pyramid form, indicating that the lethality was low and the scale of injury was high. CONCLUSIONS: The main categories of injuries in adolescents were visualized in pyramid form, contributing to an understanding of the scale of each injury by mechanism in terms of levels of death, hospitalization, and ED visits. These findings will be helpful for understanding how to prioritize injuries in adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Cause of Death , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Information Systems , Intention , Mortality , Motor Vehicles , Violence
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222543

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Critical care transport (CCT) has been known to be beneficial for inter-hospital transport of critically ill patients. Seoul Mobile Intensive Care Unit (SMICU) has been established and provided CCT in Seoul Metropolitan City since 2015. We tested the association between SMICU transport and hospital outcome for critically ill patients. METHODS: This is a before and after intervention study. SMICU group with cardiac arrest, acute myocardial infarction, acute stroke, major trauma, respiratory failure, and shock who were transported by SMICU from January to July 2016 were collected as an intervention group. Non-SMICU group with the same above diagnosis criteria who were transported by private ambulance services during same period in 2015. By National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS), demographics were compared for original data and sampling data. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Total 1,837 patients (128 SMICU and 1,709 non-SMICU group) for original dataset and 180 patients (60 SMICU and 120 non-SMICU group) for sampling dataset were finally analyzed. Hospital mortality rates are 22.7% in SMICU and 11.8% in non-SMICU in original dataset (p<0.001), 26.7% in SMICU and 31.7% in non-SMICU in sampling dataset (p=0.490), respectively. AOR (95% CIs) for hospital mortality by SMICU in original and sampling dataset were 0.80 (0.48-1.35) and 0.71 (0.33-1.51), respectively. CONCLUSION: The CCT for critically ill patients did not show significantly better hospital mortality in the pilot study.


Subject(s)
Ambulances , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Dataset , Demography , Diagnosis , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Heart Arrest , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Information Systems , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Odds Ratio , Pilot Projects , Respiratory Insufficiency , Seoul , Shock , Stroke , Transportation of Patients
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218578

ABSTRACT

The time between symptom onset and arrival at an emergency department (ED) (S2D) is a crucial time for optimal intravenous reperfusion care for ischemic stroke. We aimed to analyze the effect of emergency medical services (EMS) utilization and inter-hospital transfer on S2D in Korea. Ischemic stroke patients were prospectively enrolled from November 2007 to December 2012 in 23 tertiary and teaching hospital EDs in Korea. Of 31,443 adult ischemic stroke patients, 20,780 were categorized into 4 groups based on modes of EMS utilization and inter-hospital transfer: direct transport to destination ED by EMS (EMS direct; n=6,257, 30.1%), transfer after transport to another ED by EMS (EMS indirect; n=754, 3.6%), direct transport to the ED without using EMS (non-EMS direct; n=8,928, 43.0%), and transfer after visiting another hospital without using EMS (non-EMS indirect; n=4,841, 23.3%). Our primary outcome variable was of S2D within 2 hr (S2D < or =2 hr) and found that 30.8% of all patients and 52.3%, 16.4%, 25.9%, and 13.9% of EMS direct, EMS indirect, non-EMS direct, and non-EMS indirect, respectively, achieved S2D < or =2 hr. Adjusted odds ratio for S2D < or =2 hr were 6.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.94-7.24), 2.27 (95% CI, 2.06-2.50), and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.87-1.33) for EMS direct, non-EMS direct, and EMS indirect, respectively. Patients directly transported to destination hospitals by the EMS show the highest proportion of therapeutic time window for optimal care in ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Aged , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Republic of Korea , Stroke/diagnosis , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160731

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Many patients who may be treated in primary care clinics resort to emergency centers during the off hours of such clinics. This may cause overcrowding of emergency centers and increased medical expenses. The aim of this study is to consider the optimal management of medical facilities for pediatric patients at night or on holidays. METHODS: The medical records of patients under the age of 16 years who had visited a pediatric emergency medical center during a two-year period between January 2012 and December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. We examined how factors including the age group, disease/injury distinction, tentative diagnosis, use of the emergency medical service ambulances, and the final disposition of the patients varied depending on the availability of medical facilities. RESULTS: Among the 32,951 pediatric patients, approximately half visited the center on holidays (51.6%), and a quarter were injury patients (26.4%). Fever (38.8%) and head injury (16.1%) were the most frequent tentative diagnosis in diseases and injuries, respectively. More visits of infants and toddlers and disease patients occurred on days and hours of low medical service availability, and there were relatively few injury patients in the late night hours. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that closing pediatric clinics around midnight is reasonable. More facilities operating at night and on holidays for pediatric patients are needed.


Subject(s)
Ambulances , Craniocerebral Trauma , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Epidemiology , Fever , Health Resorts , Holidays , Humans , Infant , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143612

ABSTRACT

In this study, we evaluated national differences in emergency department (ED) crowding to identify factors significantly associated with crowding in institutes and communities across Korea. This was a cross-sectional nationwide observational study using data abstracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). We calculated mean occupancy rates to quantify ED crowding status and divided EDs into three groups according to their occupancy rates (cutoffs: 0.5 and 1.0). Factors potentially related to ED crowding were collected from the NEDIS. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables significantly associated with ED crowding. A total of 120 EDs were included in the final analysis. Of these, 73 were categorized as 'low crowded' (LC, occupancy rate < 0.50), 37 as 'middle crowded' (MC, 0.50 ≤ occupancy rate < 1.00), 10 EDs as 'high crowded' (HC, 1.00 ≤ occupancy rate). The mean ED occupancy rate varied widely, from 0.06 to 2.33. The median value was 0.39 with interquartile ranges (IQRs) from 0.20 to 0.71. Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment, ED crowding was significantly associated with the number of visits, percentage of patients referred, number of nurses, and ED disposition. This nationwide study observed significant variety in ED crowding. Several input, throughput, and output factors were associated with crowding.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases, Factual , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea , Young Adult
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143602

ABSTRACT

In this study, we evaluated national differences in emergency department (ED) crowding to identify factors significantly associated with crowding in institutes and communities across Korea. This was a cross-sectional nationwide observational study using data abstracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). We calculated mean occupancy rates to quantify ED crowding status and divided EDs into three groups according to their occupancy rates (cutoffs: 0.5 and 1.0). Factors potentially related to ED crowding were collected from the NEDIS. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables significantly associated with ED crowding. A total of 120 EDs were included in the final analysis. Of these, 73 were categorized as 'low crowded' (LC, occupancy rate < 0.50), 37 as 'middle crowded' (MC, 0.50 ≤ occupancy rate < 1.00), 10 EDs as 'high crowded' (HC, 1.00 ≤ occupancy rate). The mean ED occupancy rate varied widely, from 0.06 to 2.33. The median value was 0.39 with interquartile ranges (IQRs) from 0.20 to 0.71. Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment, ED crowding was significantly associated with the number of visits, percentage of patients referred, number of nurses, and ED disposition. This nationwide study observed significant variety in ED crowding. Several input, throughput, and output factors were associated with crowding.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases, Factual , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea , Young Adult
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68480

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between coronary angiography (CAG) with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the survival outcome of patients successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: We used the Cardiac Arrest Pursuit Trial with Unique Registration and Epidemiological Surveillance database, which is out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cohort of 27 emergency departments in Korea, between February 2014 and January 2015. The inclusion criteria were all OHCA patients who receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation in an emergency department and return of spontaneous circulation. Univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis were conducted to assess the associations between CAG and outcomes (favorable neurological outcome and survival-to-discharge). Moreover, similar analysis was conducted between PCI and no-PCI subgroups within the CAG group. RESULTS: Of the 1,616 patients, 707 patients were return of spontaneous circulation. The number of patients who conducted CAG was 204 (28.9%) and the number of patients who conducted PCI was 75 (10.6%). In OHCA patients, the CAG group had a more significant good survival discharge outcome with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.64-8.05) and good neurologic outcomes with an OR of 7.82 (95% CI, 4.37-14.00). In CAG patients, the PCI group had no significant relationship with survival discharge with an OR of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.36-2.70) and with neurologic outcomes with an OR of 1.15 (95% CI, 0.46-2.88) compared with no PCI group. CONCLUSION: In OHCA patients, the CAG group had a more significant good prognosis (survival discharge rate and good neurologic outcomes) compared with the no-CAG group. In CAG patients, the PCI group had no significant association with good prognosis compared with the no-PCI group.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Cohort Studies , Coronary Angiography , Emergency Service, Hospital , Heart Arrest , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prognosis
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223871

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The environment of traffic accident sites could affect the outcomes of injured patients during emergency care. The goal of this investigation is to assess the association between the road type during motor vehicle collision and mortality or disability of severe trauma patients. METHODS: We used an emergency medical service based on severe trauma database operated by the Korean Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The database collected information on injured patients with abnormal prehospital revised trauma score transported by fire department during 2012 in 6 provinces of South Korea. Among the cases collected, we distinguished between drivers and passengers of motor vehicle collision. We divided the road types into two categories: highway and non-highway. We collected the demographics, injury related information, prehospital indicator, and clinical outcome. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcome was disability. We assessed the association using a multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: During the study period, 1,122 cases with 131 highway types and 991 non-highway types were analyzed. Patients in the highway type showed delayed time of arrival at the scene from EMS activation and delayed hospital arrival from departing the scene. Hospital mortality was higher in the highway group (43.5% vs 31.6%, p<0.05). According to multiple logistic regression, the highway group showed higher mortality (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.26-2.75). Higher proportion of disability was also associated with the highway group (OR 1.53, CI 1.04-2.25). CONCLUSION: We assessed the association of road type and clinical outcome of patients injured due to traffic accident. Cases associated with the highway type were showed 1.86 times higher mortality and 1.53 times higher disability compared with the non-highway type.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Ambulances , Demography , Disability Evaluation , Emergency Medical Services , Fires , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Mortality , Motor Vehicles
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643741

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10th edition injury code-based disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to measure the burden of specific injuries. METHODS: Three independent panels used novel methods to score disability weights (DWs) of 130 indicator codes sampled from 1,284 ICD injury codes. The DWs were interpolated into the remaining injury codes (n=1,154) to estimate DWs for all ICD injury codes. The reliability of the estimated DWs was evaluated using the test-retest method. We calculated ICD-DALYs for individual injury episodes using the DWs from the Korean National Hospital Discharge Injury Survey (HDIS, n=23,160 of 2004) database and compared them with DALY based on a global burden of disease study (GBD-DALY) regarding validation, correlation, and agreement for 32 injury categories. RESULTS: Using 130 ICD 10th edition injury indicator codes, three panels determined the DWs using the highest reliability (person trade-off 1, Spearman r=0.724, 0.788, and 0.875 for the three panel groups). The test-retest results for the reliability were excellent (Spearman r=0.932) (P<0.001). The HDIS database revealed injury burden (years) as follows: GBD-DALY (138,548), GBD-years of life disabled (130,481), and GBD-years of life lost (8,117) versus ICD-DALY (262,246), ICD-years of life disabled (255,710), and ICD-years of life lost (6,537), respectively. Spearman’s correlation coefficient of the DALYs between the two methods was 0.759 (P<0.001), and the Bland-Altman test displayed an acceptable agreement, with exception of two categories among 32 injury groups. CONCLUSION: The ICD-DALY was developed to calculate the burden of injury for all injury codes and was validated with the GBD-DALY. The ICD-DALY was higher than the GBD-DALY but showed acceptable agreement.


Subject(s)
International Classification of Diseases , Methods , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Weights and Measures , Wounds and Injuries
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24777

ABSTRACT

The shock index (SI), modified shock index (MSI), and age multiplied by SI (Age SI) are used to assess the severity and predict the mortality of trauma patients, but their validity for geriatric patients is controversial. The purpose of this investigation was to assess predictive value of the SI, MSI, and Age SI for geriatric trauma patients. We used the Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS), which has data from 20 EDs across Korea. Patients older than 65 years who had traumatic injuries from January 2008 to December 2013 were enrolled. We compared in-hospital and ED mortality of groups categorized as stable and unstable according to indexes. We also assessed their predictive power of each index by calculating the area under the each receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. A total of 45,880 cases were included. The percentage of cases classified as unstable was greater among non-survivors than survivors for the SI (36.6% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.001), the MSI (38.6% vs. 2.2%, P < 0.001), and the Age SI (69.4% vs. 21.3%, P < 0.001). Non-survivors had higher median values than survivors on the SI (0.84 vs. 0.57, P < 0.001), MSI (0.79 vs. 1.14, P < 0.001), and Age SI (64.0 vs. 41.5, P < 0.001). The predictive power of the Age SI for in-hospital mortality was higher than SI (AUROC: 0.740 vs. 0.674, P < 0.001) or MSI (0.682, P < 0.001) in geriatric trauma patients.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Geriatrics , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Korea , Mortality , ROC Curve , Shock , Survivors
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115327

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A trauma protocol for transport bypassing hospital for severe trauma patients was developed and implemented in Korea in 2012 using the field triage decision scheme of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of US. The aim of this study is to evaluate the compliance with the protocol in severe trauma between metropolitan versus non-metropolitan area. METHODS: Severe trauma patients were identified by the new protocol and collected from a trauma registry and EMS run sheet in one metropolitan and one non-metropolitan province from October 2012 (one month). Data variables included demographic, clinical information on vital signs and mental status, injury related variables like mechanisms, geographic information on place of the event, and distance to nearest, bypassed, and destination hospitals. Exposures are metropolitan versus non-metropolitan ambulances defined. Study end point was compliance-direct transport (C-DT), compliance-bypassing transport (C-BT), violation-non-bypassing transport (V-NT), and violation-bypassing transport (V-BT). The protocol violation with number of V-NT and V-BT divided by number of eligible patients were compared between metropolitan and non-metropolitan ambulances. RESULTS: Of the 863 patients with severe trauma were identified by the protocol. No statistical difference in demographics and clinical parameters except injury mechanism and distance to destination hospital. Between metropolitan versus non-metropolitan area. The C-DT, C-BT, V-NT, and V-BT were 27.4%, 18.5%, 20.2%, and 33.4% respectively. V-NT rate was significantly lower in metropolitan than in nonmetropolitan (8.2% versus 30.6%, p=0.001), while V-BT rate was significantly higher in metropolitan than in non-metropolitan (46.2% versus 23.3%, p=0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: Protocol violation rates were significantly different in non-bypassing and inappropriate bypassing to hospital between metropolitan versus non-metropolitan ambulances when using the bypassing hospital trauma protocol.


Subject(s)
Ambulances , Compliance , Demography , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Korea , Multiple Trauma , Transportation , Triage , Vital Signs
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115318

ABSTRACT

The use of concept of 'chain of survival' in American Heart Association has been published (proposed) for improving outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. We reported on two resuscitated OHCA cases whose 'chain of survival' were successfully linked. In particular, we presented process and time intervals of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction which have never been reported in Korea. These witnessed OHCA patients received bystander CPR instructed by dispatchers working in the 119 dispatch center. Automated external defibrillation was immediately attached and shocks were delivered effectively several times by 119 rescuers in the field. These patients were rapidly transported to regional emergency centers. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved prior to arrival at hospital. Post-resuscitation care included therapeutic hypothermia or primary coronary intervention was performed after admission. These patients were discharged alive with good neurologic outcome. Comprehensive efforts of community, pre-hospital healthcare providers including dispatchers and hospitals are needed for successful linkage of 'chain of survival' in OHCA.


Subject(s)
American Heart Association , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergencies , Health Personnel , Humans , Hypothermia , Korea , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Shock , Telephone
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139395

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the chief complaint addressing seizure in 119 run-sheets and to estimate the frequency of recommended administration of prehospital anti-convulsants. METHODS: A retrospective medical review of the period from 1 January, 2007 to 1 December, 2012 at one university hospital was conducted. Patients who were transported by 119 ambulance and whose chief complaint addressing seizure were enrolled. Medical records were independently reviewed by two emergency physicians. The reliability was analyzed according to the level of prehospital providers. prehospital providers. The operational definition of prehospital status epilepticus was cases with prolonged (lasting five minutes or more) or repetitive generalized convulsive seizures and seizure witnessed by 119 providers or persistent seizure at the time of arrival at the hospital. RESULTS: Among 239 medical records, 188(78.7%) cases with seizure were identified. The reliability was increased when level I emergency medical technicians were staffed(90.6% vs 74.3%). Psychiatric disorders(4.6%) and hyperventilation syndrome(3.8%) were frequently confused with seizure. Prehospital anti-convulsants were recommended in 15 cases(6.3%). CONCLUSION: Chief complaints addressing seizure by 119 prehospital providers were reliable. Not only rarity of prehospital status epilepticus but also other medical and legal barriers should be considered in regard to the possibility of prehospital anti-convulsant administration.


Subject(s)
Ambulances , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Medical Technicians , Humans , Hyperventilation , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Status Epilepticus
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139390

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the chief complaint addressing seizure in 119 run-sheets and to estimate the frequency of recommended administration of prehospital anti-convulsants. METHODS: A retrospective medical review of the period from 1 January, 2007 to 1 December, 2012 at one university hospital was conducted. Patients who were transported by 119 ambulance and whose chief complaint addressing seizure were enrolled. Medical records were independently reviewed by two emergency physicians. The reliability was analyzed according to the level of prehospital providers. prehospital providers. The operational definition of prehospital status epilepticus was cases with prolonged (lasting five minutes or more) or repetitive generalized convulsive seizures and seizure witnessed by 119 providers or persistent seizure at the time of arrival at the hospital. RESULTS: Among 239 medical records, 188(78.7%) cases with seizure were identified. The reliability was increased when level I emergency medical technicians were staffed(90.6% vs 74.3%). Psychiatric disorders(4.6%) and hyperventilation syndrome(3.8%) were frequently confused with seizure. Prehospital anti-convulsants were recommended in 15 cases(6.3%). CONCLUSION: Chief complaints addressing seizure by 119 prehospital providers were reliable. Not only rarity of prehospital status epilepticus but also other medical and legal barriers should be considered in regard to the possibility of prehospital anti-convulsant administration.


Subject(s)
Ambulances , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Medical Technicians , Humans , Hyperventilation , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Status Epilepticus
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62937

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Inter-hospital transport poses a number of challenging issues, including prolonging the time interval from symptoms to optimal reperfusion therapy after ischemic stroke. It is unclear whether urbanization is associated with outcomes of inter-hospital transfer including length of stay at the referring hospital (D1LOS). METHODS: A prospective stroke registry from 23 Emergency Departments (ED) from 2007 to 2012 over the nation was collected. Ischemic stroke patients who arrived at the first ED within 24 hours of onset (S2D1) were enrolled. Patients were excluded if time intervals or address were incorrect or missing. Main exposure was urbanization level; urban > or =10,000 and rural <10,000 population. Primary outcome was D1LOS. The secondary outcomes were symptoms to door of the first ED (S2D1) and transfer time to the final ED (T2D2). We compared the D1LOS, S2D1, and T2D2 with median and inter-quartile range (IQR) by urbanization level. RESULTS: Of 5,909 patients transferred from other hospitals, 2,289 patients were analyzed; 1,441 (63%) patients in urban areas, 848 (37%) patients in rural areas were included. The D1LOS and S2D1 in urban was longer than those in rural; 100 minutes (IQR 50~208) for urban VS 82.5 minutes (IQR 48~170.5) for rural (p=0.01) and 66 minutes (IQR 30~240) for urban VS 90 minutes (IQR 30~330) for rural (p=0.001). T2D2 in urban was shorter than that in rural; 54 minutes (IQR 36~78), 40 minutes (IQR 25~65) (p< or =0.00), respectively. CONCLUSION: Urban EDs showed longer D1LOS before transferring patients to the hospital for definite care. Strategy for reducing delay due to inter-hospital transport should differ according to urbanization.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Length of Stay , Patient Transfer , Reperfusion , Stroke , Urbanization
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