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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903721

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Studies on the effectiveness of public health measures to prevent respiratory virus transmission in real-world settings are lacking. We investigated the effectiveness of universal mask use and adherence to other personal preventive measures on the changing viral respiratory infection patterns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#Data were extracted from the South Korean National Respiratory Virus Sentinel Surveillance System. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a cross-sectional survey on adherence to personal preventive measures was conducted. Additionally, the number of subway passengers was analyzed to estimate physical distancing compliance. @*Results@#During the pandemic, adherence to personal preventive measures significantly increased, particularly indoors and on public transportation. Respiratory virus trends were compared based on laboratory surveillance data of 47,675 patients with acute respiratory infections (2016 to 2020). The 2019 to 2020 influenza epidemic ended within 3 weeks, from the epidemic peak to the epidemic end, quickly ending the inf luenza season; with a 1.8- to 2.5-fold faster decline than in previous seasons. Previously, the overall respiratory virus positivity rate remained high after the influenza seasons had ended (47.7% to 69.9%). During the COVID-19 pandemic, this positive rate, 26.5%, was significantly lower than those in previous years. Hospital-based surveillance showed a decreased number of hospitalized patients with acute viral respiratory illnesses. @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that high compliance to the use of personal preventive measures in public might reduce the incidence of all respiratory virus infections and its hospitalization rates, with no additional quarantine, isolation, or contact screening.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903711

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) less than 0.7 using spirometry is the golden standard to diagnose airf low limitation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently, measuring FEV6 has been suggested as an alternative to measure FVC. Studies about the cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 to diagnose airflow limitation have shown variable results, with values between 0.7 and 0.8. The purpose of this study was to determine the best cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 to detect airflow limitation using handheld spirometry. @*Methods@#We recruited subjects over 40 years of age with smoking history over 10 pack-years. Participants underwent measurements with both handheld spirometry and conventional spirometry. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the value of FEV1/FEV6 using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to obtain the diagnostic accuracy of handheld spirometry to detect airflow limitation. @*Results@#A total of 290 subjects were enrolled. Their mean age and smoking amount were 63.1 years and 31.6 pack-years, respectively. According to our ROC curve analysis, when FEV1/FEV6 ratio was 73%, sensitivity and specificity were the maximum and the area under the ROC curve was 0.93, showing an excellent diagnostic accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 86.7%, 89.7%, 88.0%, and 88.5%, respectively. Participants with FEV1/FEV6 ≤ 73% had lower FEV1 predicted value compared to those with FEV1/FEV6 > 73% (65.4% vs. 86.5%, p < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#In summary, we demonstrate that the value of 73% in FEV1/FEV6 using handheld spirometry has the best sensitivity and specificity to detect airflow limitation in subjects with risk of COPD.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896017

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Studies on the effectiveness of public health measures to prevent respiratory virus transmission in real-world settings are lacking. We investigated the effectiveness of universal mask use and adherence to other personal preventive measures on the changing viral respiratory infection patterns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#Data were extracted from the South Korean National Respiratory Virus Sentinel Surveillance System. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a cross-sectional survey on adherence to personal preventive measures was conducted. Additionally, the number of subway passengers was analyzed to estimate physical distancing compliance. @*Results@#During the pandemic, adherence to personal preventive measures significantly increased, particularly indoors and on public transportation. Respiratory virus trends were compared based on laboratory surveillance data of 47,675 patients with acute respiratory infections (2016 to 2020). The 2019 to 2020 influenza epidemic ended within 3 weeks, from the epidemic peak to the epidemic end, quickly ending the inf luenza season; with a 1.8- to 2.5-fold faster decline than in previous seasons. Previously, the overall respiratory virus positivity rate remained high after the influenza seasons had ended (47.7% to 69.9%). During the COVID-19 pandemic, this positive rate, 26.5%, was significantly lower than those in previous years. Hospital-based surveillance showed a decreased number of hospitalized patients with acute viral respiratory illnesses. @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that high compliance to the use of personal preventive measures in public might reduce the incidence of all respiratory virus infections and its hospitalization rates, with no additional quarantine, isolation, or contact screening.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896007

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) less than 0.7 using spirometry is the golden standard to diagnose airf low limitation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently, measuring FEV6 has been suggested as an alternative to measure FVC. Studies about the cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 to diagnose airflow limitation have shown variable results, with values between 0.7 and 0.8. The purpose of this study was to determine the best cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 to detect airflow limitation using handheld spirometry. @*Methods@#We recruited subjects over 40 years of age with smoking history over 10 pack-years. Participants underwent measurements with both handheld spirometry and conventional spirometry. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the value of FEV1/FEV6 using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to obtain the diagnostic accuracy of handheld spirometry to detect airflow limitation. @*Results@#A total of 290 subjects were enrolled. Their mean age and smoking amount were 63.1 years and 31.6 pack-years, respectively. According to our ROC curve analysis, when FEV1/FEV6 ratio was 73%, sensitivity and specificity were the maximum and the area under the ROC curve was 0.93, showing an excellent diagnostic accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 86.7%, 89.7%, 88.0%, and 88.5%, respectively. Participants with FEV1/FEV6 ≤ 73% had lower FEV1 predicted value compared to those with FEV1/FEV6 > 73% (65.4% vs. 86.5%, p < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#In summary, we demonstrate that the value of 73% in FEV1/FEV6 using handheld spirometry has the best sensitivity and specificity to detect airflow limitation in subjects with risk of COPD.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875545

ABSTRACT

Background@#Many chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients receiving monotherapy continue to experience symptoms, exacerbations and poor quality of life. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of direct switch from once-daily tiotropium (TIO) 18 μg to indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) 110/50 μg once-daily in COPD patients in Korea. @*Methods@#This was a randomized, open-label, parallel group, 12-week trial in mild-to-moderate COPD patients who received TIO 18 μg once-daily for ≥12 weeks prior to study initiation. Patients aged ≥40 years, with predicted postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ≥50%, post-bronchodilator FEV1/forced vital capacity <0.7 and smoking history of ≥10 pack-years were included. Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either IND/GLY or TIO. The primary objective was to demonstrate superiority of IND/GLY over TIO in pre-dose trough FEV1 at week 12. Secondary endpoints included transition dyspnea index (TDI) focal score, COPD assessment test (CAT) total score, and rescue medication use following the 12-week treatment, and safety assessment. @*Results@#Of the 442 patients screened, 379 were randomized and 347 completed the study. IND/GLY demonstrated superiority in pre-dose trough FEV1 versus TIO at week 12 (least squares mean treatment difference [Δ], 50 mL; p=0.013). Also, numerical improvements were observed with IND/GLY in the TDI focal score (Δ, 0.31), CAT total score (Δ, –0.81), and rescue medication use (Δ, –0.09 puffs/day). Both treatments were well tolerated by patients. @*Conclusion@#A direct switch from TIO to IND/GLY provided improvements in lung function and other patient-reported outcomes with an acceptable safety profile in patients with mild-to-moderate airflow limitation.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic cough is defined as a cough lasting more than 8 weeks and socio-economic burden of chronic cough is enormous. The characteristics of chronic cough in Korea are not well understood. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) published guidelines on cough management in 2014. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics of chronic cough in Korea and the efficacy of the KATRD guidelines.@*METHODS@#This was a multi-center, retrospective observational study conducted in Korea. The participants were over 18 years of age. They had coughs lasting more than 8 weeks. Subjects with current pulmonary diseases, smokers, ex-smokers with more than 10 pack-years or who quit within the past 1 year, pregnant women, and users of cough-inducing medications were excluded. Evaluation and management of cough followed the KATRD cough-management guidelines.@*RESULTS@#Participants with chronic cough in Korea showed age in the late forties and cough duration of more than 1 year. Upper airway cough syndrome was the most common cause of cough, followed by cough-variant asthma (CVA). Gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and eosinophilic bronchitis were less frequently observed. Following the KATRD cough-management guidelines, 91.2% of the subjects improved after 4 weeks of treatment. Responders were younger, had a longer duration of cough, and an initial impression of CVA. In univariate and multivariate analyses, an initial impression of CVA was the only factor related to better treatment response.@*CONCLUSION@#The causes of chronic cough in Korea differed from those reported in other countries. The current Korean guidelines proved efficient for treating Korean patients with chronic cough.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is regarded as a potential biomarker for identifying eosinophilic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the clinical implication of FeNO and its influence on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) prescription rate in Korean chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.@*METHODS@#FeNO level and its association with clinical features were analyzed. Changes in the prescription rate of ICS before and after FeNO measurement were identified.@*RESULTS@#A total of 160 COPD patients were divided into increased (≥25 parts per billion [ppb], n=74) and normal (<25 ppb, n=86) FeNO groups according to the recommendations from the American Thoracic Society. Compared with the normal FeNO group, the adjusted odds ratio for having history of asthma without wheezing and with wheezing in the increased FeNO group were 2.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–6.29) and 4.24 (95% CI, 1.37–13.08), respectively. Only 21 out of 74 patients (28.4%) with increased FeNO prescribed ICS-containing inhaler and 18 of 86 patients (20.9%) with normal FeNO were given ICS-containing inhaler. Previous exacerbation, asthma, and wheezing were the major factors to maintain ICS at normal FeNO level and not to initiate ICS at increased FeNO level.@*CONCLUSION@#Increased FeNO was associated with the history of asthma irrespective of wheezing. However, FeNO seemed to play a subsidiary role in the use of ICS-containing inhalers in real-world clinics, which was determined with prior exacerbation and clinical features suggesting Th2 inflammation.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896607

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Cold air is a major environmental factor that exacerbates asthma. Transient receptor potential melastatin family member 8 (TRPM8) is a cold-sensing channel expressed in the airway epithelium. However, its role in airway inflammation remains unknown. We investigated the role of TRPM8 in innate immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells and asthmatic subjects. @*Methods@#The TRPM8 mRNA and protein expression on BEAS2B human bronchial epithelial cells was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. Additionally, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-25 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels before and after menthol, dexamethasone and N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide (BCTC) treatments were measured via real-time PCR. TRPM8 protein levels in the supernatants of induced sputum from asthmatic subjects and normal control subjects were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mRNA levels in sputum cell lysates were measured using real-time PCR. @*Results@#Treatment with up to 2 mM menthol dose-dependently increased TRPM8 mRNA and protein in BEAS2B cells compared to untreated cells (P < 0.001) and concomitantly increased IL-25 and TSLP mRNA (P < 0.05), but not IL-33 mRNA. BCTC (10 μM) significantly abolished menthol-induced up-regulation of TRPM8 mRNA and protein and IL-25 and TSLP mRNA (P < 0.01). TRPM8 protein levels were higher in the supernatants of induced sputum from asthmatic subjects (n = 107) than in those from healthy controls (n = 19) (P < 0.001), and IL-25, TSLP and IL-33 mRNA levels were concomitantly increased (P < 0.001). Additionally, TRPM8 mRNA levels correlated strongly with those of IL-25 and TSLP (P < 0.001), and TRPM8 protein levels were significantly higher in bronchodilator-responsive asthmatic subjects than in nonresponders. @*Conclusions@#TRPM8 may be involved in the airway epithelial cell innate immune response and a molecular target for the treatment of asthma.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic cough is defined as a cough lasting more than 8 weeks and socio-economic burden of chronic cough is enormous. The characteristics of chronic cough in Korea are not well understood. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) published guidelines on cough management in 2014. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics of chronic cough in Korea and the efficacy of the KATRD guidelines.@*METHODS@#This was a multi-center, retrospective observational study conducted in Korea. The participants were over 18 years of age. They had coughs lasting more than 8 weeks. Subjects with current pulmonary diseases, smokers, ex-smokers with more than 10 pack-years or who quit within the past 1 year, pregnant women, and users of cough-inducing medications were excluded. Evaluation and management of cough followed the KATRD cough-management guidelines.@*RESULTS@#Participants with chronic cough in Korea showed age in the late forties and cough duration of more than 1 year. Upper airway cough syndrome was the most common cause of cough, followed by cough-variant asthma (CVA). Gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and eosinophilic bronchitis were less frequently observed. Following the KATRD cough-management guidelines, 91.2% of the subjects improved after 4 weeks of treatment. Responders were younger, had a longer duration of cough, and an initial impression of CVA. In univariate and multivariate analyses, an initial impression of CVA was the only factor related to better treatment response.@*CONCLUSION@#The causes of chronic cough in Korea differed from those reported in other countries. The current Korean guidelines proved efficient for treating Korean patients with chronic cough.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is regarded as a potential biomarker for identifying eosinophilic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the clinical implication of FeNO and its influence on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) prescription rate in Korean chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.@*METHODS@#FeNO level and its association with clinical features were analyzed. Changes in the prescription rate of ICS before and after FeNO measurement were identified.@*RESULTS@#A total of 160 COPD patients were divided into increased (≥25 parts per billion [ppb], n=74) and normal (<25 ppb, n=86) FeNO groups according to the recommendations from the American Thoracic Society. Compared with the normal FeNO group, the adjusted odds ratio for having history of asthma without wheezing and with wheezing in the increased FeNO group were 2.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–6.29) and 4.24 (95% CI, 1.37–13.08), respectively. Only 21 out of 74 patients (28.4%) with increased FeNO prescribed ICS-containing inhaler and 18 of 86 patients (20.9%) with normal FeNO were given ICS-containing inhaler. Previous exacerbation, asthma, and wheezing were the major factors to maintain ICS at normal FeNO level and not to initiate ICS at increased FeNO level.@*CONCLUSION@#Increased FeNO was associated with the history of asthma irrespective of wheezing. However, FeNO seemed to play a subsidiary role in the use of ICS-containing inhalers in real-world clinics, which was determined with prior exacerbation and clinical features suggesting Th2 inflammation.

13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913265

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a scleroderma-like immune-allergic disorder of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. This rare disease is characterized by the progressive induration of the skin and soft tissue, and peripheral eosinophilia. Here, we report a case of EF. A 21-year-old female was referred due to edema in the upper and lower extremities for 1 month. Laboratory results were unremarkable except for severe eosinophilia. Parasite infestation, venous thrombosis, and cardiac and renal problems were excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging of both the lower extremities revealed symmetrical thickening and contrast enhancement of crural fascia with adjacent subcutaneous fat infiltration. A full-thickness biopsy at the lower extremity showed infiltration of the fascia by eosinophils, plasma cells, and lymphocytes with marked edema. Thus, this patient was confirmed to have EF and she was treated with systemic corticosteroids, resulting in a remarkable improvement in both edema and eosinophilia.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831917

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite increasing awareness of the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women, knowledge regarding gender differences in COPD outcomes is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether COPD outcomes, including exacerbations, lung , and symptoms differ by gender. @*Methods@#We recruited patients with COPD from two Korean multicenter prospective cohorts. After propensity score matching, the main outcome, the incidence of moderate or severe exacerbations was analyzed using a negative binomial regression model. We also assessed changes in lung function and symptom scores including the St. George’s respiratory questionnaire for COPD (SGRQ-C), COPD assessment test (CAT), and the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea score. @*Results@#After propensity score matching, 74 women and 74 men with COPD were included. The incidence rates of exacerbations in women and men were not significantly different (incidence rate ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88 to 2.54). There was no significant difference in the incidence rates adjusted for medication possession ratios of long-acting muscarinic antagonists, long-acting β-agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids during the follow-up period (incidence rate ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.86 to 2.52). Rates of decline in post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity did not differ between women and men during 48 months of follow-up. The changes in scores on the SGRQ-C, CAT, and mMRC Questionnaire in women were also similar to those in men. @*Conclusions@#We observed no gender differences in the rate of exacerbations of COPD in a prospective longitudinal study. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in the general COPD population.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888903

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Cold air is a major environmental factor that exacerbates asthma. Transient receptor potential melastatin family member 8 (TRPM8) is a cold-sensing channel expressed in the airway epithelium. However, its role in airway inflammation remains unknown. We investigated the role of TRPM8 in innate immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells and asthmatic subjects. @*Methods@#The TRPM8 mRNA and protein expression on BEAS2B human bronchial epithelial cells was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. Additionally, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-25 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels before and after menthol, dexamethasone and N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide (BCTC) treatments were measured via real-time PCR. TRPM8 protein levels in the supernatants of induced sputum from asthmatic subjects and normal control subjects were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mRNA levels in sputum cell lysates were measured using real-time PCR. @*Results@#Treatment with up to 2 mM menthol dose-dependently increased TRPM8 mRNA and protein in BEAS2B cells compared to untreated cells (P < 0.001) and concomitantly increased IL-25 and TSLP mRNA (P < 0.05), but not IL-33 mRNA. BCTC (10 μM) significantly abolished menthol-induced up-regulation of TRPM8 mRNA and protein and IL-25 and TSLP mRNA (P < 0.01). TRPM8 protein levels were higher in the supernatants of induced sputum from asthmatic subjects (n = 107) than in those from healthy controls (n = 19) (P < 0.001), and IL-25, TSLP and IL-33 mRNA levels were concomitantly increased (P < 0.001). Additionally, TRPM8 mRNA levels correlated strongly with those of IL-25 and TSLP (P < 0.001), and TRPM8 protein levels were significantly higher in bronchodilator-responsive asthmatic subjects than in nonresponders. @*Conclusions@#TRPM8 may be involved in the airway epithelial cell innate immune response and a molecular target for the treatment of asthma.

16.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 47-53, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719476

ABSTRACT

The guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment are important for the management of the disease. However, studies regarding the treatment adherence to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines have been scarce in Korea. Therefore, to examine the adherence to the GOLD guidelines, we examined the patterns of prescribed medication in COPD patients from 2011 to 2018. Patients were classified as having been appropriately and inappropriately treated (overtreatment or undertreatment) for the GOLD group. Appropriate medical therapy was defined as using the first choice or alternative choice drug recommended in the GOLD guidelines. Inappropriate therapy was classified as overtreatment or undertreatment in accordance with the categorization in the GOLD guidelines. According to treatment of 2011 GOLD guidelines, there was inappropriate treatment in 52.3% in group A, 47.3% in group B, 56.3% in group C, and 17.8% in group D. According to treatment of 2017 GOLD guidelines, there was inappropriate treatment in 66.7% in group A, 45.3% in group B, 14.3% in group C, and 24.0% in group D. The common type of inappropriate COPD treatment is overtreatment, with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) containing regimens. In conclusions, adherence to the GOLD guideline by the pulmonologist in clinical practice is still low in Korea. Therefore, we need better strategies to both optimize the use of the guidelines and adhere to the guidelines as well.


Subject(s)
Humans , Korea , Lung Diseases , Medical Overuse , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are a treatment of choice for eosinophilic airway diseases, but their efficacy for other causes of chronic cough is controversial.@*METHODS@#We conducted a prospective observational study to determine the ICS efficacy and clinical predictors of response to ICS in patients with upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) or unexplained chronic cough (UCC). Sixty-eight patients with UACS and 33 patients with UCC (duration of cough ≥ 8 weeks) were treated with ICS: 250 µg of fluticasone propionate or 400 µg of budesonide twice a day at physician's discretion. They were followed after 2 weeks to assess persistent cough which was measured as 0% to 100% compared with baseline cough frequency.@*RESULTS@#The median grade of persistent cough after 2-week ICS treatment was 40% (interquartile range [IQR], 10 to 70) in UACS and was 50% (IQR, 20 to 70) in UCC. The only adverse event was infrequent, mild hoarse voice (five UACS and one UCC). Long duration of cough (≥ 52 weeks) and cough not aggravated by cold air exposure were predictors of a poorer response to short course ICS treatment (logistic regression analysis, p = 0.018 and p = 0.031, respectively). However, prolonged treatment with ICS more than 2 weeks was more effective in patients with long cough duration (≥ 52 weeks).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Short course ICS treatment has modest efficacy on UACS and UCC without significant adverse events. Duration of cough and cough triggered by cold air exposure were the clinical factors associated with ICS response. Extended treatment with ICS may be beneficial in patients with long duration of cough.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis (CB) is an important phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study is to evaluate different pattern of COPD assessment test (CAT) score between CB and non-CB patients. METHODS: Patients were recruited from 45 centers in Korea, as part of the Korean COPD Subgroup Study cohort. CB was defined when sputum continued for at least 3 months. RESULTS: Total 958 patients with COPD were eligible for analysis. Among enrolled patients, 328 (34.2%) were compatible with CB. The CAT score was significantly higher in patients with CB than non-CB, and each component of CAT score showed a similar result. CB was significantly associated with CAT score when adjusted with age, sex, modified Medical Research Council, and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Each component of CAT score between patients with CB and non-CB showed different pattern according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease grade. CONCLUSION: CAT score is significantly higher in patients with CB than non-CB. Each component of CAT score was significantly different between two groups.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchitis , Bronchitis, Chronic , Cats , Cohort Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Korea , Phenotype , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Quality of Life , Sputum
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114694

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recurrent respiratory tract infection is a common manifestation of primary immunodeficiency disease, and respiratory viruses or bacteria are important triggers of asthma exacerbations. Asthma often coexists with humoral immunodeficiency in adults, and some asthmatics with immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSCD) suffer from recurrent exacerbations. Although some studies suggest a benefit from Ig replacement, others have failed to support its use. This study aimed to assess the effect of Ig replacement on asthma exacerbation caused by respiratory infection as well as the asthma control status of adult asthmatics with IgGSCD. METHODS: This is a multi-center, open-label study of adult asthmatics with IgGSCD. All patients received monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for 6 months and were evaluated regarding asthma exacerbation related to infection, asthma control status, quality of life, and lung function before and after IVIG infusion. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients were enrolled, and 24 completed the study. Most of the patients had a moderate degree of asthma severity with partly (52%) or uncontrolled (41%) status at baseline. IVIG significantly reduced the proportion of patients with asthma exacerbations, lowered the number of respiratory infections, and improved asthma control status, compared to the baseline values (P<0.001). The mean asthma-specific quality of life and asthma control test scores were improved significantly (P=0.009 and P=0.053, respectively); however, there were no significant changes in lung function. CONCLUSIONS: IVIG reduced the frequency of asthma exacerbations and improved asthma control status in adult asthmatics with IgGSCD, suggesting that IVIG could be an effective treatment option in this population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Bacteria , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Lung , Quality of Life , Respiratory Tract Infections
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209988

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Comparisons of the characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) have been the focus of several studies since the diseases were defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. However, no consensus is available yet. In this study, we aimed to compare the characteristics of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) and COPD. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1,504 patients with COPD in a Korean COPD Subtype Study cohort. The occurrence of ACO was defined as a positive response to a bronchodilator (an increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] of 12% and 200 mL). RESULTS: Among 1,504 patients with COPD, 223 (14.8%) were diagnosed with ACO. Men (95.5%) and current smokers (32.9%) were more prevalent in the ACO group compared with the pure COPD group (90.5% and 25.3%, respectively; P=0.015 and P=0.026, respectively). Patients with ACO had a better quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD score=31.0±18.0 [mean±standard deviation]) than those with pure COPD (35.3±19.1) (P=0.002). Although the prevalence of acute exacerbation was not different between the 2 groups, patients with severe exacerbation required hospital admission significantly more frequently in the pure COPD group than in the ACO group. Patients with ACO showed a higher likelihood of FEV1 recovery than those with pure COPD (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that ACO is characterized by less severe symptoms, and therefore it might lead to rare severe exacerbation and the possibility of lung function recovery.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Cohort Studies , Consensus , Disease Progression , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung , Male , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Quality of Life , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies
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