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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 479-491, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000791

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this study, we investigated the prognostic implications of focal breast edema on preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with breast cancer. @*Methods@#Data of 899 patients with breast cancer at a single institution were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into an edema-positive group (EPG) and an edemanegative group (ENG) based on the presence of peritumoral, prepectoral, or subcutaneous edema. Two radiologists evaluated the presence or absence of focal edema and its subtypes on preoperative breast MRI. Clinicopathologic characteristics and survival outcomes were compared between the two groups and among the three subtypes using Pearson’s χ2 test, Kaplan–Meier estimator, and Cox proportional hazards model. @*Results@#There were 399 (44.4%) and 500 (55.6%) patients in the EPG and ENG, respectively.The EPG showed significantly higher rates of axillary lymph node metastasis (55.6% vs.19.2%, p < 0.001) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (57.9% vs. 12.6%, p < 0.001) than the ENG. Patients in the EPG showed significantly worse overall survival (OS) rate (log-rank p < 0.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56–9.11) and recurrencefree survival rate (log-rank p < 0.001; HR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.94–4.63) than those in the ENG.After adjusting for other variables, focal breast edema remained a significant factor affecting the OS rate, regardless of the edema type. Specifically, the presence of subcutaneous edema emerged as the strongest predictor for OS with the highest HR (p < 0.001; HR, 9.10; 95% CI, 3.05–27.15). @*Conclusion@#Focal breast edema on preoperative breast MRI implies a higher possibility of LVI and axillary lymph node metastasis, which can lead to a poor prognosis. A detailed description of focal breast edema, especially subcutaneous edema, on preoperative breast MRI may provide prognostic predictions. More intensive surveillance is required for patients with breast cancer and focal preoperative breast edema.

2.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 438-446, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898944

ABSTRACT

Multiple primary malignancies are defined as the presence of more than one malignant neoplasm with a distinct histology occurring at different sites in the same individual. They are classified as synchronous or metachronous according to the diagnostic time interval of different malignancies. Diagnosis of multiple primary malignancies should avoid misclassification from multifocal/multicentric tumors or recurrent/metastatic lesions.In multiple primary malignancies, with increase in the number of primary tumors, the frequency rapidly decreases. Here, we report an exceptionally rare case of a woman who was diagnosed with metachronous sporadic sextuple primary malignancies including bilateral breast cancers (gastric cancer, ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, left breast cancer, thyroid cancer, right breast cancer, and rectal neuroendocrine tumor). The sextuple primary malignancies in this case involved 5 different organs: the stomach, ovary, thyroid, rectum, and bilateral breasts. Further studies are needed to elucidate the current epidemiologic status of patients with multiple primary malignancies.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 279-290, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914817

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic factors associated with distant metastasis (DM) and post-recurrence overall survival (OS) after salvage treatments for isolated locoregional recurrence (ILRR) of breast cancer and identify long-term surviving patients for providing a more personalized therapy. @*Methods@#We analyzed 125 patients who underwent salvage local treatments for ILRR after initial curative breast surgery. @*Results@#Fifty-two (41.6%) patients experienced secondary recurrence or disease progression, of which 20 (38.5%) experienced a secondary locoregional recurrence and 40 (76.9%) experienced DM as the first site of failure. In multivariate analysis of distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) and post-recurrence OS, the initial pN2-3 stage, a disease-free interval of < 36 months, and non-curative resection for recurrent disease were independently poor prognosticators. The score for patients stratified according to the number of risk factors increased from 0 to 3; the corresponding 5-year DMFS rates were 91.4%, 53.0%, 35.9%, and 0% and the 5-year OS rates were 97.3%, 70.4%, 32.7%, and 25.0%, respectively (p < 0.001).Systemic chemotherapy reduced DM in patients with a score of 2–3, but it did not in those with a score of 0-1. @*Conclusion@#Our collective stratification can help with prognosis prediction for ILRR of breast cancer. Depending on the DM risk of patients, the potential combination of systemic therapy should be discussed further.

4.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 438-446, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891240

ABSTRACT

Multiple primary malignancies are defined as the presence of more than one malignant neoplasm with a distinct histology occurring at different sites in the same individual. They are classified as synchronous or metachronous according to the diagnostic time interval of different malignancies. Diagnosis of multiple primary malignancies should avoid misclassification from multifocal/multicentric tumors or recurrent/metastatic lesions.In multiple primary malignancies, with increase in the number of primary tumors, the frequency rapidly decreases. Here, we report an exceptionally rare case of a woman who was diagnosed with metachronous sporadic sextuple primary malignancies including bilateral breast cancers (gastric cancer, ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, left breast cancer, thyroid cancer, right breast cancer, and rectal neuroendocrine tumor). The sextuple primary malignancies in this case involved 5 different organs: the stomach, ovary, thyroid, rectum, and bilateral breasts. Further studies are needed to elucidate the current epidemiologic status of patients with multiple primary malignancies.

6.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 179-184, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761722

ABSTRACT

Sparganosis is a parasitic infestation caused by sparganum, a plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Since the first case of human sparganosis reported in 1908, sparganosis has been a global disease, and is common in China, Japan, and Southeast Asian countries. Consumption of raw snakes, frogs, fish, or drinking contaminated beverages are sources of human infections. Human sparganosis usually manifests in subcutaneous fat in areas such as the abdomen, genitourinary tract, and limbs. Breast sparganosis cases are rare, representing less than 2% of total cases of human infections. Complete surgical extraction of the sparganum is the treatment of choice. Because of the rarity of the disease, clinical suspicion is vital to reach the diagnosis of breast sparganosis. Here we report 2 rare cases of breast sparganosis presenting with a painless breast lump, both treated with surgical excision and sparganum extraction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdomen , Asian People , Beverages , Breast , Cestoda , China , Diagnosis , Drinking , Extremities , Japan , Larva , Snakes , Sparganosis , Sparganum , Spirometra , Subcutaneous Fat
7.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 58-69, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739568

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the prognostic influence of Korean public medical insurance system on breast cancer patients. METHODS: Data of 1,068 patients with primary invasive breast cancer were analyzed. Korean public medical insurance status was classified into 2 groups: National Health Insurance and Medical Aid. Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards model were used for survival analysis. RESULTS: The Medical Aid group showed worse prognoses compared to the National Health Insurance group both in overall survival (P = 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (P = 0.006). The Medical Aid group showed higher proportion of patients with tumor size > 2 cm (P = 0.022), more advanced stage (P = 0.039), age > 50 years (P = 0.003), and low education level (P = 0.003). The Medical Aid group showed higher proportion of patients who received mastectomy (P < 0.001) and those who received no radiation therapy (P = 0.013). The Medical Aid group showed a higher rate of distant recurrence (P = 0.014) and worse prognosis for the triple negative subtype (P = 0.006). Medical insurance status was a significant independent prognostic factor in both univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The Medical Aid group had worse prognosis compared to the National Health Insurance group. Medical insurance status was a strong independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. Unfavorable clinicopathologic features could explain the worse prognosis for the Medical Aid group. Careful consideration should be given to medical insurance status as one of important prognostic factors for breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Education , Insurance Coverage , Insurance , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , National Health Programs , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Recurrence
8.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 240-248, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718341

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to validate the synergistic effect of ABT-737 on docetaxel using MDA-MB-231, a triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line overexpressing B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). METHODS: Western blot analysis was performed to assess expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins and caspase-related molecules. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry analysis. Benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk) was used for pretreatment to assess the role of caspases. RESULTS: Cell viability of MDA-MB-231 after combination treatment with ABT-737 and docetaxel was significantly lower than that after docetaxel or ABT-737 monotherapy based on MTT assay (both P < 0.001), with a combination index of 0.41. The proportion of sub-G1 population after combination treatment was significantly higher than that after docetaxel or ABT-737 monotherapy (P = 0.001, P = 0.003, respectively). Pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk completely restored cell viability of MDA-MB-231 from apoptotic cell death induced by combination therapy (P = 0.001). Although pro-caspase-8 or Bid did not show significant change in expression level, pro-casepase-9 showed significantly decreased expression after combination treatment. Cleaved caspase-3 showed increased expression while poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage was induced after combination treatment. However, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 totally lost their expression after combination treatment. CONCLUSION: Combination of ABT-737 with docetaxel elicits synergistic therapeutic effect on MDA-MB-231, a TNBC cell line overexpressing Bcl-2, mainly by activating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Therefore, adjunct of ABT-737 to docetaxel might be a new therapeutic option to overcome docetaxel resistance of TNBCs overexpressing Bcl-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase , Apoptosis , B-Lymphocytes , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspases , Cell Cycle , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Drug Resistance , Flow Cytometry , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
9.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 183-191, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717845

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The prognostic influence of 3-dimensional tumor volume (Tv) on breast cancer compared to conventional 1-dimensional tumor size (T) was investigated. METHODS: Analysis was performed on a cohort of 8,996 primary breast cancer patients who were initially diagnosed with TNM stage I–III. Tumor size was defined as the maximum tumor dimension, and Tv was calculated by the equation of (4π× r1 × r2 × r3)/3; r1, r2, and r3 were defined as half of the largest, intermediate, and shortest dimension of the tumor, respectively. Tv was classified into Tv1, Tv2, and Tv3 according to the cut off values of 2.056 cm3 and 20.733 cm3. RESULTS: The survival curves according to both the T and Tv categories were clearly differentiated (all P < 0.001), as were those for staging by T and Tv (all P < 0.001). In T1 and T2 tumors, the Tv1 group showed superior survival over the Tv2 group (T1, P < 0.001; T2, P = 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analysis both indicated that Tv was a significant prognostic factor (both P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the area under the curves were 0.712 (P < 0.001) for Tv and 0.699 (P < 0.001) for T. Positive correlations were observed between the number of positive nodes and T (coefficient = 0.325; P < 0.001), and between the number of positive nodes and Tv (coefficient = 0.321; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Tv classification works well for predicting the prognosis of breast cancer, and it is a better predictor than conventional T classification in several aspects. Further studies are needed to validate the practical usefulness of Tv classification in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Classification , Cohort Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Survival Analysis , Tumor Burden
10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 658-669, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715839

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) regulation across DNA, RNA, protein, and methylation status according to molecular subtype of breast cancer using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed clinical and biological data on 1,096 breast cancers from the TCGA database. Biological data included reverse phase protein array (RPPA), mRNA sequencing (mRNA-seq), mRNA microarray, methylation, copy number alteration linear, copy number alteration nonlinear, and mutation data. RESULTS: The luminal A and luminal B subtypes showed upregulated expression of RPPA and mRNAseq and hypomethylation compared to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and triple-negative subtypes (all p < 0.001). No mutations were found in any subjects. High mRNA-seq and high RPPA were strongly associated with positive estrogen receptor, positive progesterone receptor (all p < 0.001), and negative HER2 (p < 0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). Correlation analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between protein and mRNA levels and a strong negative correlation between methylation and protein and mRNA levels (all p < 0.001). The high BCL2 group showed superior overall survival compared to the low BCL2 group (p=0.006). CONCLUSION: The regulation of BCL2 was mainly associated with methylation across the molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and luminal A and luminal B subtypes showed upregulated expression of BCL2 protein, mRNA, and hypomethylation. Although copy number alteration may have played a minor role, mutation status was not related to BCL2 regulation. Upregulation of BCL2 was associated with superior prognosis than downregulation of BCL2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , DNA , Down-Regulation , Estrogens , Gene Expression Regulation , Genome , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Methylation , Phenobarbital , Prognosis , Protein Array Analysis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , RNA , RNA, Messenger , Up-Regulation
11.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 235-239, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714538

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Because primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is difficult to recognize, it has a high likelihood of being underdiagnosed. In this study, we estimated the incidence of PHPT and evaluated PHPT diagnosis in Korea. METHODS: To calculate the prevalence of PHPT, we examined the medical records of patients that were hospitalized for urolithiasis between 2013 and 2016 at a single institute, and then identified those who were diagnosed with PHPT from the same group. A Korea-wide insurance claim database was used to ascertain the number of urolithiasis patients and the number of parathyroidectomies performed in Korea. The incidence of PHPT in the Korean population was estimated using the ratio of patients who presented with urolithiasis as the initial symptom of PHPT. RESULTS: During the 4-year study period, 4 patients from the 925 urolithiasis patients enrolled in this study (0.4%) were diagnosed with PHPT. During this same period, there were 85,267 patients with urolithiasis in Korea, and the estimated number of PHPT patients was 341, which was 0.4% of 85,267. Considering that 12% to 23% of patients with PHPT are initially diagnosed with urolithiasis, the total number of PHPT patients was estimated to range from 1,483 to 2,842. The number of patients who underwent parathyroidectomy due to PHPT was 1,935 during the study period. CONCLUSION: The number of patients we estimated to have PHPT corresponded closely with the number of patients undergoing parathyroidectomy during the study period. Considering the number of nonsymptomatic PHPT patients, PHPT may be properly diagnosed in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnosis , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Incidence , Insurance , Korea , Medical Records , Parathyroidectomy , Prevalence , Urolithiasis
12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 400-403, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194952

ABSTRACT

Two consecutive surveys for breast surgeons in Korea were conducted to comprehend the practice patterns and perceptions on margin status after breast-conserving surgery. The surveys were conducted online in 2014 (initial) and 2016 (follow-up). A total of 126 and 88 responses were obtained in the initial and follow-up survey, respectively. More than 80% of the respondents replied to routinely apply frozen section biopsy for intraoperative margin assessment in both surveys. Re-excision recommendations of the margin for invasive cancer significantly changed from a close margin to a positive margin over time (p=0.033). Most of the respondents (73.8%) defined a negative margin as “no ink on tumor” in invasive cancer, whereas more diverse responses were observed in ductal carcinoma in situ cases. The influence of guideline establishment for negative margins has been identified. A high uptake rate of intraoperative frozen section biopsy was noted and routine use needs reconsideration.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Follow-Up Studies , Frozen Sections , Ink , Korea , Mastectomy, Segmental , Surgeons , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 54-64, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148356

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to reveal the prognostic influence of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) on molecular subtypes of breast cancer. METHODS: We analyzed 9,468 patients with primary breast cancer. We classified molecular subtypes according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and St. Gallen guidelines, mainly on the basis of the expression of hormonal receptor (HR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67. RESULTS: Regarding NCCN classification, BCL2 was a strong favorable prognostic factor in the HR(+)/HER2(–) subtype (p<0.001) and a marginally significant favorable prognosticator in the HR(+)/HER2(+) subtype (p=0.046). BCL2 had no prognostic impact on HR(–)/HER2(+) and HR(–)/HER2(–) subtypes. In relation to St. Gallen classification, BCL2 was a strong favorable prognosticator in luminal A and luminal B/HER2(–) subtypes (both p<0.001). BCL2 was a marginally significant prognosticator in the luminal B/HER2(+) subtype (p=0.046), and it was not a significant prognosticator in HER2 or triple negative (TN) subtypes. The prognostic effect of BCL2 was proportional to the stage of breast cancer in HR(+)/HER2(–), HR(+)/HER2(+), and HR(–)/HER2(–) subtypes, but not in HR(–)/HER2(+) subtype. BCL2 was not a prognostic factor in TN breast cancer regardless of epidermal growth factor receptor expression. CONCLUSION: The prognostic influence of BCL2 was different across molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and it was largely dependent on HR, HER2, Ki-67, and the stage of cancer. BCL2 had a strong favorable prognostic impact only in HR(+)/HER2(–) or luminal A and luminal B/HER2(–) subtypes, particularly in advanced stages. Further investigations are needed to verify the prognostic influence of BCL2 on molecular subtypes of breast cancer and to develop clinical applications for prognostication using BCL2.


Subject(s)
Humans , B-Lymphocytes , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Classification , Phenobarbital , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Survival Analysis , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
14.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 99-105, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153465

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis is often challenging. Sometimes, pathologic results of the appendix embarrass or confuse surgeons. Therefore, more and more imaging studies are being performed to increase the accuracy of appendicitis diagnoses preoperatively. However, data on the effect of this increase in preoperative imaging studies on diagnostic accuracy are limited. We performed this study to explore unexpected appendiceal pathologies and to delineate the role of preoperative imaging studies in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. METHODS: The medical records of 4,673 patients who underwent an appendectomy for assumed appendicitis between 1997 and 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Pathological results and preoperative imaging studies were surveyed, and the frequencies of pathological results and preoperative imaging studies were investigated. RESULTS: The overall rate of pathology compatible with acute appendicitis was 84.4%. Unexpected pathological findings, such as normal histology, specific inflammations other than acute appendicitis, neoplastic lesions, and other pathologies, comprised 9.6%, 3.3%, 1.2%, and 1.5%, respectively. The rate of unexpected pathological results was significantly reduced because of the increase in preoperative imaging studies. The decrease in normal appendices contributed the most to the reduction while other unexpected pathologies did not change significantly despite the increased use of imaging studies. This decrease in normal appendices was significant in both male and female patients under the age of 60 years, but the differences in females were more prominent. CONCLUSION: Unexpected appendiceal pathologies comprised 15.6% of the cases. Preoperative imaging studies reduced them by decreasing the negative appendectomy rate of patients with normal appendices.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Appendix , Diagnosis , Inflammation , Medical Records , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Surgeons
15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 254-263, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83455

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Elevated serum concentration of fibrinogen and decreased serum concentration of albumin have been reported to be markers of elevated systemic inflammation. We attempted to investigate the prognostic influence of preoperative fibrinogen to albumin ratio (FAR) for breast cancer. METHODS: Data from 793 consecutive primary breast cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed. Serum levels of fibrinogen and albumin were tested before curative surgery. Subjects were grouped into two groups according to the cutoff value determined by performing the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis: the high FAR group (FAR>7.1) and the low FAR group (FAR≤7.1). Overall survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Independent prognostic significance was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The high FAR group had a worse prognosis compared to the low FAR group (log-rank test, p<0.001). The prognostic effect of FAR was more significant than that of single markers such as fibrinogen (log-rank test, p=0.001) or albumin (log-rank test, p=0.001). The prognostic effect of FAR was prominent in the stage II/III subgroup (log-rank test, p<0.001) and luminal A-like subtype (log-rank test, p<0.001). FAR was identified as a significant independent factor on both univariate (hazard ratio [HR], 2.722; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.659–4.468; p<0.001) and multivariate analysis (HR, 2.622; 95% CI, 1.455–4.724; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Preoperative FAR was a strong independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. Its prognostic effect was more prominent in the stage II/III subgroup and in the luminal A-like subtype. Therefore, preoperative FAR can be utilized as a useful prognosticator for breast cancer patients. Further studies are needed to validate its applications in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Fibrinogen , Inflammation , Multivariate Analysis , Phenobarbital , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Serum Albumin , Survival Analysis
16.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 70-75, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79447

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recently, transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy (TOET) is receiving attention because it is regarded as a true minimally invasive surgery in that it does not leave scars on any part of the body and the area of flap dissection is similar to that of open surgery. In this study, we present the surgical procedures and initial outcomes of TOET in the treatment of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) patients. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent TOET for PTMC between July 2016 and February 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Indication of TOET was PTMC without capsular invasion or lymph node metastasis on preoperative imaging studies. RESULTS: Ten female patients were enrolled. Seven patients underwent thyroid lobectomy and three patients underwent isthmusectomy. The mean age and tumor size was 43.3 ± 11.5 years and 0.6 ± 0.2 cm, respectively. Operation time for lobectomy and isthmusectomy was 121.1 ± 30.7 (range, 65–148) and 90.0 ± 9.2 minutes (range, 82–100 minutes), respectively. The mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was 2.7 ± 1.7. Two patients had transient vocal cord palsy, which recovered in three months. There was no case with subcutaneous emphysema, surgical site infection, postoperative bleeding, or mental nerve injury. CONCLUSION: TOET was feasible and could be performed safely for PTMC. TOET might become a new treatment option for the patients who do not want to leave visible scars on the body.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Cicatrix , Hemorrhage , Lymph Nodes , Medical Records , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery , Neoplasm Metastasis , Retrospective Studies , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Surgical Wound Infection , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy , Vocal Cord Paralysis
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1114-1126, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176908

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated the role of the education level (EL) as a prognostic factor for breast cancer and analyzed the relationship between the EL and various confounding factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data for 64,129 primary breast cancer patients from the Korean Breast Cancer Registry were analyzed. The EL was classified into two groups according to the education period; the high EL group (≥ 12 years) and low EL group ( 50 years (hazard ratio, 0.626; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.577 to 0.678) but not in the subgroup aged ≤ 50 years (hazard ratio, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.865 to 1.024). The EL was a significant independent factor in the subgroup aged > 50 years according to multivariate analyses. The high EL group showed more favorable clinicopathologic features and a higher proportion of patients in this group received lumpectomy, radiation therapy, and endocrine therapy. In the high EL group, a higher proportion of patients received chemotherapy in the subgroups with unfavorable clinicopathologic features. The EL was a significant prognosticator across all molecular subtypes of breast cancer. CONCLUSION: The EL is a strong independent prognostic factor for breast cancer in the subgroup aged > 50 years regardless of the molecular subtype, but not in the subgroup aged ≤ 50 years. Favorable clinicopathologic features and active treatments can explain the main causality of the superior prognosis in the high EL group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Drug Therapy , Education , Educational Status , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Survival Analysis
18.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 126-132, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109089

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The implementation of the Korean diagnosis-related groups (DRG) payment system has been recently introduced in selected several diseases including appendectomy in Korea. Here, we report the early outcomes with regard to clinical aspects and medical costs of the Korean DRG system for appendectomies in Seoul Metropolitan Government - Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center throughout comparing before and after introduction of DRG system. METHODS: The DRG system was applied since January 2013 at our institute. After the DRG system, we strategically designed and applied our algorithm for the treatment of probable appendicitis. We reviewed the patients who were treated with a procedure of appendectomy for probable appendicitis between July 2012 and June 2013, divided two groups based on before and after the application of DRG system, and compared clinical outcomes and medical costs. RESULTS: Total 416 patients were included (204 patients vs. 212 patients in the group before vs. after DRG). Shorter hospital stays (2.98 +/- 1.77 days vs. 3.82 +/- 1.84 days, P < 0.001) were found in the group after DRG. Otherwise, there were no significant differences in the perioperative outcomes and medical costs including costs for first hospitalization and operation, costs for follow-up after discharge, frequency of visits of out-patient's clinic or Emergency Department or rehospitalization. CONCLUSION: In the Korean DRG system for appendectomy, there were no significant differences in perioperative outcomes and medical costs, except shorter hospital stay. Further studies should be continued to evaluate the current Korean DRG system for appendectomy and further modifications and supplementations are needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Emergency Service, Hospital , Follow-Up Studies , Health Care Costs , Hospitalization , Korea , Length of Stay , Local Government , Prospective Payment System , Seoul
19.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery ; : 93-99, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188634

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the initial experience of 24 cases of laparoscopic liver resection by a single surgeon to determine its feasibility and report perioperative complications associated with this technique. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data from 24 patients who received attempted laparoscopic liver resections for primary liver tumors from November 2008 to April 2012 was conducted. Sixteen benign and eight primary malignant lesions were included. The patient's electronic medical records including age, gender, underlying disease, past medical history, type of operations, operative time, complications, conversion rates, and length of hospital stay were reviewed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 52.6 years and the mean operation time was 263.7 minutes. The overall morbidity was 12.5% and the mortality was zero. One case was converted to open surgery (4.2%), while intraoperative transfusion was conducted in four cases. The types of operations included left hepatectomy (n=12, 50%; 3 with CBD exploration), left lateral sectionecectomy (n=4, 16.7%; 1 with cholecystectomy), partial hepatectomy for benign tumor (n=3, 12.5%: 1 with cholecystectomy), right hepatectomy (n=1, 4.1%), S6 segmentectomy (n=1, 4.1%), and tumorectomy (n=3, 12.5%). The mean estimated blood loss during operation was 375.3 cc and the postoperative hospital stay was 7.7 days. Additionally, one intraoperative complication and two postoperative complications occurred (12.5%). There was no postoperative mortality. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that laparoscopic surgery with HBP training is suitable for laparoscopic liver resection. However, to ensure safety of the liver resection and the advantages of laparoscopic surgery, a thorough understanding of hepatic anatomy and elaborate surgical planning is essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dietary Sucrose , Electronic Health Records , Hepatectomy , Intraoperative Complications , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Liver , Mastectomy, Segmental , Operative Time , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies
20.
Korean Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery ; : 154-159, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: We aimed to to evaluate the feasibility of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) in patients with previous upper abdominal surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on data from the attempted laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in 44 patients. Among them, 5 patients with previous lower abdominal operation were excluded. 39 patients were divided into two groups according to presence of previous upper abdominal operation; Group A: patients without history of abdominal operation. (n=27), Group B: patients with history of upper abdominal operation. Both groups (n=12) were compared to each other, with respect to clinical characteristics, operation time, postoperative hospital stay, open conversion rate, postoperative complication, duct clearance and mortality. RESULTS: All of the 39 patients received laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and choledochotomy with T-tube drainage (n=38 [97.4%]) or with primary closure (n=1). These two groups were not statistically different in gender, mean age and presence of co-morbidity, mean operation time (164.5+/-63.1 min in group A and 134.8+/-45.2 min in group B, p=0.18) and postoperative hospital stay (12.6+/-5.7 days in group A and 9.8+/-2.9 days in group B, p=0.158). Duct clearance and complication rates were comparable (p>0.05). 4 cases were converted to open in group A and 1 case in group B respectively. In group A (4 of 27 (14.8%) and 1 of 12 (8.3%) in group B, p=0.312) Trocar or Veress needle related complication did not occur in either group. CONCLUSIONS: LCBDE appears to be a safe and effective treatment even in the patients with previous upper abdominal operation if performed by experienced laparoscopic surgeon, and it can be the best alternative to failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for difficult cholelithiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholelithiasis , Common Bile Duct , Drainage , Length of Stay , Needles , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Instruments
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