Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 95
Filter
1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e66-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967488

ABSTRACT

Background@#Antimicrobial prescriptions for serious chronic or acute illness nearing its end stages raise concerns about the potential for futile use, adverse events, increased multidrugresistant organisms, and significant patient and social cost burdens. This study investigated the nationwide situation of how antibiotics are prescribed to patients during the last 14 days of life to guide future actions. @*Methods@#This nationwide multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted at 13 hospitals in South Korea from November 1 to December 31, 2018. All decedents were included in the study. Antibiotic use during the last two weeks of their lives was investigated. @*Results@#A total of 1,201 (88.9%) patients received a median of two antimicrobial agents during the last two weeks of their lives. Carbapenems were prescribed to approximately half of the patients (44.4%) in the highest amount (301.2 days of therapy per 1,000 patient-days).Among the patients receiving antimicrobial agents, 63.6% were inappropriate and only 327 patients (27.2%) were referred by infectious disease specialists. The use of carbapenem (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–2.03; P = 0.006), underlying cancer (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.20–2.01, P = 0.047), underlying cerebrovascular disease (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.23–2.89, P = 0.004), and no microbiological testing (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.15–2.73; P = 0.010) were independent predictors for inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. @*Conclusion@#A considerable number of antimicrobial agents are administered to patients with chronic or acute illnesses nearing their end-of-life, a high proportion of which are prescribed inappropriately. Consultation with an infectious disease specialist, in addition to an antimicrobial stewardship program, may be necessary to induce the optimal use of antibiotics.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e49-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915500

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ongoing, heavy workload of healthcare workers (HCWs) is a concern. This study investigated the workload of HCWs responding to the COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea. @*Methods@#A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 16 to October 15, 2020, involving 16 healthcare facilities (4 public medical centers, 12 tertiary-care hospitals) that provide treatment for COVID-19 patients. @*Results@#Public medical centers provided the majority (69.4%) of total hospital beds for COVID-19 patients (n = 611), on the other hand, tertiary care hospitals provided the majority (78.9%) of critical care beds (n = 57). The number of beds per doctor (median [IQR]) in public medical centers was higher than in tertiary care hospitals (20.2 [13.0, 29.4] versus 3.0 [1.3, 6.6], P = 0.006). Infectious Diseases physicians are mostly (80%) involved among attending physicians. The number of nurses per patient (median [interquartile range, IQR]) in tertiarycare hospitals was higher than in public medical centers (4.6 [3.4–5] vs. 1.1 [0.8–2.1], P =0.089). The median number of nurses per patient for COVID-19 patients was higher than the highest national standard in South Korea (3.8 vs. 2 for critical care). All participating healthcare facilities were also operating screening centers, for which a median of 2 doctors, 5 nurses, and 2 administrating staff were necessary. @*Conclusion@#As the severity of COVID-19 patients increases, the number of HCWs required increases. Because the workload of HCWs responding to the COVID-19 outbreak is much greater than other situations, a workforce management plan regarding this perspective is required to prevent burnout of HCWs.

3.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 812-853, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968907

ABSTRACT

The guidelines are intended to provide practical information for the correct use of antibiotics for intra-abdominal infections in Korea. With the aim of realizing evidence-based treatment, these guidelines for the use of antibiotics were written to help clinicians find answers to key clinical questions that arise in the course of patient care, using the latest research results based on systematic literature review. The guidelines were prepared in consideration of the data on the causative pathogens of intra-abdominal infections in Korea, the antibiotic susceptibility of the causative pathogens, and the antibiotics available in Korea.

4.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 637-673, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968903

ABSTRACT

Currently, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to global public health. The antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) has been proposed as an important approach to overcome this crisis. ASP supports the optimal use of antimicrobials, including appropriate dosing decisions, administration duration, and administration routes. In Korea, efforts are being made to overcome AMR using ASPs as a national policy. The current study aimed to develop core elements of ASP that could be introduced in domestic medical facilities. A Delphi survey was conducted twice to select the core elements through expert consensus.The core elements for implementing the ASP included (1) leadership commitment, (2) operating system, (3) action, (4) tracking, (5) reporting, and (6) education. To ensure these core elements are present at medical facilities, multiple departments must collaborate as teams for ASP operations. Establishing a reimbursement system and a workforce for ASPs are prerequisites for implementing ASPs. To ensure that ASP core elements are actively implemented in medical facilities, it is necessary to provide financial support for ASPs in medical facilities, nurture the healthcare workforce in performing ASPs, apply the core elements to healthcare accreditation, and provide incentives to medical facilities by quality evaluation criteria.

5.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 498-504, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938254

ABSTRACT

The antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) is a coordinated intervention designed to improve and measure the appropriate antibiotics use by selecting an optimal antibiotic drug regimen, including dosing, therapy duration, and administration route. The implementation of ASPs decreases the consumption, cost, and adverse effects of antibiotic use. Additionally, it improves the clinical outcomes, and decreases Clostridium difficile infection and antimicrobial resistance.Current Concepts: To overcome the antimicrobial resistance and implement ASPs worldwide, various efforts are underway, such as enacting ASP guidelines, developing core elements for ASP implementation, introducing ASPs to the healthcare accreditation system, and providing healthcare facilities with adequate incentives to implement ASPs. In Korea, ASP guidelines were published in September 2021, and core elements for ASP implementation are being developed at the time of writing. However, there is a shortage of personnel required for the ASP team, including healthcare workforce and infectious disease specialists for leading the team Moreover, financial support for ASP implementation in the National Health Insurance Service is not provided yet. The awareness of hospital leadership and clinicians prescribing antibiotics for ASP implementation is still low. The reimbursement system establishment and workforce for ASPs are prerequisite for the implementation of ASPs.Discussion and Conclusion: At the national level, it is necessary to provide financial support for ASPs in healthcare facilities, nurture the healthcare workforce in performing ASPs, and advocate ASP education and publicity.

6.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 247-257, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937678

ABSTRACT

Background@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused health problems and distress among healthcare workers (HCWs), so supportive measures to promote their health and relieve distress are needed. @*Materials and Methods@#We conducted two rounds of Delphi surveys with 20 COVID-19-related frontline healthcare professionals and public officials. The surveys evaluated means of supporting HCWs’ health by improving health care systems and working environments in terms of effectiveness and urgency. The validity of the measures was assessed by calculating the content validity ratio. @*Results@#The top-priority measures to support HCWs were “secure isolation units capable of treating severe cases” in the facility infrastructure category, “secure nursing staff dedicated for patients in the intensive care units” in the personnel infrastructure category, “improve communication between central office and frontline field” in the cooperation system category, “support personal protective equipment and infection control supplies” in the aid supplies category, and “realization of hazard pay” in the physical/mental health and compensation category. @*Conclusion@#There was consensus among the experts on the validity and priorities of policies in the facility, personnel, cooperation, supplies, and compensation categories regarding measures to promote COVID-19 related HCWs’ health.

7.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 298-307, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937670

ABSTRACT

Background@#Securing an available healthcare workforce is critical to respond to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, research investigating Korea’s COVID-19 staffing response is rare. To present the fundamental data of healthcare staff in response to the surge in COVID-19 cases, we investigated the healthcare workforce response in Daegu, South Korea, which experienced the first largest outbreak of COVID-19 outside of China. @*Materials and Methods@#In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, this retrospective crosssectional study analyzed data on the scale and characteristics of healthcare workers (HCWs). Additionally, it analyzed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HCWs infected with COVID-19 in six major teaching hospitals (five tertiary and one secondary) in Daegu from January 19 to April 30, 2020. @*Results@#During this study period, only 1.3% (n = 611) of the total hospitalized patients (n = 48,807) were COVID-19 inpatients, but they occupied 6.0% (n = 303) of the total hospital beds (n = 5,056), and 23.7% (n = 3,471) of all HCWs (n = 14,651) worked in response to COVID-19.HCWs participating in COVID-19-related works comprised 50.6% (n = 1,203) of doctors (n = 2,379), 26.3% (n = 1,571) of nurses (n = 5,982), and 11.4% (n = 697) of other HCWs (n = 6,108).Only 0.3% (n = 51) of HCWs (n = 14,651) developed COVID-19 infections from communityacquired (66.7%) or hospital-acquired (29.4%). Nurses were affected predominantly (33.3%), followed by doctors (9.8%), caregivers (7.8%), radiographers (5.9%), and others (45.1%), including nurse aides and administrative, facility maintenance, telephone appointment centers, and convenience store staff. All HCWs infected with COVID-19 recovered completely. The 32.7% (n = 333) of individuals (n = 1,018) exposed to HCWs who had COVID-19 were quarantined, and only one case of secondary transmission among them occurred. @*Conclusion@#The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated significant staffing and facility usage, which is disproportionate to the relatively low number of COVID-19 inpatients, imposing a substantial burden on healthcare resources. Therefore, beyond the current reimbursement level of the Korean National Health Insurance, a new type of rewarding system is needed to prepare hospitals for the emerging outbreaks of infectious diseases. Keeping HCWs safe from COVID-19 is crucial for maintaining the healthcare workforce during a sudden massive outbreak. Further studies are needed to determine the standards of required HCWs through detailed research on the working hours and intensity of HCWs responding to COVID-19.

8.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 316-327, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937665

ABSTRACT

Background@#Throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, not only medical personnel but also paramedics or emergency medical technicians (EMT) have faced multiple physical and psychological challenges while performing their duties. The current study aimed to evaluate the psychological effects of managing patients with COVID-19 on the paramedics and EMT. @*Materials and Methods@#A survey targeting paramedics and EMT in Korea was conducted in December 2020. An official letter requesting participation and with the link to an onlinebased survey was sent to the Public Emergency Medical Services. Only one response was accepted from each participant. @*Results@#A total of 326 paramedics and EMT responded to the survey. Among them, 66.3% (216/326) had experience in managing patients with COVID-19. No differences in the distribution of sex, age, working area, duration of working experience, and underlying comorbidities were observed between those who did (COVID-19 group) and did not (nonCOVID-19 group) experience managing patients with COVID-19. The percentage of participants who showed severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was significantly higher in the COVID group than in the non-COVID group (11.1% vs. 3.6%P = 0.029). The participants in the COVID group had a significantly higher mean Global Assessment of Recent Stress Scale score than those in the non-COVID group (18.7 ± 11.1 vs. 16.1 ± 9.9, P = 0.042). The proportion of paramedics and EMT willing to leave their job if given a chance was higher in the COVID group than the non-COVID group (24.1% vs. 9.1%, P = 0.001). Additionally, paramedics and EMT in the COVID group tended to show concern regarding exposure to COVID-19 infection. @*Conclusion@#The experience of managing patients with COVID-19 resulted in psychological distress among paramedics and EMT in Korea.

9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 499-510, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927149

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Globally, concerns have grown regarding the long-term effects of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term course of persistent symptoms and patient quality of life. @*Materials and Methods@#This prospective cohort study was conducted at a single tertiary university hospital from August 31, 2020 to March 29, 2021 with adult patients followed at 6 and 12 months after acute COVID-19 symptom onset or diagnosis. Clinical characteristics, self-reported symptoms, EuroQol 5 dimension 5 level (EQ5D-5L) index scores, Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Korean version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5 (PCL-5-K), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) were investigated. Symptom persistent or non-persistent groups were defined according to persistency of COVID-19 related symptoms or signs after acute COVID-19 infection, respectively. @*Results@#Of all 235 patients, 170 (64.6%) patients were eligible for analysis. The median age was 51 (interquartile range, 37–61) years old, and 102 patients were female (60.0%). After 12 months from acute COVID-19 infection, in total, 83 (48.8%) patients still suffered from COVID-19-related symptoms. The most common symptoms included amnesia (24.1%), insomnia (14.7%), fatigue (13.5%), and anxiety (12.9%). Among the five EQ5D-5L categories, the average value of anxiety or depression was the most predominant. PHQ-9 and PCL-5-K scores were statistically higher in the COVID-19–related symptom persistent group than the non-persistent group (p=0.001). However, GAD-7 scores showed no statistical differences between the two groups (p=0.051). @*Conclusion@#Neuropsychiatric symptoms were the major COVID-19–related symptoms after 12 months from acute COVID-19 infection, reducing quality of life.

10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 433-440, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875483

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The aim of this study was to compare antimicrobial resistance, clinical features, and outcomes of community-onset Escherichia coli (COEC) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (COKP) bacteremia. @*Methods@#The medical records of patients diagnosed with E. coli or K. pneumoniae bacteremia in the emergency department of a 750-bed secondary care hospital in Daegu, Korea from January 2010 to December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#A total of 866 patients with COEC bacteremia and 299 with COKP bacteremia were enrolled. COEC bacteremia, compared to COKP bacteremia, had higher rates of 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC) (18.8% vs. 8.4%, p < 0.001) and f luoroquinolone (FQ) (30.4% vs. 8.0%, p < 0.001) resistance. The patients with COKP bacteremia had higher Charlson comorbidity indices (CCI) (1.8 ± 2.0 vs. 1.5 ± 1.8, p = 0.035), Pittsburgh bacteremia scores (PBS) (2.0 ± 2.6 vs. 1.3 ± 1.8, p < 0.001), and 30-day mortality (14.44% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.008) than the patients with COEC bacteremia. Age younger than 70 years, male sex, polymicrobial infections, pneumonia, intra-abdominal infection, PBS ≥ 2, and Foley catheter insertion were independent predictive factors for COKP bacteremia compared to COEC bacteremia in the multivariate analysis. CCI, PBS, and intensive care unit admission were independent risk factors for 30-day mortality in the multivariate analysis. @*Conclusions@#3GCs and FQs are still useful for the empirical treatment of patients with probable COKP bacteremia. The patients with COKP bacteremia had worse outcomes because of its greater severity and more frequent underlying comorbidities.

11.
Archives of Plastic Surgery ; : 165-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874280

ABSTRACT

Background@#In recent years, implant-based breast reconstruction has been performed because of its simplicity, short operation time, and rapid recovery of patients. Several studies have reported treatment methods for implant surgery-related infection, which is a serious complication. The aim of this study was to introduce our strategy for salvaging infected implants and to evaluate its effectiveness. @*Methods@#The authors performed a retrospective study of 145 cases from 132 patients who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction from January 2012 to December 2018. Empirical antibiotics were immediately administered to patients with suspected infections. The patients then underwent salvage treatment including appropriate antibiotics, ultrasonography-guided aspiration, debridement, antibiotic lavage, and implant exchange through a multidisciplinary approach. Patient demographics, operative data, duration until drain removal, adjuvant treatment, and complications were analyzed. @*Results@#The total infection rate was 5.5% (8/145). A longer indwelling catheter period and adjuvant treatment were significantly associated with infection. The salvage treatment showed a success rate of 87.5% (7/8). Seven patients who received early aggressive salvage treatment recovered from infection. One patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, who received salvage treatment 11 days after symptom onset, did not respond to drainage and antibiotic treatment. That patient subsequently underwent explantation. @*Conclusions@#In implant-based breast reconstruction, prevention of infection is of the utmost importance. However, if an infection is suspected, proactive empirical antibiotic therapy and collaboration with the necessary departments are required. Through a multidisciplinary approach and proactive early management, swift and appropriate salvage should be performed.

12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 806-813, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904302

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to develop a novel mortality scoring system for inpatients with COVID-19 based on simple demographic factors and laboratory findings. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed and analyzed data from patients who were admitted and diagnosed with COVID-19 at 10 hospitals in Daegu, South Korea, between January and July 2020. We randomized and assigned patients to the development and validation groups at a 70% to 30% ratio. Each point scored for selected risk factors helped build a new mortality scoring system using Cox regression analysis. We evaluated the accuracy of the new scoring system in the development and validation groups using the area under the curve. @*Results@#The development group included 1232 patients, whereas the validation group included 528 patients. In the development group, predictors for the new scoring system as selected by Cox proportional hazards model were age ≥70 years, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dementia, C-reactive protein levels >4 mg/dL, infiltration on chest X-rays at the initial diagnosis, and the need for oxygen support on admission. The areas under the curve for the development and validation groups were 0.914 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.891–0.937] and 0.898 (95% CI 0.854–0.941), respectively. According to our scoring system, COVID-19 mortality was 0.4% for the low-risk group (score 0–3) and 53.7% for the very high-risk group (score ≥11). @*Conclusion@#We developed a new scoring system for quickly and easily predicting COVID-19 mortality using simple predictors. This scoring system can help physicians provide the proper therapy and strategy for each patient.

13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 584-592, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904243

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) have been considered effective in preventing and treating viral infections. However, until now, the duration and clinical implications of antibody-mediated nature immunity in Koreans have remained unknown.Therefore, we examined NAbs levels and clinical characteristics in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Blood samples were collected from 143 adult patients who had been diagnosed with and had recovered from COVID-19 from February to March in 2020 at a tertiary-care university-affiliated hospital in Daegu, Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to analyze NAb titers. Individualized questionnaires were used to identify patient clinical information. @*Results@#The median number of days from symptom onset to the blood collection date was 109.0 (104.0; 115.0). The NAb titers ranged from 10 to 2560. The median NAb titer value was 40. Of the 143 patients, 68 (47.6%) patients had NAb titers ≥80, and 31 (21.7%) patients had NAb titers ≥160. The higher the age or disease severity, the higher the NAb titer. In univariate logistic regression, statistically significant predictors of high NAb titers (≥80) were age, myalgia, nausea or vomiting, dyspnea, and disease severity (p<0.05). Multivariable logistic regression showed that age ≥50 years (p=0.013) and moderate or higher disease severity (p<0.001) were factors associated with high NAb titers (≥80). None of the patients had reinfection of COVID-19. @*Conclusion@#All recovered patients were found to have NAbs regardless of the NAb titers maintained by natural immunity. Age and disease severity during COVID-19 infection were associated with high NAb titers.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e170-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899940

ABSTRACT

Background@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care workers (HCWs) have faced multiple physical and psychological challenges while carrying out their duties. In this study, we examined the experiences of specific groups of HCWs during the pandemic. @*Methods@#From 18 November to 30 December 2020, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with four groups of 14 HCWs in three cities (Seoul, Daegu, and Gwangju) in South Korea. The HCWs who participated in the focus groups included physicians, nurses, medical practitioners, and cleaning staff who directly or indirectly cared for patients during the COVID-19 epidemic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the consensual qualitative research approach. @*Results@#Our qualitative data analysis revealed four main domains: work-related struggles, personal life-related struggles, psychological stress, and health-related struggles. Health care providers were challenged by working in critical situations and were overwhelmed by heavy workloads, fear of infection, lifestyle changes, and psychological and physical struggles. @*Conclusion@#Our findings could serve as a foundation for establishing health care systems and policies that help HCWs cope with occupational stress, thus increasing their ability to adapt to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 463-476, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898662

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has progressed, there has been a growing awareness of the long-term impacts of the COVID-19 infection. However, until recently, there was no published study that investigated COVID-19-related sequelae and related factors for greater than six months from the onset of COVID-19 symptoms or the time of COVID-19 diagnosis in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Online survey and statistical analysis were conducted by Kyungpook National University Hospital on 5,252 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 between February 18, 2020 and March 14, 2020. Responders aged between 16 and 70 years were included. Longterm sequelae were defined as persistent symptoms or signs ≥ 6 months after acute COVID-19 infection. The survey was conducted from September 8, 2020 to September 10, 2020.Clinical characteristics and self-reported clinical sequelae of the responders were analyzed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with sequelae using descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The median period from the date of the first symptom onset or COVID-19 diagnosis to the time of the survey was 195 (interquartile range [IQR] 191 - 200) days. The response rate was 17.1% (900 out of 5,252). The median age was 31 (IQR 24.0 - 47.0) years old, and 627 responders were female (69.7%). Regarding the disease severity, 29 (3.2%) were asymptomatic, 763 (84.8%) mild, 86 (9.6%) moderate, 17 (1.9%) severe, and 5 (0.6%) critical. In total, 591 (65.7%) responders suffered from COVID-19-related long-term sequelae and 78 (8.6%) responders were receiving outpatient treatment for COVID-19-related long-term sequelae. The most common symptoms identified during the isolation period were anosmia and ageusia at 44.5% and 43.5%, respectively. Fatigue was the most common long-term sequelae, accounting for 253 (26.2%) responders, followed by concentration difficulty, amnesia, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, and depression, which accounted for over 20%. Female gender was identified as the factor associated with mental and psychological long-term sequelae (P <0.05). @*Conclusion@#The results showed that the rate of COVID-19-related long-term sequelae was 65.7%. The most common long-term sequela was fatigue. The risk factor identified was female gender. It was found that the long-term sequelae had various manifestations, including mental and psychological aspects. To improve the care of COVID-19 recovered patients with COVID-19-related long-term sequelae, the participation of a comprehensive and an interdisciplinary group of researchers is required.

16.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 421-435, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898645

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a serious global public health threat. One of the countermeasures to increased antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections is the use of an integrative intervention strategy for the selection and administration of appropriate antibiotics and for the monitoring of antibiotic use, collectively known as “Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs” (ASPs). However, since the medical environment and policies vary by country and medical facilities, ASPs also need to be applied to each facility and condition accordingly. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced the core elements for hospital ASPs, which outlines the specific structural and procedural components required to implement ASPs in 2014. As multidrug-resistant bacterial infections and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Korea are on the rise, ASPs must be urgently applied to medical facilities for appropriate management of antibiotic use. However, there is an ongoing limitation to the immediate adoption and application of ASPs in Korean medical facilities due to the lack of medical workforce and related financial resources. To address this issue, efforts of medical professionals and government are required, and core elements that match the characteristics and circumstances of Korean medical facilities must be urgently developed.

17.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 617-659, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898642

ABSTRACT

These guidelines were developed as a part of the 2021 Academic R&D Service Project of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency in response to requests from healthcare professionals in clinical practice for guidance on developing antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). These guidelines were developed by means of a systematic literature review and a summary of recent literature, in which evidence-based intervention methods were used to address key questions about the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents and ASP expansion. These guidelines also provide evidence of the effectiveness of ASPs and describe intervention methods applicable in Korea.

18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 806-813, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896598

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to develop a novel mortality scoring system for inpatients with COVID-19 based on simple demographic factors and laboratory findings. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed and analyzed data from patients who were admitted and diagnosed with COVID-19 at 10 hospitals in Daegu, South Korea, between January and July 2020. We randomized and assigned patients to the development and validation groups at a 70% to 30% ratio. Each point scored for selected risk factors helped build a new mortality scoring system using Cox regression analysis. We evaluated the accuracy of the new scoring system in the development and validation groups using the area under the curve. @*Results@#The development group included 1232 patients, whereas the validation group included 528 patients. In the development group, predictors for the new scoring system as selected by Cox proportional hazards model were age ≥70 years, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dementia, C-reactive protein levels >4 mg/dL, infiltration on chest X-rays at the initial diagnosis, and the need for oxygen support on admission. The areas under the curve for the development and validation groups were 0.914 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.891–0.937] and 0.898 (95% CI 0.854–0.941), respectively. According to our scoring system, COVID-19 mortality was 0.4% for the low-risk group (score 0–3) and 53.7% for the very high-risk group (score ≥11). @*Conclusion@#We developed a new scoring system for quickly and easily predicting COVID-19 mortality using simple predictors. This scoring system can help physicians provide the proper therapy and strategy for each patient.

19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 584-592, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896539

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) have been considered effective in preventing and treating viral infections. However, until now, the duration and clinical implications of antibody-mediated nature immunity in Koreans have remained unknown.Therefore, we examined NAbs levels and clinical characteristics in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Blood samples were collected from 143 adult patients who had been diagnosed with and had recovered from COVID-19 from February to March in 2020 at a tertiary-care university-affiliated hospital in Daegu, Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to analyze NAb titers. Individualized questionnaires were used to identify patient clinical information. @*Results@#The median number of days from symptom onset to the blood collection date was 109.0 (104.0; 115.0). The NAb titers ranged from 10 to 2560. The median NAb titer value was 40. Of the 143 patients, 68 (47.6%) patients had NAb titers ≥80, and 31 (21.7%) patients had NAb titers ≥160. The higher the age or disease severity, the higher the NAb titer. In univariate logistic regression, statistically significant predictors of high NAb titers (≥80) were age, myalgia, nausea or vomiting, dyspnea, and disease severity (p<0.05). Multivariable logistic regression showed that age ≥50 years (p=0.013) and moderate or higher disease severity (p<0.001) were factors associated with high NAb titers (≥80). None of the patients had reinfection of COVID-19. @*Conclusion@#All recovered patients were found to have NAbs regardless of the NAb titers maintained by natural immunity. Age and disease severity during COVID-19 infection were associated with high NAb titers.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e170-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892236

ABSTRACT

Background@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care workers (HCWs) have faced multiple physical and psychological challenges while carrying out their duties. In this study, we examined the experiences of specific groups of HCWs during the pandemic. @*Methods@#From 18 November to 30 December 2020, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with four groups of 14 HCWs in three cities (Seoul, Daegu, and Gwangju) in South Korea. The HCWs who participated in the focus groups included physicians, nurses, medical practitioners, and cleaning staff who directly or indirectly cared for patients during the COVID-19 epidemic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the consensual qualitative research approach. @*Results@#Our qualitative data analysis revealed four main domains: work-related struggles, personal life-related struggles, psychological stress, and health-related struggles. Health care providers were challenged by working in critical situations and were overwhelmed by heavy workloads, fear of infection, lifestyle changes, and psychological and physical struggles. @*Conclusion@#Our findings could serve as a foundation for establishing health care systems and policies that help HCWs cope with occupational stress, thus increasing their ability to adapt to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL