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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874684

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene (GDAP1) are known to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). These mutations are very rare in most countries, but not in certain Mediterranean countries. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of Korean CMT patients with GDAP1 mutations. @*Methods@#Gene sequencing was applied to 1,143 families in whom CMT had been diagnosed from 2005 to 2020. PMP22 duplication was found in 344 families, and whole-exome sequencing was performed in 699 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained using either a 1.5-T or 3.0-T MRI system. @*Results@#We found ten patients from eight families with GDAP1 mutations: five with autosomal dominant (AD) CMT type 2K (three families with p.R120W and two families with p.Q218E) and three with autosomal recessive (AR) intermediate CMT type A (two families with homozygous p.H256R and one family with p.P111H and p.V219G mutations). The frequency was about 1.0% exclusive of the PMP22 duplication, which is similar to that in other Asian countries. There were clinical differences among AD GDAP1 patients according to mutation sites. Surprisingly, fat infiltrations evident in lower-limb MRI differed between AD and AR patients. The posterior-compartment muscles in the calf were affected early and predominantly in AD patients, whereas AR patients showed fat infiltration predominantly in the anterolateral-compartment muscles. @*Conclusions@#This is the first cohort report on Korean patients with GDAP1 mutations. The patients with AD and AR inheritance routes exhibited different clinical and neuroimaging features in the lower extremities. We believe that these results will help to expand the knowledge of the clinical, genetic, and neuroimaging features of CMT.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic potential of sinigrin using in vitro, in silico and in vivo streptozotocin (STZ) induced hyperglycemic zebrafish model.@*METHODS@#The in vitro enzyme inhibition assay was carried out to determine the IC value against α-glucosidase and α-amylase, in silico molecular docking was performed against both enzymes with PyRx tool and simulations were performed using GROMACS tool. Hyperglycemia was induced in zebrafishes using three intraperitoneal injections on alternating days for 1 week at 350 mg/kg of STZ. Hyperglycemic fishes were treated intraperitoneally with 50, 100 and 150 mg of sinigrin/kg of body weight for 24 h and glucose levels were measured.@*RESULTS@#The sinigrin showed very strong inhibition against α-glucosidase and α-amylase with 0.248 and 0.00124 μM while reference drug acarbose showed IC value of 73.0700 and 0.0017 μM against α-glucosidase and α-amylase, respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed that sinigrin has the mixed type mode of inhibition against α-glucosidase. Molecular docking results revealed its strong binding affinity with α-glucosidase (-10.00 kcal/mol) and α-amylase (-8.10 kcal/mol). Simulations graphs confirmed its stability against both enzymes. Furthermore, in hyperglycemic zebrafishes most significant (P < 0.001) reduction of glucose was occurred at 150 mg/kg, moderate significant reduction of glucose was observed at 100 mg/kg and no any significant reduction of glucose was measured at 50 mg/kg.@*CONCLUSIONS@#It can be evident from the present results that sinigrin has potent anti-hyperglycemic activity and it may prove to be effective treatment for the hyperglycemia.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195762

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mitochondrial diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders, which make their exact diagnosis and classification difficult. The purpose of this study was to identify pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in 2 Korean families with myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) and Leigh syndrome, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole mtDNAs were sequenced by the method of mtDNA-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). RESULTS: Two causative mtDNA mutations were identified from the NGS data. An m.8344A>G mutation in the tRNA-Lys gene (MT-TK ) was detected in a MERRF patient (family ID: MT132), and an m.9176T>C (p.Leu217Pro) mutation in the mitochondrial ATP6 gene (MT-ATP6) was detected in a Leigh syndrome patient (family ID: MT130). Both mutations, which have been reported several times before in affected individuals, were not found in the control samples. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that mtDNA-targeted NGS will be helpful for the molecular diagnosis of genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial diseases with complex phenotypes.


Subject(s)
Classification , Diagnosis , DNA, Mitochondrial , Humans , Leigh Disease , MERRF Syndrome , Mitochondrial Diseases , Phenotype
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the gene encoding periaxin (PRX) are known to cause autosomal recessive Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy (DSN) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4F. However, there have been no reports describing Korean patients with these mutations. CASE REPORT: We examined a Korean DSN patient with an early-onset, slowly progressive, demyelinating neuropathy with prominent sensory involvement. Whole-exome sequencing and subsequent capillary sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous nonsense mutations (p.R392X and p.R679X) in PRX. One mutation was transmitted from each of the patient's parents. No unaffected family member had both mutations, and the mutations were not found in healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that these novel compound heterozygous nonsense mutations are the underlying cause of DSN. The clinical, electrophysiologic, and pathologic phenotypes in this family were similar to those described previously for patients with PRX mutations. We have identified the first PRX mutation in a Korean patient with DSN.


Subject(s)
Capillaries , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease , Codon, Nonsense , Hereditary Sensory and Motor Neuropathy , Humans , Parents , Peripheral Nerves , Phenotype
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe herein the application of whole exome sequencing (WES) for the molecular genetic diagnosis of a large Korean family with dominantly inherited myopathy. CASE REPORT: The affected individuals presented with slowly progressive proximal weakness and ankle contracture. They were initially diagnosed with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) based on clinical and pathologic features. However, WES and subsequent capillary sequencing identified a pathogenic splicing-site mutation (c.1056+1G>A) in COL6A1, which was previously reported to be an underlying cause of Bethlem myopathy. After identification of the genetic cause of the disease, careful neurologic examination revealed subtle contracture of the interphalangeal joint in the affected members, which is a characteristic sign of Bethlem myopathy. Therefore, we revised the original diagnosis from LGMD to Bethlem myopathy. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of identification of COL6A1-mediated Bethlem myopathy in Korea, and indicates the utility of WES for the diagnosis of muscular dystrophy.


Subject(s)
Ankle , Capillaries , Contracture , Diagnosis , Exome , Humans , Joints , Korea , Molecular Biology , Muscular Diseases , Muscular Dystrophies , Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle , Neurologic Examination
9.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 169-172, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39648

ABSTRACT

Compared with biochemical information available about the diseases in the central nervous system, that for peripheral neuropathy is quite limited primarily due to the difficulties in obtaining samples. Characterization of the core pathology is a prerequisite to the development of personalized medicine for genetically heterogeneous diseases, such as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN). Here, we first documented the transcriptome profile of distal sural nerve obtained from HMSN patients. RNA-seq analysis revealed that over 12,000 genes are expressed in distal sural nerve. Among them 4,000 transcripts are novel and 10 fusion genes per sample were observed. Comparing dataset from whole exome sequencing revealed that over 1,500 transcriptional base modifications occur during transcription. These data implicate that dynamic alterations are generated when genetic information are transitioned in distal sural nerve. Although, we could not find significant alterations associated with HMSN, these data might provide crucial information about the pathophysiology of HMSN. Therefore, next step in the development of therapeutic strategy for HMSN might be unveiling biochemical and biophysical abnormalities derived from those potent variation.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Dataset , Exome , Gene Expression Profiling , Hereditary Sensory and Motor Neuropathy , Humans , Pathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Sural Nerve , Transcriptome , Precision Medicine
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 5 (CMTX5) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase I (PRPS1). There has been only one case report of CMTX5 patients. The aim of this study was to identify the causative gene in a family with CMTX with peripheral neuropathy and deafness. CASE REPORT: A Korean family with X-linked recessive CMT was enrolled. The age at the onset of hearing loss of the male proband was 5 months, and that of steppage gait was 6 years; he underwent cochlear surgery at the age of 12 years. In contrast to what was reported for the first patients with CMTX5, this patient did not exhibit optic atrophy. Furthermore, there was no cognitive impairment, respiratory dysfunction, or visual disturbance. Assessment of his family history revealed two male relatives with very similar clinical manifestations. Electrophysiological evaluations disclosed sensorineural hearing loss and peripheral neuropathy. Whole-exome sequencing identified a novel p.Ala121Gly (c.362C>G) PRPS1 mutation as the underlying genetic cause of the clinical phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: A novel mutation of PRPS1 was identified in a CMTX5 family in which the proband had a phenotype of peripheral neuropathy with early-onset hearing loss, but no optic atrophy. The findings of this study will expand the clinical spectrum of X-linked recessive CMT and will be useful for the molecular diagnosis of clinically heterogeneous peripheral neuropathies.


Subject(s)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease , Deafness , Diphosphates , Exome , Gait , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Humans , Male , Optic Atrophy , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Phenotype , Ribose-Phosphate Pyrophosphokinase
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213035

ABSTRACT

Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2 (BSCL2) gene is known to be associated with different clinical phenotypes; Silver syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 with a dominant hand involvement and distal hereditary motor neuropathy type V (dHMN-V). Up to now, only two heterozygous mutations (N88S and S90L) in BSCL2 have been reported. We identified a N88S BSCL2 mutation in a dHMN-V family with a spastic gait by whole-exome sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a N88S BSCL2 mutation in Korean patient.


Subject(s)
Exome , Gait Disorders, Neurologic , Hand , Humans , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized , Silver , Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 1A (CMT1A) is the demyelinating form of CMT that is significantly associated with PMP22 duplication. Some studies have found that the disease-related disabilities of these patients are correlated with their compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), while others have suggested that they are related to the nerve conduction velocities. In the present study, we investigated the correlations between the disease-related disabilities and the electrophysiological values in a large cohort of Korean CMT1A patients. METHODS: We analyzed 167 CMT1A patients of Korean origin with PMP22 duplication using clinical and electrophysiological assessments, including the CMT neuropathy score and the functional disability scale. RESULTS: Clinical motor disabilities were significantly correlated with the CMAPs but not the motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCVs). Moreover, the observed sensory impairments matched the corresponding reductions in the sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) but not with slowing of the sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCVs). In addition, CMAPs were strongly correlated with the disease duration but not with the age at onset. The terminal latency index did not differ between CMT1A patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: In CMT1A patients, disease-related disabilities such as muscle wasting and sensory impairment were strongly correlated with CMAPs and SNAPs but not with the MNCVs or SNCVs. Therefore, we suggest that the clinical disabilities of CMT patients are determined by the extent of axonal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Axons , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease , Cohort Studies , Humans , Muscles , Neural Conduction
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109589

ABSTRACT

Cerebral adrenomyeloneuropathy is a subtype of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with a mutation of ABCD1; however, there have been no reported cases of cerebral adrenomyeloneuropathy with myelopathy. Here we report a 20-year-old male cerebral adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with myelopathy harboring a deletion mutation of c.225-242 (Trp77-Leu82del) from exon 1 of ABCD1. His spinal cord MRI revealed high signal intensities in the cervical spinal cord. Electrophysiological and histopathologic studies revealed mixed axonal and demyelinating neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Adrenoleukodystrophy , Axons , Exons , Humans , Male , Sequence Deletion , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Diseases , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27758

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders, which make the exact diagnosis and classification difficult. The purpose of this study was to identify pathogenic mtDNA mutations in 61 Korean unrelated families (or isolated patients) with MELAS or MERRF. In particular, the mtDNA sequences were completely determined for 49 patients. From the mutational analysis of mtDNA obtained from blood, 5 confirmed pathogenic mutations were identified in 17 families, and 4 unreported pathogenically suspected mutations were identified in 4 families. The m.3243A>G in the tRNA(Leu(UUR)) was predominantly observed in 10 MELAS families, and followed by m.8344A>G in the tRNA(Lys) of 4 MERRF families. Most pathogenic mutations showed heteroplasmy, and the rates were considerably different within the familial members. Patients with a higher rate of mutations showed a tendency of having more severe clinical phenotypes, but not in all cases. This study will be helpful for the molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases, as well as establishment of mtDNA database in Koreans.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Asians/genetics , Base Sequence , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , Female , Humans , MELAS Syndrome/diagnosis , MERRF Syndrome/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pedigree , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sequence Homology , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71705

ABSTRACT

We identified Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) in a family with schwannomas in the spinal cord and median nerve. The CMT1A in this family showed an autosomal dominant pattern, like other CMT patients with PMP22 duplication, and the family also indicated a possible genetic predisposition to schwannomas by 'mother-to-son' transmission. CMT1A is mainly caused by duplication of chromosome 17p11.2-p12 (PMP22 gene duplication). A schwannoma is a benign encapsulated tumor originating from a Schwann cell. A case of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) concurrent with schwannoma has been previously reported. Although it seems that the co-occurrence of CMT1A and schwannomas in a family would be the result of independent events, we could not completely ignore the possibility that the coincidence of two diseases might be due to a shared genetic background.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease/complications , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Median Neuropathy/diagnosis , Myelin Proteins/genetics , Neurilemmoma/complications , Pedigree , Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms/diagnosis , Spinal Cord Neoplasms/diagnosis
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205426

ABSTRACT

Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by degeneration of motor nerves in the absence of sensory abnormalities. Recently, mutations in the small heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) gene were found to cause dHMN type II or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2F (CMT2F). The authors studied 151 Korean axonal CMT or dHMN families, and found a large Korean dHMN type II family with the Ser135Phe mutation in HSP27. This mutation was inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, and was well associated with familial members with the dHMN phenotype. This mutation site is located in the ?-crystallin domain and is highly conserved between different species. The frequency of this HSP27 mutation in Koreans was 0.6%. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that fatty infiltrations tended to progressively extend distal to proximal muscles in lower extremities. In addition, fatty infiltrations in thigh muscles progressed to affect posterior and anterior compartments but to lesser extents in medial compartment, which differs from CMT1A patients presenting with severe involvements of posterior and medial compartments but less involvement of anterior compartment. The authors describe the clinical and neuroimaging findings of the first Korean dHMN patients with the HSP27 Ser135Phe mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the neuroimaging findings of dHMN type II.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Animals , Asians , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Atrophy/physiopathology , Mutation, Missense , Neural Conduction/genetics , Pedigree , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , alpha-Crystallins/genetics
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205420

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with variable clinical symptoms. Here, from the sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome, we report a Korean MELAS family harboring two homoplasmic missense mutations, which were reported 9957T>C (Phe251Leu) transition mutation in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (COX3) gene and a novel 13849A>C (Asn505His) transversion mutation in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) gene. Neither of these mutations was found in 205 normal controls. Both mutations were identified from the proband and his mother, but not his father. The patients showed cataract symptom in addition to MELAS phenotype. We believe that the 9957T>C mutation is pathogenic, however, the 13849A>C mutation is of unclear significance. It is likely that the 13849A>C mutation might function as the secondary mutation which increase the expressivity of overlapping phenotypes of MELAS and cataract. This study also demonstrates the importance of full sequencing of mtDNA for the molecular genetic understanding of mitochondrial disorders.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asians , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , Electron Transport Complex I/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Female , Humans , Korea , MELAS Syndrome/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Pedigree , Polymorphism, Genetic
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mutations in mitofusin2 (MFN2) are a major underlying cause of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT). It has been reported that patients with an early age of onset ( or =10 years, LO) in CMT2A with MFN2 mutations. There are few studies about CMT patients with MRI studies and we performed leg MRIs for better understanding of CMT2A. METHODS: We identified 19 patients (EO=10; LO=9) with MFN2 mutations. We used functional disability scales and CMT neuropathy scales for the grading of disability. Nerve conduction studies and MRIs of the lower leg were performed in all patients. RESULTS: We confirmed that EO had more severe leg muscle involvement than LO by leg MRI. In 7 out of 9 in LO, there were some degree of asymmetric leg muscle weakness and MRI findings explained the nature of asymmetry, that is, asymmetric cross-sectional areas or fatty infiltration. MRI of EO showed marked fatty infiltration on all three compartments whereas that of LO showed rather selective involvement of the posterior compartment. These results were well correlated with clinical findings that in LO, five patients could not do toe walking whereas only one could not do heel walking. CONCLUSIONS: MRI of the leg may be a useful tool for evaluating axonal CMT neuropathy, and asymmetric leg muscle weakness may be the characteristics of an axonal CMT. In addition, more prominent involvement of the posterior leg in LO is a very interesting phenomenon, which is in contrast to the length-dependent involvement in congenital demyelinating neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Axons , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease , Heel , Humans , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Muscle Weakness , Neural Conduction , Phenotype , Toes , Walking , Weights and Measures
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192434

ABSTRACT

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is associated with duplication of chromosome 17p11.2-p12, whereas hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), which is an autosomal dominant neuropathy showing characteristics of recurrent pressure palsies, is associated with 17p11.2-p12 deletion. An altered gene dosage of PMP22 is believed to the main cause underlying the CMT1A and HNPP phenotypes. Although CMT1A and HNPP are associated with the same locus, there has been no report of these two mutations within a single family. We report a rare family harboring CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion.


Subject(s)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease , Gene Dosage , Humans , Paralysis , Phenotype
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