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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915510

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recent genomic studies identified four discrete molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma (MB), and the risk stratification of childhood MB in the context of subgroups was refined in 2015. In this study, we investigated the effect of molecular subgroups on the risk stratification of childhood MB. @*Methods@#The nCounter® system and a customized cancer panel were used for molecular subgrouping and risk stratification in archived tissues. @*Results@#A total of 44 patients were included in this study. In clinical risk stratification, based on the presence of residual tumor/metastasis and histological findings, 24 and 20 patients were classified into the average-risk and high-risk groups, respectively. Molecular subgroups were successfully defined in 37 patients using limited gene expression analysis, and DNA panel sequencing additionally classified the molecular subgroups in three patients. Collectively, 40 patients were classified into molecular subgroups as follows: WNT (n = 7), SHH (n = 4), Group 3 (n = 8), and Group 4 (n = 21). Excluding the four patients whose molecular subgroups could not be determined, among the 17 average-risk group patients in clinical risk stratification, one patient in the SHH group with the TP53 variant was reclassified as very-high-risk using the new risk classification system. In addition, 5 of 23 patients who were initially classified as high-risk group in clinical risk stratification were reclassified into the low- or standard-risk groups in the new risk classification system. @*Conclusion@#The new risk stratification incorporating integrated diagnosis showed some discrepancies with clinical risk stratification. Risk stratification based on precise molecular subgrouping is needed for the tailored treatment of MB patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913836

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We performed this study to determine whether the degree of neutropenia after the first chemotherapy cycle can be used as a surrogate marker of individual susceptibility to chemotherapeutic agents affecting treatment outcome in patients with neuroblastoma. @*Materials and Methods@#The study included 313 patients who received the first cycle chemotherapy with a CEDC (cisplatin+etoposide+doxorubicin+cyclophosphamide) regimen and had absolute neutrophil count (ANC) data available. The cumulative incidences of progression and treatment-related mortality (TRM) were estimated. To identify genetic variations associated with the ANC, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. @*Results@#An ANC of 32.5/μL was determined as the cutoff point to categorize patients into the good and poor prognosis subgroups in terms of progression. Patients with a high nadir ANC had a higher cumulative incidence of progression than those with a low nadir ANC (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, high nadir ANC, age, bone marrow involvement, and unfavorable histology were poor prognostic factors. With regard to the TRM, patients with a low nadir ANC (ANC < 51.0/μL) had a higher cumulative incidence of TRM than those with a high nadir ANC (p=0.010). In GWAS, single-nucleotide polymorphisms of LPHN2 and CRHR1 were significantly associated with the nadir ANC. @*Conclusion@#In neuroblastoma patients, the degree of neutropenia after the first chemotherapy cycle can be used as a surrogate marker to predict an individual’s susceptibility to chemotherapeutic agents. Tailoring of treatment based on the degree of neutropenia needs to be considered.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900012

ABSTRACT

Background@#The optimal conditioning regimen in cord blood transplantation (CBT) needs to be determined. This study aimed to identify the impact of conditioning regimen on the outcome of CBT in children with acute leukemia. @*Methods@#Medical records of patients with acute leukemia who received CBT were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#A total of 71 patients were allocated into 2 groups; patients who received total body irradiation 10 Gy, cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg, and fludarabine 75 mg/m 2 were named as the TCF group (n = 18), while the non-TCF group (n = 53) included patients conditioned with regimens other than the TCF regimen. All patients in the TCF group were successfully engrafted, while 22.6% in the non-TCF group (n = 12) failed to achieve donor-origin hematopoiesis (P = 0.028). The incidence of cytomegalovirus diseases was 5.6% in the TCF group and 30.2% in the non-TCF group (P = 0.029). The 5-year overall survival rates of the TCF and non-TCF groups were 77.8% and 44.2%, respectively (P = 0.017). @*Conclusion@#Patients conditioned with the TCF regimen achieved better engraftment and survival rates, less suffering from cytomegalovirus disease. Our data suggest that the TCF regimen is a preferred option for CBT in children with acute leukemia.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892308

ABSTRACT

Background@#The optimal conditioning regimen in cord blood transplantation (CBT) needs to be determined. This study aimed to identify the impact of conditioning regimen on the outcome of CBT in children with acute leukemia. @*Methods@#Medical records of patients with acute leukemia who received CBT were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#A total of 71 patients were allocated into 2 groups; patients who received total body irradiation 10 Gy, cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg, and fludarabine 75 mg/m 2 were named as the TCF group (n = 18), while the non-TCF group (n = 53) included patients conditioned with regimens other than the TCF regimen. All patients in the TCF group were successfully engrafted, while 22.6% in the non-TCF group (n = 12) failed to achieve donor-origin hematopoiesis (P = 0.028). The incidence of cytomegalovirus diseases was 5.6% in the TCF group and 30.2% in the non-TCF group (P = 0.029). The 5-year overall survival rates of the TCF and non-TCF groups were 77.8% and 44.2%, respectively (P = 0.017). @*Conclusion@#Patients conditioned with the TCF regimen achieved better engraftment and survival rates, less suffering from cytomegalovirus disease. Our data suggest that the TCF regimen is a preferred option for CBT in children with acute leukemia.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832104

ABSTRACT

Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is the most common inherited red cell membrane disorder. Its main laboratory finding is anemia with reticulocytosis. However, in the case of an aplastic crisis, there may be no reticulocytosis, making the diagnosis of HS difficult. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy who initially presented with persistent fever and sore throat. His 8-year old brother also had anemia of unknown etiology, and his father had a history of splenectomy in his 20s. Physical examination revealed anemic conjunctivae and hepatosplenomegaly, and laboratory findings showed anemia with decreased reticulocyte count and elevated ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase levels. A peripheral blood smear showed microcytic hypochromic anemia with severe poikilocytosis (spherocytes, acanthocytes, schistocytes), and bone marrow examination revealed decreased erythroid cells and increased hemophagocytosis. Increased osmotic fragility was observed, and parvovirus B19 was detected using polymerase chain reaction. Hence, we established the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis manifested as an aplastic crisis caused by parvovirus B19 infection

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1251-1261, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831133

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor found in children. To identify significant genetic factors for the risk of NB, several genetic studies was conducted mainly for Caucasians and Europeans. However, considering racial differences, there is a possibility that genetic predispositions that contribute to the development of NB are different, and GWAS study has not yet been conducted on Korean NB patients. @*Materials and Methods@#To identify the genetic variations associated with the risk of pediatric NB in Korean children, we performed a genome-wide association analysis with 296 NB patients and 1000 unaffected controls (total n = 1,296) after data cleaning and filtering as well as imputation of non-genotyped SNPs using IMPUTE v2.3.2. @*Results@#After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found 21 statistically significant SNPs associated with the risk of NB (Pcorr < 0.05) within 12 genes (RPTN, MRPS18B, LRRC45, KANSL1L, ARHGEF40, IL15RA, L1TD1, ANO7, LAMA5, OR7G2, SALL4, and NEUROG2). Interestingly, out of these, 12 markers were nonsynonymous SNPs. The SNP rs76015112 was most significantly associated with the risk of NB (p = 8.1E-23, Pcorr = 2.3E-17) and was located in the RPTN gene. In addition, significant nonsynonymous SNPs in ADGRE1 were found in patients with MYCN amplification (rs7256147, p = 2.6E-05). In high-risk group, rs7256147 was observed as a significant SNP (p = 5.9E-06). @*Conclusion@#Our findings might facilitate improved understanding of the mechanism of pediatric NB pathogenesis. However, functional evaluation and replication of these results in other populations are still needed.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831054

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosomes 1p and 16q is a poor prognostic factor infavorable histology Wilms tumor (FHWT). This study investigated the prevalence of LOH at1p and 16q and evaluated its prognostic value in Korean children with FHWT. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed 101 FHWT patients who were diagnosed between 1996 and 2016 in KoreanSociety of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Group hospitals. Using paraffin-embedded kidneytissue samples sent from each center, we reviewed LOH at 1p and 16q in each patient andassessed the prognostic value of LOH status for clinical parameters affecting event-freesurvival (EFS). @*Results@#Of the 101 patients, 12 (11.9%) experienced recurrence; the 3-year EFS was 87.6%. LOHat 1p or 16q was detected in 19 patients (18.8%), with five having LOH at both 1q and 16q.The frequency of LOH at 1p was higher among younger patients (p=0.049), but there wasno difference in LOH prevalence according to tumor stage. In the multivariate analysis, LOHat 16q was a significant negative prognostic factor affecting EFS (3-year EFS, 73.7% vs.91.1%; hazard ratio, 3.95; p=0.037), whereas LOH at 1p was not (p=0.786). @*Conclusion@#LOH at 16q was a significant negative prognostic factor affecting outcome in Korean pediatricFHWT patients. Due to the small sample size of this study, large-scale multicenter trialsare warranted to investigate the prognostic value of LOH at 1p and 16q in Korean childrenwith FHWT.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899724

ABSTRACT

Background@#Infants and very young children with malignant brain tumors have a poorer survival and a higher risk for neurologic deficits. The present study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of multimodal treatment including tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in minimizing use of radiotherapy (RT) in very young children with non-metastatic malignant brain tumors. @*Methods@#Twenty consecutive patients younger than 3 years were enrolled between 2004 and 2017. Tandem HDCT/auto-SCT was performed after six cycles of induction chemotherapy.Local RT was administered only to patients with post-operative gross residual tumor at older than 3 years. Since September 2015, early post-operative local RT for patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor or primitive neuroectodermal tumor was administered. @*Results@#All 20 enrolled patients underwent the first HDCT/auto-SCT, and 18 proceeded to the second. Two patients died from toxicity during the second HDCT/auto-SCT, and four patients experienced relapse/progression (one localized and three metastatic), three of whom remained alive after salvage treatment including RT. A total of 17 patients remained alive at a median 7.8 (range, 2.5−15.7) years from diagnosis. Nine survivors received no RT, six survivors received local RT alone, and two survivors who experienced metastatic relapse after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT received both local and craniospinal RT. The 5-year overall, eventfree, and craniospinal RT-free survival rates were 85.0% ± 8.0%, 70.0% ± 10.2%, and 75.0% ± 9.7%, respectively. Neuroendocrine and neurocognitive functions evaluated 5 years after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT were acceptable. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that non-metastatic malignant brain tumors in very young children could be treated with multimodal therapy including tandem HDCT/auto-SCT while minimizing RT, particularly craniospinal RT.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899708

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the incidence and clinical significance of segmental chromosomal aberrations (SCAs) in Korean patients with neuroblastoma. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed with neuroblastoma from 2012 to 2018 were included for retrospective review. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze four SCAs (MYCN amplification, 1p deletion, 11q deletion, and 17q gain). Clinical characteristics at diagnosis, early tumor response (reduction in primary tumor volume and neuron-specific enolase level after the first three cycles of chemotherapy), and survival rates were compared according to SCAs. @*Results@#Among 173 patients with FISH results, 92 (53.2%) had at least one of the four SCAs, while 25 (14.5%) had two co-aberrations, and eight (4.6%) had three co-aberrations. SCAs detected in our study were MYCN amplification (n = 17, 9.8%), 1p deletion (n = 26, 15.2%), 11q deletion (n = 44, 25.6%), and 17q gain (n = 46, 27.1%). Patients with MYCN amplification showed a better early response but a worse survival than those without (5-year overall survival: 46.2% ± 13.1% vs. 88.6% ± 3.4%). Furthermore, 1p deletion was associated with a better early response but a worse survival; however, it was not an independent factor for survival. We could not find any prognostic significance associated with 11q deletion or 17q gain. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study investigating SCAs in Korean neuroblastoma patients. Prognostic significance of SCAs other than MYCN amplification was different from those reported in western countries. Further study with a larger cohort and longer follow-up is needed to confirm our findings.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892020

ABSTRACT

Background@#Infants and very young children with malignant brain tumors have a poorer survival and a higher risk for neurologic deficits. The present study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of multimodal treatment including tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in minimizing use of radiotherapy (RT) in very young children with non-metastatic malignant brain tumors. @*Methods@#Twenty consecutive patients younger than 3 years were enrolled between 2004 and 2017. Tandem HDCT/auto-SCT was performed after six cycles of induction chemotherapy.Local RT was administered only to patients with post-operative gross residual tumor at older than 3 years. Since September 2015, early post-operative local RT for patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor or primitive neuroectodermal tumor was administered. @*Results@#All 20 enrolled patients underwent the first HDCT/auto-SCT, and 18 proceeded to the second. Two patients died from toxicity during the second HDCT/auto-SCT, and four patients experienced relapse/progression (one localized and three metastatic), three of whom remained alive after salvage treatment including RT. A total of 17 patients remained alive at a median 7.8 (range, 2.5−15.7) years from diagnosis. Nine survivors received no RT, six survivors received local RT alone, and two survivors who experienced metastatic relapse after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT received both local and craniospinal RT. The 5-year overall, eventfree, and craniospinal RT-free survival rates were 85.0% ± 8.0%, 70.0% ± 10.2%, and 75.0% ± 9.7%, respectively. Neuroendocrine and neurocognitive functions evaluated 5 years after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT were acceptable. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that non-metastatic malignant brain tumors in very young children could be treated with multimodal therapy including tandem HDCT/auto-SCT while minimizing RT, particularly craniospinal RT.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892004

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the incidence and clinical significance of segmental chromosomal aberrations (SCAs) in Korean patients with neuroblastoma. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed with neuroblastoma from 2012 to 2018 were included for retrospective review. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze four SCAs (MYCN amplification, 1p deletion, 11q deletion, and 17q gain). Clinical characteristics at diagnosis, early tumor response (reduction in primary tumor volume and neuron-specific enolase level after the first three cycles of chemotherapy), and survival rates were compared according to SCAs. @*Results@#Among 173 patients with FISH results, 92 (53.2%) had at least one of the four SCAs, while 25 (14.5%) had two co-aberrations, and eight (4.6%) had three co-aberrations. SCAs detected in our study were MYCN amplification (n = 17, 9.8%), 1p deletion (n = 26, 15.2%), 11q deletion (n = 44, 25.6%), and 17q gain (n = 46, 27.1%). Patients with MYCN amplification showed a better early response but a worse survival than those without (5-year overall survival: 46.2% ± 13.1% vs. 88.6% ± 3.4%). Furthermore, 1p deletion was associated with a better early response but a worse survival; however, it was not an independent factor for survival. We could not find any prognostic significance associated with 11q deletion or 17q gain. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study investigating SCAs in Korean neuroblastoma patients. Prognostic significance of SCAs other than MYCN amplification was different from those reported in western countries. Further study with a larger cohort and longer follow-up is needed to confirm our findings.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765167

ABSTRACT

In the initial published version of this article, there was a mistake in the title. The correct title should be “Impact of Day 14 Peripheral Blood Chimerism after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation on the Treatment Outcome of Non-Malignant Disease”.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of early peripheral blood chimerism on the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is unclear. We aimed to determine whether day 14 peripheral blood chimerism after allo-HSCT predicts outcomes in patients with non-malignant diseases. METHODS: Data from 56 patients who received allo-HSCT between April 2007 and March 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Chimerism was evaluated using short-tandem repeat polymerase chain reaction, with mixed chimerism (MC) defined as greater than 1% recipient cells which was further categorized into low-level MC (> 1% and < 15% of recipient-derived cells) and high-level MC (≥ 15% of the recipient-derived cells). RESULTS: Thirty-six patients showed complete donor chimerism (CC), 14 low-level MC, and 6 high-level MC at day 14 post-transplant. The estimated 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was higher in the CC or low-level MC groups than in the high-level MC group (86.1% vs. 71.4% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.001). In BM or peripheral blood stem cell (BM/PBSC) transplants, the 5-year EFS was higher in the CC or low-level MC group than in the high-level MC group (93.1% vs. 66.7% vs. 0%; P < 0.001). However, in cord blood transplants, the 5-year OS and EFS according to the day 14 peripheral blood chimerism did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Although CC is not always necessary after allo-HSCT for non-malignant diseases, our data suggest that day 14 peripheral blood chimerism may predict outcomes in patients with non-malignant diseases who underwent BM/PBSC transplants.


Subject(s)
Bone Transplantation , Chimerism , Disease-Free Survival , Fetal Blood , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a member of the NT family, has only been considered an ancillary compound that provides anti-apoptotic benefits by inactivating tropomyosin receptor kinase C (TrkC)-induced apoptotic signals. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of NT-3 expression itself in neuroblastoma. The purpose of this study was to assess NT-3 expression in patients with neuroblastoma and its relevance to clinicopathologic findings and treatment outcomes. METHODS: In this study, expression of NT-3 and TrkC was analyzed using immunohistochemistry in 240 patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. RESULTS: The results of the study revealed that NT-3 expression was associated with older age at diagnosis, localized tumors, and more differentiated tumors but was not associated with early treatment response (degree of residual tumor volume after three cycles of chemotherapy) and progression-free survival (PFS). However, when analysis was confined to patients with MYCN amplified tumors, NT-3 expression was associated with better early treatment response with borderline significance (P = 0.092) and higher PFS (86.9% vs. 58.2%; P = 0.044). In multivariate analysis in patients with MYCN amplified tumors, NT-3 was independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 0.246; 95% confidence interval, 0.061–0.997; P = 0.050). In another subgroup analysis, the early treatment response was better if NT-3 was expressed in patients without TrkC expression (P = 0.053) while it was poorer in patients with TrkC expression (P = 0.023). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that NT-3 expression in neuroblastoma has its own clinical significance independent of TrkC expression, and its prognostic significance differs depending on the status of MYCN amplification and/or TrkC expression.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm, Residual , Neuroblastoma , Phosphotransferases , Tropomyosin
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741359

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the prognosis is generally good in patients with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma, no consensus has been reached on the ideal treatment regimen. This study analyzed treatment outcomes and toxicities in patients younger than 18 months with stage 4 MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients younger than 18 months newly diagnosed with stage 4 MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma between January 2009 and December 2015. Patients received 9 cycles of chemotherapy and surgery, with or without local radiotherapy, followed by 12 cycles of differentiation therapy with 13-cis-retinoic acid. Chemotherapy consisted of alternating cycles of cisplatin, etoposide, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (CEDC) and ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) regimens. RESULTS: The most common primary tumor site was the abdomen (85%), and the most common metastatic sites were the lymph nodes (65%), followed by the bones (60%), liver (55%), skin (45%), and bone marrow (25%). At the end of induction therapy, 14 patients (70%) achieved complete response, with 1 achieving very good partial response, 4 achieving partial response, and 1 showing mixed response. Nine patients (45%) received local radiotherapy. At a median follow-up of 47 months (range, 17–91 months), none of these patients experienced relapse, progression, or secondary malignancy, or died. Three years after chemotherapy completion, none of the patients had experienced grade ≥3 late adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Patients younger than 18 months with stage 4 MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma showed excellent outcomes, without significant late adverse effects, when treated with alternating cycles of CEDC and ICE, followed by surgery and differentiation therapy.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Bone Marrow , Carboplatin , Child , Cisplatin , Consensus , Cyclophosphamide , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Etoposide , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ice , Ifosfamide , Infant , Isotretinoin , Liver , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroblastoma , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Skin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By estimating the survival rates and exploring prognostic factors in pediatric patients with relapsed or progressed solid tumors, our purpose was to generate background data for future studies. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 258 patients with solid tumors who experienced relapse/progression and received subsequent salvage treatment between 1996 and 2016. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients remained progression-free during first-line salvage treatment, while the remaining 198 patients experienced relapse/progression again; 149 underwent second-line salvage treatment. A total of 76 patients underwent high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT), and 44 patients received allogeneic SCT. The 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from relapse/progression were 18.4% ± 2.7% and 24.5% ± 3.0%, respectively. Survival rates were relatively higher in patients with anaplastic ependymoma, initially non-high-risk neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, Wilms tumor and retinoblastoma. A multivariate analysis showed that relapse/progression during initial treatment, metastatic relapse/progression, and impossible debulking surgery were independent poor prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. Patients who exhibited a complete response or partial response during conventional salvage treatment showed significantly higher survival after SCT than those with stable disease or progressive disease (10-year OS: 54.8% ± 7.0% vs. 7.0% ± 3.5%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prognosis of relapsed/progressed pediatric solid tumors still remains unsatisfactory. New, effective treatment strategies are needed to overcome limitations of current approaches. Hopefully, the background data generated herein will be used in future clinical trials involving patients with relapsed/progressed solid tumors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Ependymoma , Humans , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neuroblastoma , Osteosarcoma , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retinoblastoma , Salvage Therapy , Stem Cell Transplantation , Survival Rate , Wilms Tumor
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