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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833743

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dental diseases are common in dogs and cats, and accurate measurements of dentoalveolar structure are important for planning of treatment. The information that the comparison computed tomography (CT) with dental radiography (DTR) is not yet reported in veterinary medicine. @*Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to compare the DTR with CT of dentoalveolar structures in healthy dogs and cats, and to evaluate the CT images of 2 different slice thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm). @*Methods@#We included 6 dogs (2 Maltese and 1 Spitz, Beagle, Pomeranian, mixed, 1 to 8 years, 4 castrated males, and 2 spayed female) and 6 cats (6 domestic short hair, 8 months to 3 years, 4 castrated male, and 2 spayed female) in this study. We measured the pulp cavity to tooth width ratio (P/T ratio) and periodontal space of maxillary and mandibular canine teeth, maxillary fourth premolar, mandibular first molar, maxillary third premolar and mandibular fourth premolar. @*Results@#P/T ratio and periodontal space in the overall dentition of both dogs and cats were smaller in DTR compared to CT. In addition, CT images at 1.0 mm slice thickness was generally measured to be greater than the images at 0.5 mm slice thickness. @*Conclusions@#The results indicate that CT with thin slice thickness provides more accurate information on the dentoalveolar structures. Additional DTR, therefore, may not be required for evaluating dental structure in small-sized dogs and cats.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758900

ABSTRACT

The magnetic resonance (MR) features of spinal epidural hemorrhage depending with the passage of time have a meaning in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study is to propose the characteristic MR image of spinal epidural hemorrhage using a lower field permanent magnet scanner in dogs. A total of 8 clinically normal beagle dogs, weighing about 9 kg, were allocated. After a baseline MR examination, spinal epidural hemorrhage was created. MR scanning was executed on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 using 0.25 Tesla low field MR. Transverse MR images were attained for image examination. T2W, T1W, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and T2*-GRE sequences were used. Images were compared subjectively for signal transition assessment. Spinal epidural hemorrhage models were produced positively in 8 dogs at the T12 to L2 region. Initially, the spinal cord and epidural lesions were hyper-intense on T2W and T1W images. On T2W, FLAIR and STIR images, the spinal cord lesion was steadily hyperintense. No significant and consistent hypointense signal indicating hemorrhage was seen on T2*-GRE images. This study result suggests that relatively consistent hyperinstensity on T2 and FLAIR is observed for 30 days, meanwhile T2*-GRE imaging is less useful in hemorrhage detection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal , Hemorrhage , Spinal Cord , Veterinary Medicine
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148736

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.


Subject(s)
Anal Sacs , Animals , Cats , Diagnostic Imaging , Dogs , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radiography , Ultrasonography
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110759

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to assess time-sensitive magnetic resonance (MR) changes in canine blood using low-field MR. Arterial and venous blood samples were collected from eight healthy beagle dogs. Samples were placed in 5-mL tubes and imaged within 3 hours of collection at 1 day intervals from day 1 to day 30. The following sequences were used: T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and T2-star gradient-echo (T2*-GRE). Visual comparison of the images revealed that four relatively homogenous blood clots and twelve heterogeneous blood clots developed. The margination of the clot and plasma changed significantly on day 2 and day 13. On day 2, heterogeneous blood clots were differentiated into 2 to 3 signal layers in the T2W, T1W, and especially the STIR images. Hypointense signal layers were also detected in the blood clots in STIR images, which have T2 hypo, FLAIR hypo, and T1 hyper intense signals. In all images, these signal layers remained relatively unchanged until day 13. Overall, the results suggest that hematomas are complex on low-field MRI. Accordingly, it may not be feasible to accurately characterize hemorrhages and predict clot age based on low-field MRI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood/diagnostic imaging , Blood Coagulation , Blood Physiological Phenomena , Dogs , Female , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Time
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atropine is an anticholinergic drug which is commonly used in clinical practice. The effect of parasympathetic block with atropine on dynamic cerebrovascular regulation remains unclear. This study was aimed to identify effects of vagolytic atropine on cerebrovascular response during acute orthostatic hypotension in humans. METHODS: Continuous middle cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV, transcranial Doppler) and arterial blood pressure (ABP, Finometer) were measured during a sit-to-stand procedure in 10 healthy subjects with placebo and vagolytic (10 microg/kg) doses of atropine. Cerebral vascular tone was assessed by cerebrovascular resistance (CVR = ABP / CBFV). Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was also assessed by transfer function analysis of ABP and CBFV. RESULTS: During the standing session, ABP fell to a similar extent in both groups by an average of 23 to 25 mmHg (26% to 29%). CBFV also fell in all subjects but significantly more in vagolytic atropine (-15.0 +/- 7.0 cm/s) compared with placebo (-12.0 +/- 5.8 cm/s, P < 0.05). CVR was decreased significantly in the placebo group during posture change (1.56 +/- 0.44 vs. 1.38 +/- 0.38, P < 0.05), in contrast, lesser decreased in the atropine group (1.60 +/- 0.50 vs. 1.53 +/- 0.42, P = 0.193). Transfer function coherence in the very-low-frequency range was significantly increased in the atropine group during the standing session (0.55 +/- 0.14), compared with the sitting session (0.45 +/- 0.14, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: These data present that vagolytic atropine attenuates cerebral vasodilation response to acute orthostatic hypotension, suggesting the use of atropine may need care in patients with cerebrovascular disease with vagal impairment.


Subject(s)
Arterial Pressure , Atropine , Blood Flow Velocity , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypotension, Orthostatic , Posture , Vasodilation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207349

ABSTRACT

Discal cysts, which lie directly over intervertebral discs, are rare. Two old dogs with tetraparesis were referred to our facility. In both animals, magnetic resonance imaging revealed intraspinal extradural cystic mass lesions that were dorsal to degenerative intervertebral discs at the C3-C4 level. These lesions had low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. A ventral slot approach was used to perform surgical decompression, after which the symptoms improved remarkably. Discal cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with cervical pain and tetraparesis. One effective treatment for discal cysts is surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
Animals , Decompression, Surgical , Diagnosis, Differential , Dogs , Intervertebral Disc , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck Pain , Spine
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202777

ABSTRACT

The feasibility of virtual otoscopy (VO) imaging was evaluated in five dogs with experimentally induced otitis media, two control dogs, and two canine patients with otitis media. VO images of the tympanic cavity and ossicles were generated with commercially available software using raw computed tomography (CT) data. Eight out of 10 ears inoculated with pathogen exhibited obvious clinical signs associated with otitis externa. CT images revealed soft tissue density material occupying the tympanic bulla compatible with otitis media in three dogs with experimentally induced otitis media and two patients. No remarkable features were observed on the radiographs. Four different VO views (ear canal, tympanic bulla, eustachian tube, and ossicular chain) were created. Promontory, cochlea window, tympanic, and septum bulla as well as ossicles were easily and clearly distinguished except for the incus and stapes of the clinical patients. VO images were not more suitable than images created with conventional CT for accurately diagnosing otitis media in this study. However, it appears that VO could be more feasible for assessing the complex structure of the inner ear in dogs with fluid-filled tympanic cavities since fluid accumulation within the tympanic bulla did not affect the evaluation of bony tissue in the middle ear on VO images.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blister , Cochlea , Dogs , Ear , Ear, Inner , Ear, Middle , Eustachian Tube , Incus , Otitis Externa , Otitis Media , Otoscopy , Stapes
8.
Gut and Liver ; : 471-475, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Various strategies to expand the ablation zone have been attempted using hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The optimal strategy, however, is unknown. We compared hepatic RFA with an internally cooled wet (ICW) electrode and vascular inflow occlusion. METHODS: Eight dogs were assigned to one of three groups: only RFA using an internally cooled electrode (group A), RFA using an ICW electrode (group B), and RFA using an internally cooled electrode with the Pringle maneuver (group C). The ablation zone diameters were measured on the gross specimens, and the volume of the ablation zone was calculated. RESULTS: The ablation zone volume was greatest in group B (1.82+/-1.23 cm3), followed by group C (1.22+/-0.47 cm3), and then group A (0.48+/-0.33 cm3). The volumes for group B were significantly larger than the volumes for group A (p=0.030). There was no significant difference in the volumes between groups A and C (p=0.079) and between groups B and C (p=0.827). CONCLUSIONS: Both the usage of an ICW electrode and hepatic vascular occlusion effectively expanded the ablation zone. The use of an ICW electrode induced a larger ablation zone with easy handling compared with using hepatic vascular occlusion, although this difference was not statistically significant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catheter Ablation , Dogs , Electrodes , Handling, Psychological , Liver
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38059

ABSTRACT

Supernumerary ectopic limb(s) (SEL) is a congenital anomaly defined as the presence of accessory limb(s) attached to various body regions. This paper describes a case of SEL with ectopic lung and ectopia cordis in a newborn calf, based on macroscopic, microscopic and radiographic findings. External features of multiple congenital anomalies included an ectopic lung growing over the middle of the backbone and covered with normal haired skin. Ectopia cordis was found in the abdominal cavity and attached to the liver. Two extra abnormal limbs originated separately from within the ectopic lung. Most of the abdominal organs were exposed to the outside through the opened abdominal cavity. Microscopically the ectopic lung tissue had edema in the connective tissue around the bronchus and artery. Changes in other organs included congestion of the renal medulla, infiltration of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and eosinophils) around the hepatic portal tract, and edema surrounding blood vessels and neurons in the brain. The rudimentary humerus of the forelimb was attached to the thoracic spine, as viewed radiographically. The hindlimb was consisted of an irregularly shaped femur, short tibia and fibula, two tarsal bones, one metatarsal bone, and three phalanges. This is the first description of congenital anomalies involving the SEL, ectopic lung and ectopia cordis in a calf.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Cavity , Animals , Arteries , Blood Vessels , Body Regions , Brain , Bronchi , Connective Tissue , Ectopia Cordis , Edema , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Extremities , Femur , Fibula , Forelimb , Hair , Hindlimb , Humans , Humerus , Infant, Newborn , Liver , Lung , Metatarsal Bones , Neurons , Skin , Spine , Tarsal Bones , Tibia
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We wanted to investigate the feasibility of using FDG-PET for evaluating the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of a hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of ten rabbits. Two weeks later, liver CT was performed to confirm appropriate tumor growth for the experiment. After tumor volume-matched grouping of the rabbits, transcatheter intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA was performed (1 mM and 5 mM in five animals each, respectively). FDG-PET scan was performed the day before, immediately after and a week after 3-BrPA administration. FDG uptake was semiquantified by measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV). A week after treatment, the experimental animals were sacrificed and the necrosis rates of the tumors were calculated based on the histopathology. RESULTS: The SUV of the VX2 tumors before treatment (3.87+/-1.51[mean+/-SD]) was significantly higher than that of nontumorous liver parenchyma (1.72+/-0.34) (p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test). The SUV was significantly decreased immediately after 3-BrPA administration (2.05+/-1.21) (p = 0.002, Wilcoxon signed rank test). On the one-week follow up PET scan, the FDG uptake remained significantly lower (SUV 1.41+/-0.73) than that before treatment (p = 0.002), although three out of ten animals showed a slightly increasing tendency for the FDG uptake. The tumor necrosis rate ranged from 50.00% to 99.90% (85.48%+/-15.87). There was no significant correlation between the SUV or the SUV decrease rate and the tumor necrosis rate in that range. CONCLUSION: Even though FDG-PET cannot exactly reflect the tumor necrosis rate, FDG-PET is a useful modality for the early assessment of the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA in VX2 liver tumor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Feasibility Studies , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Infusions, Intra-Arterial , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Necrosis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyruvates/pharmacology , Rabbits , Radiopharmaceuticals
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160617

ABSTRACT

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) was carried out to determine the resistive index (RI) values of normal canine cerebral arteries and its reproducibility and to evaluate the change of cerebral vascular resistance following diuretics administration. RI values of rostral cerebral artery (RCA) were compared between fontanelle window and temporal window. Normal ranges and reproducibility of the RI values were examined in the rostal cerebral artery (RCA) and caudal cerebral artery (CCA). And after administration of diuretics, TCD-derived RI values were measured at RCA and CCA. Cerebral vascular RI values of RCA and CCA were 0.55 +/- 0.05 and 0.55 +/- 0.03 in the normal dogs, respectively. There was no significant difference of RI between male and female; between fontanelle window and temporal window. Reproducibility of RI measurements between intraobserver and interobserver were relatively high. The RI of RCA and CCA were significantly increased 15 minutes after mannitol administration (p<0.01) and returned to baseline values by 30 minutes, but it did not significantly change after furosemide and saline administration. The results suggest that TCD is a useful test which can obtain reproducible results from any window and has the advantage of detecting subtle changes in cerebral vascular resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cerebral Arteries/drug effects , Diuretics/pharmacology , Dogs/physiology , Feasibility Studies , Furosemide/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography, Doppler/veterinary , Vascular Resistance/drug effects
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128636

ABSTRACT

The present study was performed to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of calculating the mitral regurgitant orifice area with the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method in dogs with experimental mitral regurgitation and in canine patients with chronic mitral insufficiency and to evaluate the effect of general anesthesia on mitral regurgitation. Eight adult, Beagle dogs for experimental mitral regurgitation and 11 small breed dogs with spontaneous mitral regurgitation were used. In 8 Beagle dogs, mild mitral regurgitation was created by disrupting mitral chordae or leaflets. Effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) area was measured by the PISA method and compared with the measurements simultaneously obtained by quantitative Doppler echocardiography 4 weeks after creation of mitral regurgitation. The same procedure was performed in 11 patients with isolated mitral regurgitation and in 8 Beagle dogs under two different protocols of general anesthesia. ERO and regurgitant stroke volume (RSV) by the PISA method correlated well with values by the quantitative Doppler technique with a small error in experimental dogs (r = 0.914 and r = 0.839) and 11 patients (r = 0.990 and r = 0.996). The isoflurane anesthetic echocardiography demonstrated a significant decrease of RSV, and there was no significant change in fractional shortening (FS), ERO area, LV end-diastolic and LV end-systolic volume. ERO area showed increasing tendency after ketamine-xylazine administration, but not statistically significant. RSV, LV end-systolic and LV end-diastolic volume increased significantly (p < 0.01), whereas FS significantly decreased (p < 0.01). The PISA method is accurate and reproducible in experimental mitral regurgitation model and in a clinical setting. ERO area is considered and preferred as a hemodynamic-nondependent factor than other traditional measurements.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Rectal , Animals , Body Surface Potential Mapping/veterinary , Chordae Tendineae/physiopathology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dogs , Echocardiography, Doppler/veterinary , Electrocardiography/veterinary , Mitral Valve/physiopathology , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109431

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to observe normal peristalsis and mixing (or segmental movements) and to evaluate an acupuncture stimulation (ST-36 and BL-27) on the intestinal (duodenum) motility in normal dogs using duplex Doppler sonography. Fifteen healthy Beagle dogs were used for this experiment after the administration of warm saline and pellet feeding. The duodenal motility was examined using duplex Doppler sonography. Six hours after the pellet feeding, an electroacupuncture stimulation at ST-36 and BL-27 was applied and the duodenal motility was examined using duplex Doppler sonography pre-stimulation, during the stimulation and post-stimulation. After saline and pellet administration, the duplex Doppler sonograms showed 3 types of peristalsis and a mixing type (or segmental movement) of duodenum motility. In the peristalsis types, most yielded high-amplitude signals which had one high peak (type-1), two high peaks (type-2), and three high peaks (type-3) and lasted more than 1.3 seconds. Mixing type of duodenum motility had weak signals and were lasted more than 1.5 seconds. Among the peristalsis types, the type 1 and type 2 were predominant and the type 3 was rarely observed. The frequency of intestinal motility stimulated by ST-36 acupoint was increased during the acupuncture stimulation (20% increase compared to the basal value) and decreased (7% decrease compared to the basal value) after stimulation. The frequency of intestinal motility stimulated by BL-27 acupoint was decreased during the acupuncture stimulation (31% decrease compared to the basal value) and increased (18% increase compared to the basal value) after stimulation. There was a significant increase(p<0.01) between the value found in during and the post-stimulation tests. We conclude that duplex Doppler studies permit a graphic visualization of intestinal movements which can be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using this technique, it is possible to evaluate the gastrointestinal motility after an acupuncture stimulation.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Animals , Dogs/physiology , Electroacupuncture/methods , Gastrointestinal Motility , Intestine, Small/physiology , Peristalsis , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods
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