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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837335

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study examined how 12-week regular exercise training affects changes in body composition and factors related to vascular endothelial function including blood nitric oxide (NO) in elderly women with sarcopenic obesity. @*Methods@#Subjects were divided into exercise group (n=15) and control group (n=15) for sarcopenic obese elderly women with 30% or more of body fat and less than 7.67 kg/m2 of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM)/height2 .Before and after 12 week exercise training, body composition, blood pressure, intima-media thickness of carotid artery, blood lipid profiles, NO, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), malondialdehyde, cortisol concentrations were measured and compared. @*Results@#In the exercise group, after exercise training, body weight and body fat percentage decreased significantly (p< 0.05) and ASM/height2 increased significantly (p< 0.05). Systolic blood pressure, intima-media thickness of left carotid artery and blood lipid levels decreased significantly (p< 0.05), and blood NO and eNOS increased significantly (p< 0.05). However, the control group was not significantly different between before and after exercise training. The amount of change in ASM/height2 after exercise training showed a significant (p< 0.05) correlation with the change in blood NO concentration and intima-media thickness of left carotid artery. @*Conclusion@#Regular exercise training for 12 weeks helps to relieve sarcopenic obesity in the elderly, and positive changes in body composition with increased muscle mass can be drive to positive changes in factors related to vascular endothelial function with blood NO, eNOS and lipids. These effects of exercise training thought to help the improvement of blood pressure and intima-media thickness of carotid artery.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786653

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise on vascular function-related inflammation, carotid intima-media thickness and fitness factors in obese middle-aged women with metabolic syndrome.METHODS: The subjects of this study were 40 middle-aged women in their 40s with metabolic syndrome but no specific disease. The exercise group performed aerobic exercise and resistance exercise five times a week for 12 weeks, and then measured body composition, blood pressure, vascular function-related inflammation factors, metabolic syndrome factors, carotid intima-media thickness, and physical factors.RESULTS: The exercise group showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction after exercise in all items related to body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and intima-media thickness of the right carotid and left carotid arteries. Exercise group showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) after exercise in interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, leptin, and all items of glucose metabolism-related variables. The exercise group showed a significant (p<0.05) increase after exercise physical efficiency index, grip strength, sit-ups, and sit & reach. After 12 weeks of exercise training, the reduction of intima-media thickness of the carotid artery was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the improvement of body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, grip and sit & reach, blood HbA1c, and triglyceride concentration.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, metabolic syndrome improved the body composition, blood glucose metabolism and lipid variables after 12 weeks of combined exercise program for obese middle-aged women. Significant improvement in blood pressure and carotid endometrial thickness, which is a function-related indicator, was confirmed.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Body Composition , Body Weight , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Exercise , Female , Glucose , Hand Strength , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Leptin , Metabolism , Necrosis , Physical Fitness , Triglycerides
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918400

ABSTRACT

Nonhuman primate models are valuable in biomedical research. However, reference data for clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys are limited. In the present study, we established hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for healthy cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride. A total of 142 cynomolgus monkeys (28 males and 114 females) and 42 rhesus monkeys (22 males and 20 females) were selected and analyzed in order to examine reference intervals of 20 hematological and 16 biochemical parameters. The effects of sex were also investigated. Reference intervals for hematological and biochemical parameters were separately established by species (cynomolgus and rhesus) and sex (male and female). No sex-related differences were determined in erythrocyte-related parameters for cynomolgus and rhesus monkey housed in indoor laboratory conditions. Alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyltransferase were significantly lower in females than males in both cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys aged 48–96 months. The reference values for hematological and biochemical parameters established herein might provide valuable information for researchers using cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys in experimental conditions for biomedical studies.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716997

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of long-term endurance exercise and natural fermented vinegar on body composition and cardiopulmonary function of 50-aged postmenopausal women. METHODS: Subjects were divided into four groups (sedentary group, aerobic exercise group, natural fermented vinegar group, and aerobic exercise plus natural fermented vinegar group) to perform natural fermented vinegar intake or aerobic exercise for 8 weeks. Body weight, body composition, cardio-pulmonary function test, and blood concentration of glucose, lipid profiles, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were measured. RESULTS: The results showed that natural fermented vinegar or aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks no significantly improved body weight control and body composition. However, natural fermented vinegar plus aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks significantly improved cardiopulmonary function. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that natural fermented vinegar plus aerobic exercise training has a significant effect on anti-fatigue.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Body Composition , Body Weight , Exercise , Fatigue , Female , Glucose , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727951

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intermittent ladder-climbing exercise training on mitochondrial biogenesis and ER stress of the cardiac muscle in high fat diet-induced obese middle-aged rats. We induced obesity over 6 weeks of period in 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats around 50 weeks old, and were randomly divided into four experimental groups: chow, HFD, exercise+HFD, and exercise+chow. The exercising groups underwent high-intensity intermittent training using a ladder-climbing and weight exercise 3 days/week for a total of 8 weeks. High-fat diet and concurrent exercise resulted in no significant reduction in body weight but caused a significant reduction in visceral fat weight (p<0.05). Expression of PPARδ increased in the exercise groups and was significantly increased in the high-fat diet+exercise group (p<0.05). Among the ER stress-related proteins, the expression levels of p-PERK and CHOP, related to cardiac muscle damage, were significantly higher in the cardiac muscle of the high-fat diet group (p<0.05), and were significantly reduced by intermittent ladder-climbing exercise training (p<0.05). Specifically, this reduction was greater when the rats underwent exercise after switching back to the chow diet with a reduced caloric intake. Collectively, these results suggest that the combination of intermittent ladder-climbing exercise training and a reduced caloric intake can decrease the levels of ER stress-related proteins that contribute to cardiac muscle damage in obesity and aging. However, additional validation is required to understand the effects of these changes on mitochondrial biogenesis during exercise.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Body Weight , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Energy Intake , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Male , Myocardium , Obesity , Organelle Biogenesis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26603

ABSTRACT

Although marathon has been considered as a simple or natural event, the multiple factors affect its performance such as physique and physical fitness including physical, technical, and mental factors. Academic disciplinary topics for talent identification in marathon performance are supported by physical characteristics, exercise physiology, biochemistry, nutrition, psychology, biomechanics, development and growth, evaluation and measurement. The scientific factors of marathon consist of physical and physiological characteristics of runners, overcoming trial of environmental effects, nutritional and psychological approach, ergogenic aid, effective training program, shoes and clothes. Especially, cardiopulmonary-related physical fitness is evaluated by maximal oxygen uptake, anaerobic threshold, oxygen transport rate, and lactate tolerance. These scientific approaches for the improvement of running performance have been applied to the pick-up of excellent runner, exercise training, and actual running race for the overcome of limiting factors as environmental condition, exercise-induced fatigue, and injury, etc. In conclusion, we must consider the scientific factors for actual running race with physiological or psychological paradigm, technical application, nutritional approach, genetic analysis and information and communication and technology (ICT) convergence science for the scientific consideration of improvement in marathon running performance.


Subject(s)
Anaerobic Threshold , Aptitude , Biochemistry , Clothing , Racial Groups , Education , Fatigue , Genetics , Growth and Development , Humans , Lactic Acid , Oxygen , Physical Fitness , Physiology , Psychology , Running , Shoes , Sports
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761655

ABSTRACT

Obesity is significantly correlated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome and is an important risk factor of mortality. However, overweight or slight obesity does not increase mortality; therefore, physical fitness might be a more important factor of mortality in such people. The main targets of exercise intervention programs for obesity treatment include decreases in waist circumference, visceral fat, and metabolic risk factors without weight change and improvement of cardiorespiratory function. Based on the results of this study, we suggest the importance of physical fitness for the prevention of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors and the importance of body composition, body weight control, and lifestyle change for prevention of obesity-related metabolic risk factors.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , Body Weight , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Life Style , Mortality , Obesity , Overweight , Physical Fitness , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727815

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the differences in aerobic and anaerobic exercise ability and growth-related indicators, depending on the polymorphism of the ACE and the ACTN3 genes, to understand the genetic influence of exercise ability in the growth process of children. The subjects of the study consisted of elementary school students (n=856, age 10.32+/-0.07 yr). The anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors were compared among groups of the ACE I/D or the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms. There were no significant differences between the anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors for the ACE gene ID or the ACTN3 gene R577X polymorphism. However, the DD type of ACE gene was highest in the side step test (p<0.05), and the DD type was significantly higher than the II+ID type (p<0.05) in the early bone age. The combined group of the ACE gene II+ID and the ACTN3 gene XX type significantly showed lower early bone age (p< 0.05). This study did not find any individual or compounding effects of the polymorphism in the ACE I/D or the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on the anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors of Korean children. However, the exercise experience and the DD type of the ACE gene may affect the early maturity of the bones.


Subject(s)
Child , Exercise , Exercise Test , Genotype , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Physical Fitness
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727364

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the effect of regular Taekwondo training for 16 weeks on physical fitness and growth index depending on different IGF-1 gene polymorphisms. The subjects of the study were 44 male students who were 8 year years old. The IGF-1 gene showed the highest frequency of 18 CA repeat (190 bp) in 50% of subjects, and was found in the homozygote (n=11), heterozygote (n=22) and non-carriers (n=11). The results of the physical fitness and growth index among the gene polymorphism groups indicated no significant differences but the expected height of the non-carrier group was significantly high (p<0.05). After Taekwondo training, the homozygote group and the non-carrier groups demonstrated significant (p<0.05) increase in grip strength and in time in the standing with one leg while closing eyes test, respectively. Only the homozygote group had a significant (p< 0.05) increase in thigh circumference. IGF-1 concentration significantly (p<0.05) increased in the heterozygote group, while HOMA-IR significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the homozygote group. Furthermore, there was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in glucose in both the homozygote and the non-carriers groups. The difference between physical fitness and growth index depending on the IGF-1 gene polymorphism after Taekwondo training did not show consistent impact.


Subject(s)
Child , Glucose , Hand Strength , Heterozygote , Homozygote , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Leg , Male , Physical Fitness , Thigh
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55377

ABSTRACT

Association of insulin like growth factor (IGF)-I gene polymorphism with blood concentration of IGF-I, body composition, bone age and response to combined exercise program in teen-aged children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are the differences of blood concentration of IGF-I, body composition, bone age and response to combined exercise program according to IGF-I gene polymorphism in Korean teen-aged children. Subjects were recruited by 143 teen-aged children (male: 78, female: 65) from elementary school. Twelve weeks exercise program was consisted of resistance training and aerobic exercise. For the comparison of items and responses to combined exercise program according to IGF-I gene polymorphism, blood concentration of IGF-I, skinfold thickness, body circumferences, and growth markers were measured at baseline and after intervention. Body weight, %fat, BMI, skinfold thickness, circumferences, blood concentration of IGF-I, and bone age showed no significant differences following to IGF-I gene polymorphism. Although body composition and blood concentration of IGF-I showed a positive change after 12 week exercise training, 12 week exercise-mediated changes of body composition and blood concentration of IGF-I showed no significant differences following to IGF-I gene polymorphism. In conclusion, IGF-I gene polymorphism no contributed to the differences of body composition, blood concentration of IGF-I, and 12 week exercise-mediated these changes in teen-aged children.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , Body Weight , Child , Exercise , Humans , Insulin , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Resistance Training , Skinfold Thickness
11.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376481

ABSTRACT

This study examined cytokine responses to cold exposure together with the effects of exercise and thermal adaptation. Ten male short-track skaters who had adapted to a cold environment, and ten male inline skaters who had not, were each assigned to two experimental conditions. For the cold condition, subjects sat for 60 min at 5–8°C, then exercised on a cycle ergometer for 60 min at 65% maximal oxygen uptake (at 5–8°C), and finally sat again for 120 min at room temperature (20–25°C). In the control condition, subjects participated in the same protocol as the above but at room temperature (20–25°C). Blood samples were collected at pre-cold exposure, post-cold exposure (pre-exercise), post-exercise, post-30 min, post-60 min, and post-120 min, and analyzed for plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFR-I), cortisol, and myoglobin by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 60-min cycle ergometer exercise induced significant increases in plasma IL-1ra, IL-10 and IL-12p40 at room temperature in short-track skaters adapted to the cold, but significant decreases in these cytokines were observed with exposure to cold. These results indicate that acute cold exposure has a suppressive effect on cytokine response during exercise, suggesting the possibility of preventive effects on immunosuppression, heat stroke and allergy induced by exercise.<br>

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