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Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-39402


A 5-month-old female infant who had chronic diarrhea and acute renal failure was referred to Chulalongkorn Hospital for further investigation and management. Laboratory investigation revealed elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine level, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyponatremia. Ultrasonography of the kidneys showed normal size with bilateral hyperechoic kidneys. Eyes examination was compatible with oxalosis maculopathy. Urine organic acid analysis revealed peak of oxalate and glycolate. Clinical impression concluded acute renal failure from hyperoxaluria. The patient underwent continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVH-DF) with regional citrate anticoagulation and expired on day 13 after admission. Pathological examination of kidney necropsy revealed diffuse intraluminal deposition of oxalate crystals within the renal parenchyma. Primary hyperoxaluria is a very rare disease and has rarely been reported in Thailand. In the presented case, the diagnosis was delayed due to uncommon presentation and unavailability of diagnostic laboratory.

Female , Humans , Hyperoxaluria, Primary/complications , Infant , Kidney/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-45366


OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of angiotensin inhibition on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and renal pathology in ischemic reperfusion (IR). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Male Wistar rats were subjected to 15-, 30-, 45- or 60- minutes ofrenal ischemia (I) by left renal artery occlusion. In the 30-minute I group, reperfusion (R) for I day (13,R) was performed in additional animals that had been treated with water, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE]; enalapril 5 mg/kg/d), or angiotensin receptor type 1 blocker (ARB; losartan 10 mg/kg/d) one day before I and were continued for 1 day after R. Renal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of LPO, was examined during I and IR periods. Renal pathology was also determined. RESULTS: During ischemia, renal tissue MDA levels were increased throughout the 60-minute ischemic period and was maximum at 30 minutes of ischemia (p < 0.01). Histological changes in 30-minutes I group showed slight tubular cell congestion and mild interstitial edema. One day after reperfusion, MDA levels were still elevated (p < 0. 01) when compared with sham. Progression of renal pathology was observed after I day of reperfusion. Both ACEI and ARB could attenuate the heightened MDA levels (p < 0.01). IR-induced renal injury was markedly diminished by administration ofACEI as well as by ARB. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that inhibition of angiotensin could reduce lipid peroxidation and ameliorate renal injury during IR condition.

Angiotensin I/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Kidney/blood supply , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-44457


OBJECTIVE: Severe leptospirosis manifestations include acute renal failure, caused by acute interstitial nephritis and pulmonary hemorrohage. Spirochete invasion and toxicity of outer membrane cause robust inflammatory host responses. These responses lead to the generation of cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory cell infiltrations which result in severe organ dysfunctions. The immunomodulation by the modulation of host immune response may alleviate the renal and pulmonary injury. The authors determined whether the current immunosuppressive agents could alleviate the inflammation and minimize the organ injury in hamster model. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The animal experiments were conducted with the approval of The Ethical Research Committee of Chulalongkorn University Hospital. The leptospira interrogan serovar pyrogenese was isolated from a wild rat. The spirochete was grown in Fletcher's semisolid media and after subcultures were transferred to the Fletcher's liquid media. An amount of 0.5 ml of the spirochete culture media containing 1 x 10(8) leptospires/ml was intraperitoneally injected to golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocrietus auratus), age 4-6 weeks, weighing 60-80 grams. The hamsters were randomed into 5 groups (n = 4 in each group) namely, 1) Normal group (Control group), 2) Leptospira group, 3) CsA group (leptospira with cyclosporine feeding, 100 mg/kg/ day), 4) Rapa group (leptospira with rapamicin feeding, 0.6 mg/kg/day), and 5) Irra group (leptospira with irradiation). Cyclosporine and rapamicin were started at day 0 after the spirochete injection. Gamma ray dose 200 cGy was irradiated to the hamster 3 days before the spirochete inoculation. The animals were autopsied or euthanized if expired or at day 5 post inoculation. The blood samples for BUN, and creatinine were drawn before the inoculation and at autopsy or euthanasia. RESULTS: The inoculation of L Interrogan 0.5 ml (1 x 10(8) leptospires/ml) without immunomodulation cause mortality of all animals at day 4 or day 5 post inoculation. The blood chemistry showed acute severe azotemia. The autopsy findings revealed severe interstitial nephritis and severe pulmonary hemorrhage. The hamsters in the Rapa group had only minimal pulmonary hemorrhage and minimal focal interstitial inflammation of kidney. There were cytoadherance of inflammatory cells to the endothelial cells in lungs and kidneys without the intrusion into the interstitium. The blood chemistry in Rapa group showed mild elevation of BUN and Cr. The immunomodulation by cyclosporine and irradiation did not alleviate the disease. On the contrary, cyclosporine and irradiation caused more severe histopathology. CONCLUSION: The immunomodulation by rapamicin in leptospirosis in hamsters could alleviate the kidney and pulmonary injuries. The up-regulation of IL-2 in peripheral blood lymphocytes did not result in the kidney and pulmonary injuries.

Animals , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Leptospira , Leptospirosis/complications , Lung/pathology , Sirolimus/administration & dosage