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1.
Singapore medical journal ; : 619-623, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877439

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we aim to provide professional guidance to clinicians who are managing patients with chronic liver disease during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Singapore. We reviewed and summarised the available relevant published data on liver disease in COVID-19 and the advisory statements that were issued by major professional bodies, such as the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver, contextualising the recommendations to our local situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Chronic Disease , Hepatitis B, Chronic/therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/therapy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Transplantation , Singapore/epidemiology
2.
Singapore medical journal ; : 345-349, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827293

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we aimed to provide professional guidance to practising gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopists for the safe conduct of GI endoscopy procedures during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and future outbreaks of similar severe respiratory tract infections in Singapore. It draws on the lessons learnt during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic and available published data concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. It addresses measures before, during and after endoscopy that must be considered for both non-infected and infected patients, and provides recommendations for practical implementation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Reference Standards , Gastroenterologists , Reference Standards , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Factors , Singapore , Epidemiology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There has been major progress in our understanding of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and novel treatment classes have emerged. The Rome IV guidelines were published in 2016 and together with the growing body of Asian data on IBS, we felt it is timely to update the Asian IBS Consensus. METHODS: Key opinion leaders from Asian countries were organized into 4 teams to review 4 themes: symptoms and epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and investigations, and lifestyle modifications and treatments. The consensus development process was carried out by using a modified Delphi method. RESULTS: Thirty-seven statements were developed. Asian data substantiate the current global viewpoint that IBS is a disorder of gut-brain interaction. Socio-cultural and environmental factors in Asia appear to influence the greater overlap between IBS and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. New classes of treatments comprising low fermentable oligo-, di-, monosacharides, and polyols diet, probiotics, non-absorbable antibiotics, and secretagogues have good evidence base for their efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Our consensus is that all patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders should be evaluated comprehensively with a view to holistic management. Physicians should be encouraged to take a positive attitude to the treatment outcomes for IBS patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Consensus , Constipation , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Diet , Epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Intestines , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Life Style , Methods , Probiotics
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is a need for a simple and practical tool adapted for the diagnosis of chronic constipation (CC) in the Asian population. This study compared the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association (ANMA) CC tool and Rome III criteria for the diagnosis of CC in Asian subjects. METHODS: This multicenter, cross-sectional study included subjects presenting at outpatient gastrointestinal clinics across Asia. Subjects with CC alert symptoms completed a combination Diagnosis Questionnaire to obtain a diagnosis based on 4 different diagnostic methods: self-defined, investigator's judgment, ANMA CC tool, and Rome III criteria. The primary endpoint was the level of agreement/disagreement between the ANMA CC diagnostic tool and Rome III criteria for the diagnosis of CC. RESULTS: The primary analysis comprised of 449 subjects, 414 of whom had a positive diagnosis according to the ANMA CC tool. Rome III positive/ANMA positive and Rome III negative/ANMA negative diagnoses were reported in 76.8% and 7.8% of subjects, respectively, resulting in an overall percentage agreement of 84.6% between the 2 diagnostic methods. The overall percentage disagreement between these 2 diagnostic methods was 15.4%. A higher level of agreement was seen between the ANMA CC tool and self-defined (374 subjects [90.3%]) or investigator’s judgment criteria (388 subjects [93.7%]) compared with the Rome III criteria. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the ANMA CC tool can be a useful for Asian patients with CC.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Constipation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Humans , Judgment , Outpatients
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), diagnosed by symptom-based criteria due to lack of biomarkers, need translated-validated questionnaires in different languages. As Bengali, the mother tongue of Bangladesh and eastern India, is the seventh most spoken language in the world, we translated and validated the Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q) in this language. METHODS: The EAR3Q was translated in Bengali as per guideline from the Rome Foundation. The translated questionnaire was validated prospectively on Bengali-speaking healthy subjects (HS, n = 30), and patients with functional dyspepsia (FD, n = 35), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 40) and functional constipation (FC, n = 12) diagnosed by clinicians using the Rome III criteria. The subjects were asked to fill-in the questionnaire again after 2 weeks, to check for its reproducibility. RESULTS: During translation, the original and the backward translated English versions of the questionnaire demonstrated high concordance. Sensitivity of the Bengali questionnaire to diagnose patients with FD, IBS, FC, and HS was 100%, 100%, 75%, and 100%, respectively, considering diagnosis by the clinicians as the gold standard. On test-retest reliability analysis, Kappa values for FD, IBS, FC, and HS were 1.0, 1.0, 0.83, and 1.0, respectively. The Bengali questionnaire detected considerable overlap of FD symptoms among patients with IBS, IBS among patients with FD, and FD among patients with FC, which were not detected by the clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully translated and validated the EAR3Q in Bengali. We believe that this translated questionnaire will be useful for clinical evaluation and research on FGIDs in the Bengali-speaking population.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Bangladesh , Biomarkers , Constipation , Diagnosis , Dyspepsia , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , India , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Mothers , Prospective Studies , Tongue
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has risen considerably over the past decade in Singapore. We aim to explore the contribution of changes in diet, lifestyle and habits that may contribute to the increased prevalence and development of IBS. METHODS: This is a survey-based cross-sectional population study aimed to gather demographic, socio-economical, lifestyle, dietary, antibiotic usage and other related information. Subjects were adult male or female Singaporeans aged 21 years or above. Association of the factors gathered with the presence or absence of IBS (by Rome III criteria) was assessed using chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Variables with a level of statistical significance of 0.1 or less in the univariate analysis were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 297 subjects participated in the study (female 60.3%). Overall, 20.9% subjects fulfilled the Rome III IBS criteria. Univariate analysis showed that IBS was associated with pet ownership, antibiotic usage, late dinner, (> 9 PM) and consumption of Western meals, coffee, and bread. The multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IBS was independently associated with being a pet owner (P = 0.008; OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.278–5.037). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of IBS was 20.9% using the Rome III criteria in our study. The association between IBS and pet ownership will need further investigation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bread , Coffee , Diet , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Life Style , Logistic Models , Male , Meals , Ownership , Pets , Prevalence , Singapore
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14532

ABSTRACT

BAome III criteria. METHODS: After EAR3Q was developed by Asian experts by cCKGROUND/AIMS: The development-processes by regional socio-cultural adaptation of an Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q), a cultural adaptation of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire (R3DQ), and its translation-validation in Asian languages are presented. As English is not the first language for most Asians, translation-validation of EAR3Q is essential. Hence, we aimed to culturally adapt the R3DQ to develop EAR3Q and linguistically validate it to show that the EAR3Q is able to allocate diagnosis according to Ronsensus, it was translated into Chinese, Hindi-Telugu, Indonesian, Korean, and Thai, following Rome Foundation guidelines; these were then validated on native subjects (healthy [n = 60], and patients with irritable bowel syndrome [n = 59], functional dyspepsia [n = 53] and functional constipation [n = 61]) diagnosed by clinicians using Rome III criteria, negative alarm features and investigations. RESULTS: Experts noted words for constipation, bloating, fullness and heartburn, posed difficulty. The English back-translated questionnaires demonstrated concordance with the original EAR3Q. Sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaires were high enough to diagnose respective functional gastrointestinal disorders (gold standard: clinical diagnoses) in most except Korean and Indonesian languages. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping functional gastrointestinal disorders. Test-retest agreement (kappa) values of the translated questionnaires were high (0.700-1.000) except in Korean (0.300-0.500) and Indonesian (0.100-0.400) languages at the initial and 2-week follow-up visit. CONCLUSIONS: Though Chinese, Hindi and Telugu translations were performed well, Korean and Indonesian versions were not. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping FGIDs, which were quite common.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Constipation , Diagnosis , Dyspepsia , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Heartburn , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sensitivity and Specificity , Translations
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-87481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-celiac gluten sensitivity has been increasingly recognized as a predisposing factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms in Western populations where celiac disease (CD) is relatively common. In Asia where CD is rare, we wish to determine the prevalence of gluten protein associated serology in IBS patients, which has not been formally studied, and its relation to histological and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) markers. METHODS: We reviewed a consecutive cohort of Asian patients with IBS, who had undergone serologic testing for IgA against deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies (IgA DGP) and IgA anti-endomysium antibodies, and who also had duodenal biopsies during clinical workup. In addition, a subset of Chinese patients with positive serology was further tested for HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8. RESULTS: Of 186 patients, 34 (18%) were positive for IgA DGP; bloating, abdominal pain, belching and diarrhea were the most commonly reported symptoms but diarrhea as the most bothersome symptom was significantly more common in IgA DGP positive patients. Mildly increased intra-epithelial lymphocytes on duodenal biopsy was also more common (29% vs. 9%, P = 0.001). Nine of 21 Chinese patients tested as IgA DGP positive undertook HLA-DQ2/DQ8 testing, with only 2 being positive for HLA-DQ8. All patients with positive IgA DGP reported symptom improvement with gluten withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: We have described a series of Asian, mainly Chinese, patients with IBS who were tested positive for IgA DGP, and improved on a gluten exclusion diet. We believe this is the first report of non-celiac gluten sensitivity in Asia, a region where CD is uncommon.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Antibodies , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Biopsy , Causality , Celiac Disease , Cohort Studies , Diarrhea , Diet , Eructation , Gliadin , Glutens , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Leukocytes , Lymphocytes , Prevalence , Serologic Tests
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46115

ABSTRACT

Chronic constipation (CC) may impact on quality of life. There is substantial patient dissatisfaction; possible reasons are failure to recognize underlying constipation, inappropriate dietary advice and inadequate treatment. The aim of these practical guidelines intended for primary care physicians, and which are based on Asian perspectives, is to provide an approach to CC that is relevant to the existing health-care infrastructure. Physicians should not rely on infrequent bowel movements to diagnose CC as many patients have one or more bowel movement a day. More commonly, patients present with hard stool, straining, incomplete feeling, bloating and other dyspeptic symptoms. Physicians should consider CC in these situations and when patients are found to use laxative containing supplements. In the absence of alarm features physicians may start with a 2-4 week therapeutic trial of available pharmacological agents including osmotic, stimulant and enterokinetic agents. Where safe to do so, physicians should consider regular (as opposed to on demand dosing), combination treatment and continuous treatment for at least 4 weeks. If patients do not achieve satisfactory response, they should be referred to tertiary centers for physiological evaluation of colonic transit and pelvic floor function. Surgical referral is a last resort, which should be considered only after a thorough physiological and psychological evaluation.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Colon , Constipation , Health Resorts , Humans , Pelvic Floor , Physicians, Primary Care , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life , Referral and Consultation , Sprains and Strains
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Environmental factors such as food, lifestyle and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection are widely different in Asian countries compared to the West, and physiological functions and genetic factors of Asians may also be different from those of Westerners. Establishing an Asian consensus for functional dyspepsia is crucial in order to attract attention to such data from Asian countries, to articulate the experience and views of Asian experts, and to provide a relevant guide on management of functional dyspepsia for primary care physicians working in Asia. METHODS: Consensus team members were selected from Asian experts and consensus development was carried out using a modified Delphi method. Consensus teams collected published papers on functional dyspepsia especially from Asia and developed candidate consensus statements based on the generated clinical questions. At the first face-to-face meeting, each statement was reviewed and e-mail voting was done twice. At the second face-to-face meeting, final voting on each statement was done using keypad voting system. A grade of evidence and a strength of recommendation were applied to each statement according to the method of the GRADE Working Group. RESULTS: Twenty-nine consensus statements were finalized, including 7 for definition and diagnosis, 5 for epidemiology, 9 for pathophysiology and 8 for management. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia were added. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus developed by Asian experts shows distinctive features of functional dyspepsia in Asia and will provide a guide to the diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia for Asian primary care physicians.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Consensus , Dyspepsia , Electronic Mail , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Life Style , Physicians, Primary Care , Politics , Prevalence
12.
Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology [The]. 2010; 16 (3): 143-144
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-123568
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193087

ABSTRACT

This review presents studies that support an inflammation-immunological model for the pathogenesis of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and highlights recent studies that support a similar disease model in non-post-infectious IBS, in particular, diarrhoea-predominant IBS, as well as in post-infectious functional dyspepsia. These recent studies are highlighted to demonstrate that one line of research in functional gastrointestinal disorders has moved away from the old psychosomatic concepts. It is hoped that this will encourage future students of this field to explore the role of immunological events.


Subject(s)
Dyspepsia , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Inflammation , Irritable Bowel Syndrome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103884

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Hydrogen
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