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Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 306-312, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925509


Purpose@#Microinvasive breast cancer (MIBC) is an invasive carcinoma with a tumor dimension not exceeding 1 mm. Owing to its low incidence, the rate of axillary node metastasis and its management are not well established. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and identify variables associated with LNM, as well as to evaluate the need for axillary staging in MIBC patients by analyzing nationwide data. @*Methods@#The Korean Breast Cancer Society registry was searched to identify MIBC patients diagnosed between January 1996 and April 2020. Patients without neoadjuvant chemotherapy experiences, systemic metastasis, and missing or discordant data were eligible for the analysis. The incidence rate of LNM was determined, and variables associated with LNM were identified by multivariable regression analysis. @*Results@#Of 2,427 MIBC patients identified, 98 (4.0%) had LNM and 12 (0.5%) had N2/3 disease. Type of breast operation (odds ratio [OR], 2.093; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.332–3.290; P = 0.001), age (OR, 2.091; 95% CI, 1.326–3.298; P = 0.002), hormone receptor status (OR, 2.220; 95% CI, 1.372–3.594; P = 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion (OR, 11.143; 95% CI, 6.354–19.540; P < 0.001) were significantly related to LNM. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of LNM in MIBC patients was only 4.0% in our study, suggesting that de-escalation of axillary surgical interventions could be carefully considered. The indications for axillary staging should be individualized considering tumor volume, age, hormone receptor status, and lymphovascular invasion to improve the quality of life of MIBC survivors.

Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 13-24, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925172


Purpose@#Breast cancer is mainly diagnosed using core needle biopsy (CNB), although other biopsy methods, including vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB), may also be used. We compared differences in clinical characteristics and prognoses of patients with breast cancer according to biopsy methods used for diagnosis. @*Methods@#A total of 98,457 patients who underwent various biopsy methods (CNB, fine-needle aspiration [FNA], VAB, and excisional biopsy) for diagnosing breast cancer were recruited. Using CNB as a reference, related clinicopathological factors and prognostic differences between biopsy methods were analyzed retrospectively using large-scale data from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registration System. The associations between biopsy methods and clinicopathological factors were compared using multinomial logistic regression analysis, and the prognoses of patients undergoing the different biopsy methods, as breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS), were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model. @*Results@#Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that unlike FNA, both VAB and excisional biopsy were significantly associated with tumor size, palpability, tumor stage, and histologic grade as relatively good prognostic factors compared to CNB. In particular, VAB showed lower odds ratios for these factors than excisional biopsy. In the univariate analysis, the prognosis of patients undergoing VAB was better than that of those undergoing CNB with respect to BCSS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.188, p < 0.001) and OS (HR, 0.359; p < 0.001). However, in the multivariate analysis, there were no significant prognostic differences from CNB in both BCSS and OS; differences were only evident for FNA. @*Conclusion@#In this study, we showed that the characteristics of breast cancer differed according to various biopsy methods. Although VAB is not a standard method for breast cancer diagnosis, it showed no prognostic differences to CNB.

Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 94-105, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925160


Purpose@#We evaluated the relationship between breast pathologic complete response (BpCR) and axillary pathologic complete response (ApCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) according to nodal burden at presentation. As the indications for NACT have expanded, clinicians have started clinical trials for the omission of surgery from the treatment plan in patients with excellent responses to NACT. However, the appropriate indications for axillary surgery omission after excellent NACT response remain unclear. @*Methods@#Data were collected from patients in the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry who underwent NACT followed by surgery between 2010 and 2020. We analyzed pathologic axillary nodal positivity after NACT according to BpCR stratified by tumor subtype in patients with cT1-3/N0-2 disease at diagnosis. @*Results@#A total of 6,597 patients were identified. Regarding cT stage, 528 (9.5%), 3,778 (67.8%), and 1,268 (22.7%) patients had cT1, cT2, and cT3 disease, respectively. Regarding cN stage, 1,539 (27.7%), 2,976 (53.6%), and 1,036 (18.7%) patients had cN0, cN1, and cN2 disease, respectively. BpCR occurred in 21.6% (n = 1,427) of patients, while ApCR and pathologic complete response (ypCR) occurred in 59.7% (n = 3,929) and ypCR 19.4% (n = 1,285) of patients, respectively. The distribution of biologic subtypes included 2,329 (39.3%) patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative disease, 1,122 (18.9%) with HR-positive/HER2-positive disease, 405 (6.8%) with HR-negative/HER2-positive disease, and 2,072 (35.0%) with triple-negative breast cancer . Among the patients with BpCR, 89.6% (1,122/1,252) had ApCR. Of those with cN0 disease, most (99.0%, 301/304) showed ApCR. Among patients with cN1-2 disease, 86.6% (821/948) had ApCR. @*Conclusion@#BpCR was highly correlated with ApCR after NACT. In patients with cN0 and BpCR, the risk of missing axillary nodal metastasis was low after NACT. Further research on axillary surgery omission in patients with cN0 disease is needed.