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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925681

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to develop a prognostic model to assist palliative care referral at least 3 months before death in advanced cancer patients treated at an outpatient medical oncology clinic. @*Materials and Methods@#In this prospective cohort study, a total of 200 patients were enrolled at a tertiary cancer center in South Korea. The major eligibility criterion was an expected survival of less than a year as estimated by their oncologists. We analyzed the influences of known prognostic factors along with chemotherapy status, mid-arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness on survival time. @*Results@#The mean age of the patients was 64.5 years, 36% were female, and the median survival time was 7.6 months. In the multivariate analysis, we found 6 significant factors related to poor survival: a poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (≥2), not undergoing chemotherapy, anorexia, a low lymphocyte level (<12%), a high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (≥300 IU/L), and a low mid-arm circumference (<23 cm). We developed a prognostic model (score, 0-8.0) to predict 3-month survival based on the multivariate analysis. Patients who scored ≥4.0 points had a short survival of less than 3 months (p<0.001). The discriminating ability of the prognostic model using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.88. @*Conclusion@#The prognostic model using ECOG performance status, chemotherapy status, anorexia, lymphocytes, LDH, and mid-arm circumference can predict 3-month survival in medical oncology outpatients. It can alert oncologists to refer patients to palliative care specialists before it is too late.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925669

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to assess the real-world efficacy of nab-paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#This is a retrospective study performed in two tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. Patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane®) between March 2016 and March 2020 were enrolled. @*Results@#A total of 102 patients with metastatic breast cancer were included. Patients were heavily pre-treated with a median of four prior lines of chemotherapy (5 lines when including endocrine therapy in hormone-receptor-positive patients), and 66 patients (64.7%) were exposed to taxanes in the metastatic setting. According to St. Gallen molecular subtypes, 36 patients (35.3%) were luminal A, 28 (27.5%) were luminal B, 18 (17.7%) were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive and 20 (19.6%) had triple-negative disease. Fifty patients (49.0%) were treated with a 3-weekly regimen (260 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks), and 52 (51.0%) were treated with a weekly regimen (100 mg/m2 every week). Objective response rate was 22.9%. After a median follow-up of 22.0 months, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 4.8) and median overall survival was 8.7 months (95% CI, 7.5 to 11.2). Patients treated with weekly regimen had longer PFS compared to 3-weekly regimen (5.5 vs. 2.3 months, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the treatment regimen as an independent prognostic factor for PFS. There was no grade 3 or 4 hypersensitivity reaction. @*Conclusion@#This real-world data shows that nab-paclitaxel is a reasonable treatment option in heavily pre-treated and/or taxane-exposed metastatic breast cancer patients.

3.
Blood Research ; : 285-292, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913725

ABSTRACT

Background@#High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC-ASCT) as a consolidation treatment is a promising approach for eligible patients with newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). @*Methods@#In this retrospective analysis, 22 patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL received chemotherapy with rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine, and vincristine. Those who showed complete or partial response subsequently received consolidation HDC-ASCT with a thiotepa-based conditioning regimen but did not undergo radiotherapy. @*Results@#The PCNSL patients had a median age of 57 years (range, 49‒67 yr); of the total patients, 9.1% had a performance status of 2 or higher, and 72.1% had multiple lesions.Approximately 82% of patients received six cycles of induction chemotherapy, which was well tolerated with excellent disease control. The rate of confirmed or unconfirmed complete response increased from 45.5% at the period of interim analysis to 81.8% prior to the initiation of HDC-ASCT. With a median follow-up of 19.6 months (range, 7.5‒56.5 mo), the 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival estimates were 84% and 88%, respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Grade 3 toxicity was recorded in 90.9% of the patients after undergoing the HDC-ASCT, and the most common grade 3 adverse event was febrile neutropenia without sepsis. @*Conclusion@#The discussed treatment approach is feasible in patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL, yielding encouraging results.

4.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 25-36, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835616

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Although the number of elderly patients with breast cancer is increasing as the population ages, their treatment is controversial. We evaluated the prognostic factors associated with survival in elderly breast cancer patients and assessed the impact of comorbidity on prognosis. @*Methods@#This study included 362 patients (aged ≥65 years) who underwent surgery for breast cancer in our institution between 2003 and 2014. The patients were divided into early-aged (65–74 years) and late-aged (≥75 years) groups. Comorbidity was parametrized using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to analyze overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Prognostic factors were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards regression. @*Results@#The surgical method, subtypes, stage, and oncological features were similar between early- and late-aged groups; however, smaller proportions of patients in the late-aged group received chemotherapy (12.9% vs. 45.5%) and endocrine therapy (55.3% vs. 73.3%). In multivariable analysis, the poor prognostic factors associated with DMFS and OS were high CCI, high histologic grade, and advanced stage. Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and radiotherapy were not significantly related to DMFS and OS. @*Conclusion@#In this study, adjuvant treatments did not affect the prognosis of elderly patients with breast cancer. To clarify the effects of adjuvant therapies in these patients, a large-scale retrospective study that considers not only tumor characteristics but also life expectancy is necessary.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 182-193, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835603

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Endocrine therapy is a standard treatment for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, which accounts for 60%–75% of all breast cancer. Hormone receptor positivity is a prognostic and predictive biomarker in breast cancer. Approximately 50%–80% of breast cancer is also positive for androgen receptor (AR), but the prognostic and predictive value of AR expression in breast cancer is controversial. Here, we investigated AR expression and its prognostic value in patients with surgically resected breast cancer in Korea. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had surgically resected breast cancer to collect AR expression data and other clinicopathological data. The optimal cut-off for AR positivity was determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. @*Results@#We reviewed 957 patients with surgically resected breast cancer from June 2012 to April 2013. The median follow-up was 62 months, and relapse events occurred in 101 (10.6%) patients. Unlike the cut-off value of 1% or 10% in previous reports, 35% was determined to be best for predicting relapse-free survival (RFS) in this study. At the cut-off value of 35%, 654 (68.4%) patients were AR-positive. AR expression was more prevalent in luminal A (87.6%) and luminal B (73.1%) types than in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (56.2%) or triple-negative (20.6%) types. AR expression of ≥ 35% was significantly related to longer RFS in a multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 0.430; 95% confidence interval, 0.260–0.709; p = 0.001). @*Conclusion@#We propose a cut-off value of 35% to best predict RFS in patients with surgically resected breast cancer. AR expression was positive in 68.4% of patients, and AR positivity was found to be an independent prognostic factor for longer RFS.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#The role of [18F]-f luorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in first remission is unclear.@*METHODS@#Medical costs within the first 3 years of treatment completion and clinical outcomes of 118 patients with DLBCL in first remission with and without surveillance PET/CT (PET/CT [+] group [n = 76] and PET/CT [−] group [n = 42], respectively) were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#In a propensity matched cohort with adjustment for International Prognostic Index risk and relapse, the PET/CT (+) group was shown to have similar medical costs as the PET/CT (−) group. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were comparable between the two groups (median RFS not reached [NR] for both groups, p = 0.133; median OS NR, p = 0.542). Among 76 patients with surveillance PET/CT, 31 (40.8%) had findings suggestive of recurrence and 16 of these (51.6%) were later confirmed to have recurrent disease. Fifteen patients (48.4%) were confirmed to not have recurrence after follow-up CT or PET/CT evaluation (n = 10) and biopsy (n = 4). None of the patients with negative PET/CT findings had disease recurrence. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PET/CT for detection of recurrence were 1, 0.75, 0.52, and 1, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Surveillance PET/CT resulted in similar clinical outcomes and medical costs compared to no surveillance PET/CT. Approximately half of patients with PET/CT findings of recurrence had no recurrence after follow-up imaging and biopsy, which would not have been carried out if PET/CT had not been performed in the first place.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1086-1097, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763171

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) axis blockades have revolutionized the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We assessed the effect of platinum-based chemotherapy on tumor PD-L1 expression and its clinical implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry to retrospectively evaluate the percentage of tumor cells with membranous PD-L1 staining (tumor proportion score) in paired tumor specimens obtained before and after platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in 86 patients with NSCLC. We analyzed the correlation between the change in PD-L1 tumor proportion score and clinicopathologic characteristics, response to NACT, and survival. RESULTS: The PD-L1 tumor proportion score increased in a significant proportion of patients with NSCLC after platinum-based NACT (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p=0.002). That pattern was consistent across clinically defined subgroups except for patients with partial response to NACT. Tumors from 26 patients (30.2%) were PD-L1‒negative before NACT but PD-L1-positive after NACT, whereas the reverse pattern occurred in six patients (7%) (McNemar’s test, p < 0.001). Increase in PD-L1 tumor proportion score was significantly associated with lack of response to NACT (Fisher exact test, p=0.015). There was a tendency, albeit not statistically significant, for patients with an increase in PD-L1 tumor proportion score to have shorter survival. CONCLUSION: Tumor PD-L1 expression increased after platinum-based NACT in a significant proportion of patients with NSCLC. Increase in tumor PD-L1 expression may predict poor clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Platinum , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763149

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pim kinases are highly conserved serine/threonine kinases, and different expression patterns of each isoform (Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3) have been observed in various types of human cancers, including gastric cancer. AZD1208 is a potent and selective inhibitor that affects all three isoforms of Pim. We investigated the effects of AZD1208 as a single agent and in combination with an Akt inhibitor in gastric cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antitumor activity of AZD1208 with/without an Akt inhibitor was evaluated in a large panel of gastric cancer cell lines through growth inhibition assays. The underlying mechanism was also examined by western blotting, immunofluorescence assay, and cell cycle analysis. RESULTS: AZD1208 treatment decreased gastric cancer cell proliferation rates and induced autophagy only in long-term culture systems. Light chain 3B (LC3B), a marker of autophagy, was increased in sensitive cells in a dose-dependent manner with AZD1208 treatment, which suggested that the growth inhibition effect of AZD1208 was achieved through autophagy, not apoptosis. Moreover, we found that cells damaged by Pim inhibition were repaired by activation of the DNA damage repair pathway, which promoted cell survival and led the cells to become resistant to AZD1208. We also confirmed that the combination of an Akt inhibitor with AZD1208 produced a highly synergistic effect in gastric cancer cell lines. CONCLUSION: Treatment with AZD1208 alone induced considerable cell death through autophagy in gastric cancer cells. Moreover, the combination of AZD1208 with an Akt inhibitor showed synergistic antitumor effects through regulation of the DNA damage repair pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Blotting, Western , Cell Cycle , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , DNA Damage , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Phosphotransferases , Protein Isoforms , Stomach Neoplasms
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1153-1163, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176905

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although combining aromatase inhibitors (AI) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) is becoming more common, it is still not clear if GnRHa is as effective as bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 66 premenopausal patients with hormone receptor– positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative recurrent and metastatic breast cancer who had been treated with AIs in combination with GnRHa or BSO between 2002 and 2015. RESULTS: The median patient age was 44 years. Overall, 24 (36%) received BSO and 42 (64%) received GnRHa. The clinical benefit rate was higher in the BSO group than in the GnRHa group (88% vs. 69%, p=0.092). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was longer in the BSO group, although statistical significance was not reached (17.2 months vs. 13.3 months, p=0.245). When propensity score matching was performed, the median PFS was 17.2 months for the BSO group and 8.2 months for the GnRHa group (p=0.137). Multivariate analyses revealed that the luminal B subtype (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 2.60; p=0.022) and later-line treatment (≥ third line vs. first line; hazard ratio, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.59 to 6.59; p=0.001) were independent predictive factors for a shorter PFS. Incomplete ovarian suppression was observed in a subset of GnRHa-treated patients whose disease showed progression, with E2 levels higher than 21 pg/mL. CONCLUSION: Both BSO and GnRHa were found to be effective in our AI-treated premenopausal metastatic breast cancer patient cohort. However, further studies in larger populations are needed to determine if BSO is superior to GnRHa.


Subject(s)
Aromatase Inhibitors , Aromatase , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Ovariectomy , Phenobarbital , Premenopause , Propensity Score , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172648

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Letrozole showed efficacy and generally favorable toxicities, along with the convenience of oral administration in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor (HR)–positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of the clinical outcomes in Korean patients, although letrozole is widely used in practice. Therefore, this studywas conducted to affirm the efficacy and toxicities of letrozole in Korean patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 84 HR-positive MBC patients who had been treated with letrozole from January 2001 to December 2012. Clinicopathological characteristics and treatment history were extracted from medicalrecords. All patients received 2.5 mg letrozole once a day until there were disease progressions or unacceptable toxicity. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint, and secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and toxicity. RESULTS: The median age of the subjects was 59.3 years. Letrozole treatment resulted in a median PFS of 16.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.8 to 23.8) and a median OS of 56.4 months (95% CI, 38.1 to 74.7). The ORR was 36.9% for the 84 patients with measurable lesions. Multivariate analysis revealed symptomatic visceral disease (hazard ratio, 3.437; 95% CI, 1.576 to 7.495; p=0.002) and a disease-free interval ≤ 2 years (hazard ratio, 2.697; 95% CI, 1.262 to 5.762; p=0.010) were independently associated with shorter PFS. However, sensitivity to adjuvant hormone treatment was not related to PFS. Letrozole was generally well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Letrozole showed considerable efficacy and tolerability as a first-line treatment in postmenopausal patients with HR-positive MBC.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20748

ABSTRACT

Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis with bone and organ involvement. A 76-year-old man presented with low back pain and a history of visits for exertional dyspnea. We diagnosed him with anemia of chronic disease, cytopenia related to chronic illness, chronic renal failure due to hypertension, and hypothyroidism. However, we could not determine a definite cause or explanation for the cytopenia. Multiple osteosclerotic axial skeleton lesions and axillary lymph node enlargement were detected by computed tomography. Bone marrow biopsy revealed histiocytic infiltration, which was CD68-positive and CD1a-negative. This report describes an unusual presentation of Erdheim-Chester disease involving the bone marrow, axial skeleton, and lymph nodes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anemia , Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Chronic Disease , Dyspnea , Erdheim-Chester Disease , Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell , Humans , Hypertension , Hypothyroidism , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Low Back Pain , Lymph Nodes , Skeleton
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132152

ABSTRACT

Cholangiocarcinoma with paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM) is extremely rare, and the whole body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) finding of paraneoplastic DM is rarely reported. We report a 66-year-old woman with metastatic cholangiocarcinoma, initially presented with bilateral proximal muscle uptake on PET-CT without clinical muscle symptoms. The initial interpretation of the high muscle uptake was metastasis to the muscles. However, while awaiting for chemotherapy, muscle weakness evolved and rapidly progressed. The level of creatine phosphokinase was significantly elevated. Electromyography revealed moderate myopathy, and a muscle biopsy showed degenerating myofibers with variable sizes. The diagnosis of paraneoplastic dermatomyositis was made. This case highlights that, although rare, paraneoplastic dermatomyositis can be present with cholangiocarcinoma. Also, muscle inflammation can precede the clinical muscle symptoms, and paraneoplastic DM should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in the assessment of cancer patients who present with abnormal muscle tracer uptake in PET-CT scans.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biopsy , Cholangiocarcinoma , Creatine Kinase , Dermatomyositis , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy , Electromyography , Electrons , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Muscle Weakness , Muscles , Muscular Diseases , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron-Emission Tomography
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132149

ABSTRACT

Cholangiocarcinoma with paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM) is extremely rare, and the whole body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) finding of paraneoplastic DM is rarely reported. We report a 66-year-old woman with metastatic cholangiocarcinoma, initially presented with bilateral proximal muscle uptake on PET-CT without clinical muscle symptoms. The initial interpretation of the high muscle uptake was metastasis to the muscles. However, while awaiting for chemotherapy, muscle weakness evolved and rapidly progressed. The level of creatine phosphokinase was significantly elevated. Electromyography revealed moderate myopathy, and a muscle biopsy showed degenerating myofibers with variable sizes. The diagnosis of paraneoplastic dermatomyositis was made. This case highlights that, although rare, paraneoplastic dermatomyositis can be present with cholangiocarcinoma. Also, muscle inflammation can precede the clinical muscle symptoms, and paraneoplastic DM should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in the assessment of cancer patients who present with abnormal muscle tracer uptake in PET-CT scans.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biopsy , Cholangiocarcinoma , Creatine Kinase , Dermatomyositis , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy , Electromyography , Electrons , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Muscle Weakness , Muscles , Muscular Diseases , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron-Emission Tomography
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138529

ABSTRACT

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a very rare and indolent tumor with a favorable prognosis, despite its triple-negative status. Due to its rarity, there has been no consensus regarding treatments, and treatment guidelines have not been established. Here, we report on six patients with ACC of the breast. All of the patients initially presented with localized disease and no axillary lymph node metastases. Although some of our patients developed local recurrence or distant metastases, all patients had a favorable clinical course, and to date, none of the patients has died from complications of her disease. Here, we described the clinicopathologic features of ACC of the breast and review the current literature.


Subject(s)
Adenoids , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic , Consensus , Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Recurrence
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138528

ABSTRACT

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a very rare and indolent tumor with a favorable prognosis, despite its triple-negative status. Due to its rarity, there has been no consensus regarding treatments, and treatment guidelines have not been established. Here, we report on six patients with ACC of the breast. All of the patients initially presented with localized disease and no axillary lymph node metastases. Although some of our patients developed local recurrence or distant metastases, all patients had a favorable clinical course, and to date, none of the patients has died from complications of her disease. Here, we described the clinicopathologic features of ACC of the breast and review the current literature.


Subject(s)
Adenoids , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic , Consensus , Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Recurrence
16.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 324-328, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79696

ABSTRACT

Solitary splenic metastases from head and neck cancer are rare. We report a 35-year-old male with nasal cavity cancer with metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. The patient underwent three cycles of induction chemotherapy, followed by left medial maxillectomy with modified radical neck dissection and concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly cisplatin. After 7 months of a disease-free interval, positron-emission tomography showed a high uptake in the spleen, and a biopsy confirmed metastatic carcinoma. After four cycles of systemic chemotherapy with docetaxel and cisplatin, laparoscopic splenectomy was performed. This case highlights that solitary splenic metastasis, although rare, may occur with a locoregionally controlled head and neck cancer and could be treated with local and systemic treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Head , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Lymph Nodes , Male , Nasal Cavity , Neck , Neck Dissection , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Spleen , Splenectomy , Taxoids
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