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1.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 43922; 11(2): 163-172
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214133

ABSTRACT

Diarrhoea is amongst the first ten causes of death and its treatment faces an increased threat of drug resistance. Previous studies on the guava leaf decoction (GLD) revealed its suitability for use in infectious diarrhoea of unknown etiology.ObjectiveThe objective of this trial was to establish efficacy, dose and safety of GLD prepared from the Indian Sardar variety in adults with acute infectious diarrhoea.MethodsThe current trial was an open efficacy randomized 5-day, parallel group multi-arm interventional study. Amongst 137 adults (18–60 years) suffering with acute diarrhoea, 109 were included (57% females, 43% males). Three doses of GLD (6-leaf, 10-leaf and 14-leaf) were compared with controls receiving oral rehydration solution. Decrease in stool frequency and improvement in consistency were the outcomes measured. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey's post-hoc test, Kruscal-Wallis test and Chi-Square test where applicable.ResultsThe trial showed that the 14-leaf (7.4 g) decoction was the most effective. Administration of the decoction, thrice daily helped the patients regain normalcy in 72 h as opposed to 120 h in controls. Safety of the intervention was reflected by normal levels of haemoglobin, liver and kidney parameters. No adverse events were reported.ConclusionThe 14 leaves decoction was a safe treatment for adult acute uncomplicated diarrhoea of unknown etiology. Moreover due to component synergy and divergent mechanisms of action, it could possibly combat the generation of drug resistance and destruction of gut microbiota. Hence GLD has the potential for development as a first line treatment for diarrhoea.

2.
J Genet ; 2019 May; 98: 1-10
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215456

ABSTRACT

Yak (Bos grunniens) is a unique bovine species and considered as lifeline of highlanders. The male subfertility in yak is a matter of concern that causes huge economic loses. The spermatogenesis and male reproduction machinery are critically governed by Y-linked genes which tend to acquire necessary information in the course of evolution. The Y-linked fertility genes are present in multiple copies with testis-limited expression. To understand this novel complexity, 12 male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) genes have been studied in the yak. Targeted genes are amplified in male and female genomic DNA and confirmed the male derived specificity. Moreover, testis and sperm-specific expressions of MSY genes are distinct among different tissues. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction results validate the expression pattern of these genes in various tissues with predominant expression intestis and sperm. The sequencing of resultant yak MSY genes gives significant result and shows similarity with cattle (Bos indicus), but few nucleotide mismatches define the proposition of infertile male in the F1 hybrid of cattle and yak. The identified MSY genes can be used to establish male-specific characteristics and to differentiate male and female yak genotypically. Further, these genes may act as valuable resources to understand the capacity of spermatogenesis, embryogenesis, cellular growth, azoospermia and malesubfertility in the yak.

3.
J Genet ; 2019 Feb; 98: 1-6
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215379

ABSTRACT

Yak, an economically important bovine species considered as lifeline of the Himalaya. Indeed, this gigantic bovine is neglected because of the scientific intervention for its conservation as well as research documentation for a long time. Amelogenin is an essential protein for tooth enamel which eutherian mammals contain two copies in both X and Y chromosome each. In bovine, the deletion of a fragment of the nucleotide sequence in Y chromosome copy of exon 6 made Amelogenin an excellent sex-specific marker. Thus, an attempt was made to use the gene as an advanced molecular marker of sexing of the yak to improve breeding strategies and reproduction. The present study confirmed that the polymerase chain reaction amplification of the Amelogenin gene with a unique primer is useful in sex identification of the yak. The test is further refined with qPCR validation by quantifying the DNA copy number of the Amelogenin gene in male and female. We observed a high level of sequence polymorphisms of AMELX and AMELY in yak considered as novel identification. These tests can be further extended into several other specialized fields includingforensics, meat production and processing, and quality control.

4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2018 May; 66(5): 630-633
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196726

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Kannada, one of the Dravidian languages, is the official language of Karnataka state of India. There is a need for a test using Kannada words that can assess visual aspects of reading independently of syntactic and semantic knowledge. Methods: A test of reading rate in Kannada was developed following the design principles of the Wilkins Rate of Reading Test (RRT). Fifteen high-frequency bisyllabic Kannada words were selected. Children were recruited from state and private schools that used Kannada or English as the medium of instruction. A total of 799 children from Grade 2 to 9 participated in the study. Reading rate was measured using the English RRT and the Kannada version twice in immediate succession during the first session. In 85 children, measurements using the Kannada RRT were repeated after an interval of 15 days. Results: Pearson product moment correlation between the two immediately successive tests was 0.95 for the Kannada RRT and 0.91 for the English RRT. The correlation for the tests separated by an interval of 15 days was 0.83. When Kannada was the medium of instruction, there was little difference between test scores for Kannada and English. When English was the medium of instruction, test scores were greater in English. Scores increased as expected with age (P < 0.0001), similarly for Kannada and English tests. Conclusion: The newly developed Kannada RRT is both reliable and valid and can be used as a tool for measuring the visual aspects of reading.

5.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 2010 Jan-Mar; 1(1): 74-76
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172862
6.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 2010 Jan-Mar; 1(1): 70-71
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172860
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-25857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer is the most important cause of malignancy associated deaths among women in India. Western studies have reported higher risk of abnormal Pap smears in HIV infected women. A large burden of HIV infection and increasing HIV epidemic in India threatens to exacerbate incidence of cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of Pap smear abnormalities and its association with HIV infection in women attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and to identify associated risk factors. METHODS: Between June 1996 and September 1999, women attending two STD clinics in Pune were screened for HIV infection, offered STD laboratory diagnosis and treatment and their Pap smears were evaluated. RESULTS: Squamous cell abnormality was detected in 10 per cent of HIV sero negative women attending STD clinics. This proportion was nearly double (19.2%) (Odds ratio = 2.14, 95% C.I. 1.03-4.48, P = 0.04) in HIV seropositive women. Having more than one life time partners and presence of STDs were also significantly associated with Pap smear abnormality in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, women presenting with STD and HIV infection both, were 2.8 times more likely to have inflammatory Pap smear and 3.5 times more likely to have abnormal Pap smear compared to HIV seronegative women presenting without STDs. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Pap smear abnormalities were common in women attending STD clinics in Pune. Presence of HIV infection further increased the risk two-folds. Therefore, women suffering from STDs should undergo periodic Pap smear screening for early detection of cervical abnormalities and should receive appropriate management to reduce morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/therapy , Vaginal Smears
8.
J Postgrad Med ; 1999 Jan-Mar; 45(1): 5-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-117079

ABSTRACT

This was a study to compare continuous intravenous infusion of atracurium with continuous intravenous infusion of vecuronium for intraoperative muscle relaxation in 62 ASA I / II patients. Scheduled for laparotomies and pelvic surgeries under general anaesthesia. They were randomly allocated in two groups to receive either vecuronium infusion of 50 microg/kg/hour following a bolus dose of 0.1 microg/kg, or atracurium infusion of 400 microg/kg/hour following a bolus dose of 0.5 microg/kg. The mean infusion dose of atracurium was 478 +/- 44.11 microg/kg/hour and that of vecuronium was 63.2 +/- 74 microg/kg/hour for adequate muscle relaxation. The depth of neuromuscular blockade was monitored by using peripheral nerve stimulator so that only one twitch of train of four was present, resistance to ventilation, surgical relaxation and haemodynamic changes. Vecuronium infusions produced more haemodynamic stability than atracurium infusions. Vecuronium produced lesser change in systolic blood pressure (mean change of 3. 46 +/- 3.33%) from baseline values as compared to atracurium (mean change of 5.81 +/- 3.73%) from baseline values ( p < 0.01) which was statistically significant. The difference in mean pulse rate change from baseline value in the atracurium group (4.78 +/- 2.745%) was less than that in the vecuronium group (5.99 +/- 2.67%), which was not statistically significant. Spontaneous recovery was faster with vecuronium (540.94 +/- 76.46 seconds) as compared to atracurium (596. 33 +/- 72.48 seconds). 84.4% of patients who received vecuronium fell within good to very good category of muscle relaxation as compared to 63.3% in atracurium group. There were no cost benefits when either agents were used in infusion form.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Atracurium/administration & dosage , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Laparotomy/methods , Middle Aged , Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents/administration & dosage , Vecuronium Bromide/administration & dosage
10.
J Biosci ; 1980 Dec; 2(4): 299-304
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-160032

ABSTRACT

A comparative study of the collagen of the foot of Lamellidens Sp. and that of the unmodified part of the foot in Mytilus edulis shows marked differences in physical properties, amino acid composition and in the degree of stabilization. But both conform to type I collagen of vertebrates. In these respects, the latter shows agreement with the features characteristic of byssus collagen, which is highly crosslinked, involving dimers and trimers of tyrosine. It is suggested that such differences may reflect the different functions of the organs concerned, the foot of Lamellidens being a locomotary organ of the animal, while the foot of Mytilus edulis is modified for anchorage of the animal. The vertigial part though not morphologically modified shows the essential compositional characteristics of the byssus being a mere remanant of it.

15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1966 Jan; 4(1): 34-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56675
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