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1.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(2)abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388812

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar los resultados quirúrgicos y oncológicos de pacientes con adenocarcinoma de recto (AR) operados con asistencia robótica. Materiales y Método: Cohorte prospectiva entre 2014-2019. Criterios de inclusión: pacientes con AR primario, sometidos a una resección de recto con asistencia robótica con intención curativa. Criterios de exclusión: histología no adenocarcinoma. Evaluación de datos clínico-quirúrgicos. Análisis estadístico descriptivo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 37 pacientes; 20 (54%) fueron hombres y la edad promedio fue 58,7 años. La distancia promedio desde el margen anal al borde distal del tumor fue 6,6 cm (i: 2-12 cm). La quimiorradioterapia (neoadyuvancia) se indicó en 26 pacientes. La cirugía más frecuente fue la resección anterior baja de recto y el tiempo operatorio promedio fue 266 min. Se realizaron dos conversiones a laparotomía. Una o más complicaciones se observaron en 17 (45,9%) pacientes, 9 de ellos fueron Clavien-Dindo III o IV y se reoperaron 5 pacientes (13%). No hubo transfusiones sanguíneas ni mortalidad posoperatoria. La estancia hospitalaria postoperatoria promedio fue 9,6 días (i: 3-34 d). El promedio de linfonodos resecados fue 15 (i 4-45). Los márgenes quirúrgicos fueron negativos en todos los pacientes. Se restituyó el tránsito intestinal en 28/32 (87,5%) pacientes. El promedio de seguimiento fue 21 meses (1-56), la sobrevida global y libre de enfermedad fue 100%. Discusión y Conclusión: La proctectomía con asistencia robótica ha demostrado ser segura en términos de resultados quirúrgicos tempranos y en criterios oncológicos de la pieza operatoria.


Aim: To analyze the surgical and oncological results of patients with rectal adenocarcinoma (RA) operated with robotic assistance. Materials and Method: Prospective cohort study, consecutive sample of patients between 2014-2017. Inclusion criteria: patients with primary RA, undergoing rectal resection, with robotic assistance with curative intention. Exclusion criteria: histology not adenocarcinoma. Evaluation of clinical-surgical data. Descriptive statistical analysis. Results: 37 patients were included; 20 (54%) were men and average age was 58.7 years. The average distance from the anal margin to the distal edge of the tumor was 6.6 cm (2-12 cm). Chemoradiotherapy (neoadyuvant) was indicated in 26 patients. The most frequent surgery was low anterior resection of the rectum and the average operating time was 266 minutes. Two conversions to laparotomy were performed. One or more complications were observed in 17 (45.9%) patients, 9 of them were Clavien-Dindo III or IV, 5 patients (13%) were reoperated. There were no blood transfusions and no postoperative mortality. The average postoperative hospital stay was 9.6 days (3-34). The average of resected lymph nodes was 15. Surgical margins were negative in all patients. Intestinal transit was restored in 28/32 (87.5%) patients. The average follow-up was 21 months (1-56), the overall and disease-free survival was 100%. Discussion and Conclusion: Proctectomy with robotic assistance has proved to be safe in terms of early surgical results and oncologic indicators of the surgical piece.

2.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 71(3): 238-244, jun. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058263

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La resección anterior ultrabaja interesfintérica (RAUBIE), permite preservar la función esfinteriana en pacientes seleccionados con cáncer de recto (CR). No obstante, puede producir alteraciones en la función evacuatoria y esfinteriana. OBJETIVO: Analizar los resultados oncológicos y funcionales luego de una RAUBIE. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio observacional, analítico, transversal, durante el período 2007 a 2016. Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes sometidos a RAUBIE por CR con intención curativa. Todos los pacientes tuvieron un seguimiento el año 2017. Para la evaluación funcional se usó la escala de Jorge-Wexner, LARS y Kirwan. Análisis estadístico: Estadística descriptiva y método de Kaplan-Meier. RESULTADOS: De 21 pacientes; catorce (67%) fueron varones, edad promedio: 59 años. Ubicación tumoral: 4 cm (2-6 cm) del margen anal. Dieciocho (85,7%) pacientes recibieron neoadyuvancia. Todos los márgenes quirúrgicos distales y radiales fueron negativos. Un paciente (4,8%) tuvo metástasis a distancia y no hubo recurrencia locorregional. Con una mediana de seguimiento de 76,3 (9,8-126,8) meses, la sobrevida global y libre de enfermedad a 5 años fue de: 100% y 95% (IC: 90,1-99,9%), respectivamente. Con una mediana de seguimiento de 90 meses (21,7-124,2); se realizó la evaluación funcional a 15/21 pacientes. El puntaje de Jorge-Wexner tuvo una mediana de 13 (4-17) puntos, la escala de LARS de 34 puntos y en la escala de Kirwan, cuatro pacientes (26,7%) mostraron una buena función (Kirwan I-II). CONCLUSIÓN: Si bien los resultados oncológicos de los pacientes sometidos a una RAUBIE son satisfactorios, se debería tomar en cuenta los resultados funcionales al momento de proponer esta alternativa quirúrgica.


INTRODUCTION: Intersphinteric resection (ISR) allows preserve sphincter function in selected patients with rectal cancer (RC). Notwithstanding, it can produce alterations in defecation. AIM: To analyze the oncological and functional results after an ISR. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study, in the period 2007-2016. Inclusion criteria: Patients submitted to ISR by RC with curative intention. All the patients had a follow-up in 2017. Analysis of functional evaluation were performed by Jorge-Wexner, LARS and Kirwan scale. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Of 21 patients; Fourteen (67%) were male, average age: 59 years. Tumor location: 4 cm (2-6 cm) from anal verge. Eighteen (85.7%) patients received neoadjuvant therapy. All distal and radial margins were negative. One patient (4.8%) had distant metastases and there was no locoregional recurrence. With a median follow-up of 76.3 (9.8-126.8) months, the 5-year global and disease-free survival was: 100% and 95% (CI: 90.1-99.9%), respectively. With a median follow-up of 90 months (21.7-124.2); Functional evaluation was performed on 15/21 patients. The Jorge-Wexner score had a median of 13 (4-17) points, the LARS scale of 34 points and in Kirwan scale, four patients (26.7%) showed good function (Kirwan I-II). CONCLUSION: The oncological results of patients undergoing ISR are satisfactory, however, functional results should be taken into account when proposing this surgical procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Anal Canal/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Rectal Neoplasms/mortality , Anastomosis, Surgical , Adenocarcinoma/mortality , Survival Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Disease-Free Survival
3.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(2): 212-220, Feb. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004334

ABSTRACT

Environmental factors may influence the development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and modify its natural history. The objective of this review is to evaluate current evidence about environmental factors associated with the disease. A better knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disease can lead to better treatment strategies and suggestions to prevent the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/etiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Tobacco/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Probiotics , Diet/adverse effects , Protective Factors , Obesity/complications
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(11): 1241-1251, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985697

ABSTRACT

Background: Primary non-response and secondary loss of response (LOR) are significant problems of biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in IBD patients receiving these drugs can improve outcomes. Aim: To measure serum infliximab levels and anti-infliximab antibodies (ATI) in patients with IBD post-induction phase and during maintenance therapy assessing the clinical course of IBD. Patients and Methods: Prospective study of IBD patients receiving infliximab between July 2016-May 2017. Group-A included patients who received induction therapy while Group-B included patients who were in maintenance therapy. TDM was performed in serum samples collected at weeks-14 and 30 in Group-A and before the infliximab maintenance dose in Group-B. Clinical scores, fecal calprotectin and endoscopic score were also evaluated. Results: Of 14 patients in Group-A, 57% achieved endoscopic response. Median serum infliximab concentrations at week-14 and 30 were 2.65 AU/mL (0.23-32.58) and 2.3 AU/mL (0.3-16.8), respectively. Patients with mucosal healing had non-significantly higher median infliximab concentrations at week- 14, as compared to week 30 (median 3.2 vs 2.2 AU/ml, respectively, p 0.6). ATI >10 ug/mL were found in one and seven patients at week-14 and 30, respectively. At 52 weeks of follow-up, four patients (31%) had LOR. Group-B included 36 patients, 33% had LOR. Median serum concentrations of infliximab were 1.4 AU/mL (0.27-7.03). No significant differences in serum infliximab concentration were observed between patients in remission and those with inflammatory activity. Seventeen patients had ATI >10 ug/mL. Conclusions: Clinical algorithms using TDM might help to optimize the pharmacological therapy of IBD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring/methods , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Gastrointestinal Agents/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnostic imaging , Crohn Disease/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Colonoscopy , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Infliximab/blood
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(6): 685-692, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961448

ABSTRACT

Background: Colorectal Cancer Screening Programs (CRCSP) are widely accepted in developed countries. Unfortunately, financial restrictions, low adherence rate and variability on colonoscopy standardization hamper the implementation of CRCSP in developing countries. Aim: To analyze a multicentric pilot model of CRCSP in Chile. Material and Methods: A prospective model of CRCSP was carried out in three cities, from 2012 to 2015. The model was based on CRC risk assessment and patient education. Health care personnel were trained about logistics and protocols. The endoscopy team was trained about colonoscopy standards. A registered nurse was the coordinator in each center. We screened asymptomatic population aged between 50 and 75 years. Immunological fecal occult blood test (FIT) was offered to all participants. Subjects with positive FIT underwent colonoscopy. Results: A total of 12,668 individuals were enrolled, with a FIT compliance rate of 93.9% and 2,358 colonoscopies were performed. Two hundred and fifty high-risk adenomas and 110 cancer cases were diagnosed. One patient died before treatment due to cardiovascular disease, 74 patients (67%) underwent endoscopic resection and 35 had surgical treatment. Ninety one percent of patients had an early stage CRC (0-I-II). Among colonoscopy indicators, 80% of cases had an adequate bowel preparation (Boston > 6), cecal intubation rate was 97.7%, adenoma detection rate was 36.5%, and in 94.5% of colonoscopies, withdrawal time was adequate (> 8 min). Conclusions: This CRCS pilot model was associated to a high rate of FIT return and colonoscopy quality standards. Most CRCs detected with the program were treated by endoscopic resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Program Evaluation , Adenoma/diagnosis , Colonoscopy/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenoma/pathology , Chile , Pilot Projects , Nutritional Status , Patient Education as Topic , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Colonoscopy/standards , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Occult Blood
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(10): 1342-1348, oct. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902449

ABSTRACT

Primary colorectal lymphoma is a rare form of presentation of gastrointestinal tract lymphomas. Inflammatory bowel disease and its treatment are risk factors for its development. We report a 47-year-old male patient with Ulcerative Colitis of two years of evolution, treated initially with azathioprine and later on with infliximab. Due to a relapse in symptoms after the second dose of infliximab, a new coloncoscopy was performed showing a rectal ulcerative lesion, corresponding to a large cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. The patient was successfully treated with RCHOP chemotherapy (Rituximab cyclophosphamide doxorubicin vincristine prednisone). He is currently in disease remission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/etiology , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/etiology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Vincristine/administration & dosage , Biopsy , Gastrointestinal Agents/adverse effects , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Doxorubicin/administration & dosage , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/diagnostic imaging , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Rituximab/administration & dosage , Infliximab/adverse effects , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(8): 1083-1088, ago. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902589

ABSTRACT

Acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires early recognition, hospitalization and adequate treatment. Currently, the use of infliximab in ulcerative colitis (UC) is recommended in the case of severe disease refractory to corticosteroids, once that superimposed bacterial or viral infections (such as cytomegalovirus or Clostridium difficile) have been excluded. However, conventional weight-based regimens of infliximab might be insufficient for patients with ASUC. Accelerated infliximab induction regimen may increase its serum concentration levels and efficacy by reducing early colectomy rates in these patients. We report a 34 year old female presenting with an ASUC. She was initially treated with hydrocortisone 300 mg/day and mesalazine enemas 4 g/day with an unfavorable clinical response. At the fifth day of therapy, an accelerated induction therapy with infliximab was started in doses of 10 mg/kg at weeks 0, 1 and 4. After the second dose, there was a favorable response with reduction of abdominal pain, stool frequency and hematochezia. She was discharged with prednisone and azathioprine. After a year of starting infliximab, the patient remains in clinical remission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Colonoscopy , Treatment Outcome , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/analysis , Feces
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(4): 419-430, abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902494

ABSTRACT

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an heterogeneous disease. Three carcinogenic pathways determine its molecular profile: microsatellite instability (MSI), chromosomal instability (CIN) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Based on the new molecular classification, four consensus CRC molecular subtypes (CMS) are established, which are related to clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of the tumor. Aim: To classify Chilean patients with sporadic CRC according to the new consensus molecular subtypes of carcinogenic pathways. Material and Methods: Prospective analytical study of 53 patients with a mean age of 70 years (55% males) with CRC, operated at a private clinic, without neoadjuvant treatment. From normal and tumor tissue DNA of each patient, CIN, MSI and CIMP were analyzed. Combining these variables, tumors were classified as CMS1/MSI-immune, CMS2/canonical, CMS3/metabolic and CMS4/mesenchymal. Results: CMS1 tumors (19%) were located in the right colon, were in early stages, had MMR complex deficiencies and 67% had an activating mutation of the BRAF oncogene. CMS2 tumors (31%) were located in the left colon, had moderate differentiation, absence of vascular invasion, lymphatic and mucin. CMS3 tumors (29%) were also left-sided, with absence of vascular and lymphatic invasion, and 29% had an activating mutation of the KRAS oncogene. CMS4 tumors (21%) showed advanced stages and presence of metastases. Conclusions: This new molecular classification contributes to understanding the heterogeneity of tumors. It is possible to differentiate molecular subgroups of a single pathological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, opening the door to personalized medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Microsatellite Instability , Phenotype , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Chile , Prospective Studies , Consensus , Mutation
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(4): 538-543, abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902508

ABSTRACT

Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) agents have dramatically changed the management of Crohn’s Disease (CD). However, a significant number of these patients do not respond at all or cease to respond to antibodies against TNF. In this clinical situation, the options include intensification of anti-TNF therapy by either increasing the dose or by shortening the administration interval, the use of a second anti-TNF or medications with a different mechanism of action. Among the later, Natalizumab, a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody against α4β1 and α4β7 integrins, is safe and effective in inducing and maintaining remission in active CD patient’s refractory to anti-TNF. In spite of this, Natalizumab use has been limited because of an increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalophaty which results from reactivation of the John Cunningham (JC) virus. However, the presence of antibodies against JC virus in serum can be used to reduce the risk for this complication. We report three patients with Crohn’s disease refractory to treatment with infliximab, who responded successfully to the use of Natalizumab.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Natalizumab/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(3): 397-401, Mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845554

ABSTRACT

Diverticular disease of the small intestine is rare, especially when it is located in the jejunum. It is generally asymptomatic, but in some patients it may have complications such as acute diverticulitis with peritonitis, gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction. In such cases, the recommended treatment is surgery. We report a 77-year-old patient with ileal Crohn’s disease with a long-standing inflammatory phenotype, who developed acute diverticulitis of the jejunum presenting a severe septic shock and secondary multiple-organ failure. It resolved with medical treatment and prolonged antibiotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Crohn Disease/complications , Diverticulitis/etiology , Jejunal Diseases/etiology , Acute Disease , Diverticulitis/diagnostic imaging , Jejunal Diseases/diagnostic imaging
11.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 28(1): 9-15, 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907662

ABSTRACT

Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) etiology is still unknown, genetic, environmental and immunological factors are implicated. Studies have considered quality of sleep as a risk factor in IBD course. Objective: To determine sleep quality in IBD patients, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and healthy controls (HC). Methods: Cross sectional study assessing sleep quality in adult patients with IBD, IBS and HC. All patients answered a validated Spanish version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire in order to evaluate sleep quality. A PSQI global score > 5 is indicative of poor sleep quality. Demographic and clinical variables were assessed. Results: The study included 276 patients, 111 with IBD, 85 with IBS and 80 HC. A PSQI score > 5 was observed in 67 percent of IBD and IBS patients and 55 percent of HC. IBD and IBS patients exhibited poorer sleep quality than HC, although results did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.069 and p = 0.076, respectively). In IBD patients, an association between disease activity and sleep quality was observed (p = 0.025). However, when analyzing separately patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn ́s Disease (CD), only in UC patients sleep quality was related with disease activity. The use of sleep medications was significantly higher in IBD and IBS patients compared with healthy controls (p = 0.021 and p = 0.009, respectively). Conclusion: Sleep disturbances are frequent in IBD, IBS patients and even healthy controls. Additionally, IBD patients with active disease, particularly those with UC, exhibit worse sleep quality.


Aunque la etiología de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) es aún desconocida, factores genéticos, ambientales e inmunológicos estarían implicados. Estudios han considerado la calidad del sueño como un factor de riesgo en la evolución de la EII. Objetivo: Determinar la calidad del sueño en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII), síndrome intestino irritable (SII) y controles sanos (CS). Métodos:Estudio transversal en pacientes adultos con EII, SII y CS. Se evaluó la calidad del sueño mediante el Índice de Calidad del Sueño de Pittsburgh (ICSP), siendo una puntuación global > 5 indicativa de mala calidad del sueño. Variables demográficas y clínicas fueron evaluadas. Resultados:Se incluyeron 276 pacientes, 111 con EII, 85 SII y 80 CS. ICSP > 5 fue observado en 67 por ciento de los pacientes con EII y SII, y 55 por ciento de los CS. Los pacientes con EII y SII mostraron una peor calidad del sueño comparado con CS sin alcanzar significancia estadística (p: 0,069 y p: 0,076, respectivamente). En los pacientes con EII, se observó una asociación entre actividad de la enfermedad y calidad del sueño (p: 0,025). Sin embargo, al analizar por diagnóstico específico, sólo pacientes con colitis ulcerosa (CU) presentaron esta asociación. El uso de medicamentos para dormir fue significativamente mayor en los pacientes con EII y SII comparado con CS (p: 0,021 y p: 0,009, respectivamente). Conclusión:Los trastornos del sueño son frecuentes en pacientes con EII, SII e incluso CS. Pacientes con EII activa, en particular aquellos con CU, presentaron una peor calidad del sueño.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/physiopathology , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/physiopathology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 28(2): 70-75, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118440

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, idiopathic disease characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. It affects more than 5 million people worldwide and in Chile studies suggest that IBD incidence has increased in recent years. It is manifested by periods of remission and activity, requiring permanent pharmacological treatment. Both, the occurrence of a crisis episode and the need for lifetime medical treatment could affect the quality of life of IBD patients. Studies suggest that patients with IBD require education to develop self-management of their disease and adhere to treatment, thus reducing the risk of crisis episodes. The importance of this strategy or action is significant if we consider that studies have shown that the level of knowledge of IBD patients regarding their pathology is low. The purpose of this article is to review the effect of education on the management of IBD patients and the implications of a multidisciplinary team with an IBD specialist nurse.


La enfermedad inflamatoria Intestinal (EII) es una enfermedad crónica, idiopática, caracterizada por la inflamación del tracto gastrointestinal. Afecta a más de 5 millones de personas en el mundo y en Chile estudios sugieren que ha ido en aumento en los últimos años. Se manifiesta por períodos de remisión y actividad, siendo necesario un tratamiento farmacológico permanente. Tanto la presencia de crisis como la necesidad de un tratamiento médico de por vida, podrían afectar la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. Estudios sugieren que los pacientes con EII requieren de educación para poder desarrollar un buen autocuidado de su enfermedad, adherirse al tratamiento y disminuir así el riesgo de crisis. Esta estrategia o acción no deja de ser importante si consideramos que estudios han mostrado que el nivel de conocimiento de los pacientes con EII respecto a su patología es bajo. El propósito de este artículo es revisar el efecto de la educación en el manejo de los pacientes con EII, y las implicancias de un equipo multidisciplinario con una enfermera especialista en EII que realice el seguimiento de estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patient Care Team , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Quality of Life , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/nursing , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Crohn Disease/therapy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Compliance , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
14.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 28(3): 177-184, 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118805

ABSTRACT

Incidence of obesity is rising worldwide, Chile is no exception with obese patients representing up to one third of general population. This parallels with increasing prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Contrary to conventional belief, comorbidity is high (15-40%), where both diseases present with chronic inflammation and dysbiosis which alters intestinal barrier. Causality between obesity and IBD is difficult to stablish and evidence is scarce to determine association. Obesity would be a risk factor for IBD, particularly in Crohn´s Disease (CD), females and obesity at young age. Other than body mass index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been recently determined as the best indicator of metabolic and endocrine consequences of obesity. Increasing values of VAT have been related to complicated IBD and worst prognosis. On IBD-related therapy, increasing BMI has been related to suboptimal doses and in biologic therapy, obesity raises the probability of flares, loss of response and therapy optimization. Obese patients require IBD-related surgery before non-obese patients and present more postoperative complications. Similarly, VAT is an independent risk factor for postoperative recurrence in CD. Altogether this evidence suggests that obesity does have an influence on IBD, therefore, multidisciplinary healthcare providers should prevent, educate and intervene actively in obesity in order to improve results in intestinal disease


La obesidad ha ido aumentando progresivamente a nivel mundial. Chile no es la excepción, donde un tercio de la población es obesa. Así mismo, la incidencia y prevalencia de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) también ha ido en aumento. La comorbilidad entre obesidad y EII es alta (15-40%) donde ambas presentan inflamación crónica y dentro de su patogenia tienen en común la disbiosis, que altera la función de barrera intestinal. Establecer una asociación de causalidad es difícil y la evidencia es escasa en relación a su asociación. La obesidad puede ser considerada como factor de riesgo para EII, particularmente en pacientes con Enfermedad de Crohn (EC), mujeres y obesidad temprana. Además, se ha establecido que el tejido adiposo visceral (TAV) es mejor indicador de las consecuencias metabólicas de la obesidad en comparación al índice de masa corporal (IMC) y se ha asociado a EII más complicada y peor evolución natural. Con respecto a la terapia, los pacientes con mayor IMC tienen con mayor frecuencia, dosis subóptima de los fármacos, y en terapia biológica, la obesidad aumenta la probabilidad de crisis, pérdida de respuesta al fármaco u optimización de la terapia. Los pacientes obesos requieren cirugía relacionada a EII antes que los pacientes no obesos, presentan más complicaciones postoperatorias y el TAV es un factor de riesgo independiente para recurrencia postoperatoria en EC. Todos estos resultados sugieren que la obesidad influye en la EII, por lo que una intervención activa y multidisciplinaria pudiese mejorar también los resultados en la enfermedad intestinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/therapy
15.
Rev. chil. cir ; 68(6): 417-421, dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830094

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La filtración de anastomosis es una de las complicaciones de mayor impacto en cirugía colorrectal. Objetivo: Analizar la frecuencia e impacto de las filtraciones anastomóticas en cirugía laparoscópica colorrectal. Material y método: Estudio longitudinal de base de datos prospectiva de pacientes operados por cirugía colorrectal entre julio de 2007 y agosto de 2014. Resultados: De un total de 654 pacientes operados, 52,3% correspondían a hombres con una edad promedio de 57 años (42-72). La indicación más frecuente fue cáncer colorrectal con 244 pacientes, 159 (24,3%) operados por cáncer de colon y 85 (12,9%) por cáncer de recto, seguido por la enfermedad diverticular con 239 pacientes (36,5%) y 171 pacientes (26,1%) con otros diagnósticos. En 44 pacientes (6,7%) se objetivó filtración anastomótica, con una mediana de 4 días desde el postoperatorio para su diagnóstico. Como factores asociados a filtración se identificó al género masculino, riesgo anestesiológico según ASA, necesidad de conversión a laparotomía y la anastomosis ileoanal. En relación con el tratamiento, 15 pacientes (33,7%) fueron tratados de forma médica exitosa y 29 fue necesario reintervenirlos, de los cuales 23 (79,3%) requirieron una ostomía de protección. No hubo mortalidad asociada a la cirugía, y el promedio de hospitalización en los pacientes con filtración fue de 12 vs. 5 días para los pacientes sin filtración de la anastomosis. Conclusión: Este trabajo permite identificar a grupos de pacientes con mayor riesgo de filtraciones anastomóticas, quienes duplican su estadía hospitalaria y en un alto porcentaje deben ser reintervenidos. La sospecha y diagnostico precoz reducen la morbimortalidad.


Introduction: Anastomotic leak is the most important complication on colorectal surgery. Objective: Analyze the frequency and impact of anastomotic leaks in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Material and methods: Longitudinal study of prospective database of patients undergoing colorectal surgery between July 2007 and August 2014. Results: 654 patients operated, 52.3% were men with an average age of 57 years (42-72). The most frequent indication was colorectal cancer in 244 patients, 159 (24.3%) operated for colon cancer and 85 (12.9%) for rectal cancer followed by diverticular disease in 239 patients (36.5%) and 171 patients (26.1%) with other diagnoses. In 44 patients (6.7%) anastomotic leakage was observed with a median of 4 days post surgery for diagnosis. As factors associated with filtration, we identified male gender, anesthesic risk according to ASA, need for conversion to laparotomy and ileoanal anastomosis. With regard to treatment, 15 (33.7%) were successfully treated with medical therapy alone and 29 required re-intervention, of which 23 (79.3%) required an ostomy protection. There was no mortality associated with surgery and average LOS was 12 vs. 5 days in patients with filtration compared with patients without anastomotic leakeage. Conclusion: This serie helps to identify patients groups with increased risk of anastomotic leakage who double their hospital LOS and in a higher percentage should need re-intervention. Suspicion and early diagnosis reduces morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anastomotic Leak/epidemiology , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Anastomotic Leak/therapy , Longitudinal Studies , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Risk Factors
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(12): 1612-1616, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845493

ABSTRACT

Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is an uncommon lesion arising from the peritoneal mesothelium. It is asymptomatic or presents with unspecific symptoms. Imaging techniques may reveal it, however the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathology. Surgery is the only effective treatment considering its high recurrence rate. We report a 19 years old male with Crohn’s disease. Due to persistent abdominal pain, an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was performed, showing a complex cystic mass in the lower abdomen. The patient underwent surgery and the lesion was completely resected. The pathological study reported a benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Peritoneal Neoplasms/complications , Crohn Disease/complications , Mesothelioma, Cystic/complications , Peritoneal Neoplasms/surgery , Peritoneal Neoplasms/pathology , Mesothelioma, Cystic/surgery , Mesothelioma, Cystic/pathology
17.
Rev. chil. cir ; 68(2): 164-169, abr. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784847

ABSTRACT

phenotypic expression is the presence of múltiple colorectal adenomatous polyps (more than 100), with high probability developing colorrectal cancer (CRC) before the fifth decade of life. Prophylactic surgery (total colectomy or restorative proctocolectomy) reduces the risk of developing CRC. However, the risk of developing tumors in other organs remains present. Objetive: Analyze the frequency and type of tumors associated with classic familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (FAPc) patients undergoing prophylactic colectomy. Material and Methods: Cohort study. From the registry of hereditary colorrectal cancer (CRC) at our institution, we identified patients with FAPc who underwent total colectomy with ileorrectal anastomosis (TC-IRA) or restorative proctocolectomy (RTPC), from 1999 to 2014. In the follow-up we analyzed related tumors and mortality. Results: 27 patients, of whom 18 (66.7%) underwent TC-IRA and 9 (33.3%) underwent RTPC. At the time of surgery, 4 patients had CRC (15%) and 5 had extracolonic tumors (osteomas). In a mean follow-up of 49, 4 months (i: 2 y 178) the following lesions were diagnosed: digestive tract adenomas in 17 (63%) patients, of these 2 required a proctectomy and 3 resection of duodenal adenomas. Eight patients developed desmoid tumors (30%), and 3 of them underwent surgery. One patient had an extradigestive tumor (thyroid cancer) and only 8/27 (29.6%) did not develop other tumors. One patient died due to progression of his CCR. Discussion: In this series it is confirmed that most patients will develop neoplasms FAPc after colectomy. conclusion: The removal of the colon and/or rectum is able to prevent the development of CRC. However, two thirds of the patients develop other tumors in which systematic surveillance allowed early detection and treatment.


Objetivo: Analizar la frecuencia y tipo de tumores asociados en pacientes con poliposis adenomatosa familiar clásica (PAFc) sometidos a una colectomía profiláctica. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio de cohorte. Desde el registro de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) hereditario, se identificaron las familias con PAFc, y de estas a los pacientes que se les practicó una colectomía total con anastomosis íleorrectal (CT-AIR) o proctocolec-tomía restauradora (PCTR), desde 1999 al 2014. En el seguimiento se analizaron los tumores asociados y su mortalidad. Resultados: Se identificaron 27 pacientes, de los cuales 18 (66,7%) fueron sometidos a CT-AIR y 9 (33,3%) a PCTR. Al momento de la cirugía, 4 pacientes presentaban CCR (15%) y 5 tenían tumores extracolónicos (osteomas). En un seguimiento promedio de 49,4 meses (i: 2 y 178) se diagnosticaron: adenomas del tracto digestivo en 17 (63%) pacientes, de éstos 2 requirieron una proctectomía y 3 resecciones de adenomas duodenales. Ocho pacientes desarrollaron tumores desmoides (30%), y 3 de ellos fueron sometidos a una cirugía. Un paciente presentó un tumor extradigestivo (cáncer de tiroides) y sólo 8/27 (29,6%) pacientes no desarrollaron otros tumores. Un paciente falleció por progresión de su CCR. Discusión: En esta serie se confirma que la mayoría de los pacientes con PAFc seguirán desarrollando neoplasias después de su colectomía. conclusiones: La extirpación del colon y/o recto permitió evitar el desarrollo de CCR. Sin embargo, dos tercios de los pacientes presentaron otros tumores en quienes su seguimiento permitió una detección y tratamiento temprano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Colectomy/adverse effects , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/surgery , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/complications , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/pathology , Duodenal Neoplasms/etiology , Duodenal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasm Staging
18.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 27(supl.1): S26-S31, 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907649

ABSTRACT

Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are immunologically mediated chronic digestive diseases, with a trend to progressive damage, which generally have an onset at young age and a course characterized by remission and relapse. Its incidence and prevalence present a steady upward trend globally. CD is characterized by transmural inflammation in the digestive tract and it is a complex disease. The perianal involvement –“p”, abscesses or perianal fistulas– is considered a condition that is different from penetrating phenotype, a condition that indicates an aggressive behavior of CD. Early identification and proper treatment of fistulas, including correct diagnosis and classification are essential elements to establish an appropriate treatment plan. A multidisciplinary approach is essential including medical and surgical approach.


La Enfermedad de Crohn (EC) y la colitis ulcerosa (CU) son enfermedades digestivas crónicas, progresivas, mediadas inmunológicamente, que en general, tienen un inicio durante la edad adulta-joven y un curso que se caracteriza por remisión y recaída. Su incidencia y prevalencia ha presentado una tendencia constante de incremento a nivel global. La EC se caracteriza por comprimo transmural del tracto digestivo y por ser una patología compleja. El compromiso perianal –“p”, abscesos o fístulas perianales– se considera una condición diferente al fenotipo penetrante, señalándose en la actualidad como una variable modificadora del comportamiento de la patología y de gravedad. La identificación dirigida y precoz de trayectos fistulosos, su correcto diagnóstico y clasificación son elementos primordiales para poder establecer un plan terapéutico apropiado. Es imprescindible un abordaje multidisciplinario, en el cual exista integración médico-quirúrgica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/surgery , Rectal Fistula/drug therapy , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Crohn Disease/complications , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Rectal Fistula/etiology
19.
Rev. chil. cir ; 67(4): 407-412, ago. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-752861

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Faecal incontinence (FI) represents an important psychological and social condition for an individual. There are several causes for FI, therefore its study and management is complex. Among different aetiologies, anatomical disruption of the external anal sphincter (EAS) as a consequence of anorrectal surgery or obstetric injury can be studied by endoanal ultrasound (EAUS). This study focus on anatomical assessment of sphincter muscle injury of EAS and its relationship with clinical presentation con FI. Objective: Compare anatomical and disruption of EAS features studied by 3D-EAUS between patients with FI, according to its severity. Methods: 3D-EAUS images were obtained from selected patients studied for FI between January 2008 and July 2010 at Clínica las Condes. Wexner Score (SW) was used to evaluate severity of FI, dividing patients into two categories: Mild FI (SW < 9) and Severe FI (SW ≥ 9). A single observer evaluated different morphological variables: width, length, percentage and angle of EAS disruption. Parametrical and non-parametrical analysis was used as appropriate. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: From 31 female patients studied, mean SW was 11.7 +/- 0.8 points, range from 5 to 20 points. When dividing into two groups, 9 patients had mild FI and 22 had severe FI. Studied variables in EAUS 3D cubes: width, length, percentage and angle of EAS disruption, did not reach statistical significance between groups. Conclusion: No relationship was found between external anal sphincter anatomic injury variables studied and severity of faecal incontinence.


Introducción: La incontinencia fecal (IF) se refleja en una condición psicológica y social importante para el individuo. Las causas de IF son múltiples, siendo su estudio y manejo complejo. La disrupción anatómica del esfínter anal externo (EAE), secundaria, entre otras, a cirugía anorrectal o lesión obstétrica, es posible de ser estudiada por endosonografía anal (EAUS). El presente artículo se centra en el daño anatómico del EAE y su relación con la presentación clínica de la IF. Objetivo: Comparar las características anatómicas y daño del EAE objetivadas mediante endosonografía en 3 dimensiones (EAUS3D), entre los pacientes con IF según su severidad. Material y Método: Se obtuvo las EAUS3D realizadas en Clínica Las Condes por estudio de IF entre enero de 2008 y julio de 2010. Se utilizó el score de Wexner (SW) para separar la población en dos grupos, IF leve (SW < 9) e IF grave (SW ≥ 9). Un único observador evaluó las diferentes variables: grosor, longitud, porcentaje de defecto y ángulo de lesión del EAE. Se utilizó estadística paramétrica o no-paramétrica según corresponda. Se consideró significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: De un total de 31 pacientes femeninas estudiadas, el SW promedio fue de 11,7 +/- 0,8 con rango entre 5 y 20 puntos. Al separar según grupos, 9 pacientes tenían IF leve y 22 IF grave. De las variables estudiadas por EAUS3D: el promedio, grosor, longitud, porcentaje de defecto y el ángulo de lesión del EAE no lograron diferencia estadística entre los grupos. Conclusión: No existe una relación directa entre las variables estudiadas de daño anatómico del EAE y el grado de IF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Anal Canal/pathology , Fecal Incontinence/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Anal Canal , Endosonography , Fecal Incontinence , Quality of Life
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(7): 834-840, jul. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757906

ABSTRACT

Background: The chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, the extra-intestinal manifestations of the disease and the immunosuppressive treatment of inflammatory bowel disease may increase cancer risk. Aim: To report the demographic and clinical features of patients with IBD who developed a malignant tumor. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of an IBD patient registry of a private clinic, diagnosed between 1976 and 2014. Results: 437 subjects were included, aged 15-88 years (58% women). Seventy two percent of patients had ulcerative colitis. The median time of follow up was 6 years. Ten patients (2.3%) developed a malignant tumor. In four, the tumor could be related to IBD (two colorectal cancers, one cholangiocarcinoma and one chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)). Two of 45 patients treated with biological therapy developed a tumor (CML and hypernephroma). Three of 170 patients on immunosuppressive treatment developed tumors. Only one had a tumor possibly related with the use of azathioprine (non-melanoma skin cancer). In only two patients, the treatment was changed at the time of their cancer diagnosis, from immunosuppressive medications to mesalamine. Conclusions: Only a small proportion of these patients with IBD developed a malignant tumor. The treatment of IBD has to be determined by the severity of the disease and not by the fear of developing a neoplasia. Following recommendations is fundamental to decrease the possibility of developing this complication.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Colorectal Neoplasms/etiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/classification , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/complications , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors
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