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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 753-760, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977105


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections. Severe cases are more frequently observed in adults. However, in 2008, the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, experienced a severe dengue epidemic that primarily affected children and caused many cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and death. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted to examine laboratory diagnosis and clinical epidemiologic factors for confirmed dengue cases in patients aged less than 16 years, from January to June 2008, at a municipal hospital in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Variables associated with severe outcomes and P values less than .05 were evaluated by means of a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of the 419 dengue cases studied, 296 were classified as DHF and 123 as classical dengue. Six patients who had DHF died. In multivariate analysis, some laboratory and clinical variables were independently associated with DHF: age 5 years or older (odds ratio [OR], 4.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-18.71), abdominal pain (OR, 8.59; 95% CI, 3.17-23.27), hepatomegaly (OR, 15.87; 95% CI, 5.38-46.85), and positive tourniquet test (OR, 10.84; 95% CI, 3.96-29.71). Hypoalbuminemia occurred more frequently than hemoconcentration in DHF cases, and high aminotransferase levels were associated with severity. CONCLUSIONS: Age greater than 5 years, abdominal pain, painful hepatomegaly, and positive tourniquet test were predictors of DHF. The high frequency of hepatic impairment suggests that acetaminophen should be avoided in severe cases of dengue.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Severe Dengue/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(6): 458-468, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841802


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Dengue fever may present hemorrhages and cavitary effusions as result of exacerbated immune responses. We investigated hydro-alcoholic extracts from leaves (UGL) and bark (UGB) of the medicinal species Uncaria guinanensis with respect to antiviral effects in Dengue virus (DENV) infection and in immunological parameters associated with in vivo physiopathological features. METHODS Chemical profiles from UGB or UGL were compared in thin layer chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance using flavonoid compounds and a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid-enriched fraction as references. DENV-2-infected hepatocytes (Huh-7) were treated with extracts. Cell viability, DENV antigens and immunological factors were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or flow cytometry. FINDINGS The UGL mainly differed from UGB by selectively containing the flavonoid kaempferitrin. UGB and UGL improved hepatocyte viability. Both extracts reduced intracellular viral antigen and inhibited the secretion of viral non-structural protein (NS1), which is indicative of viral replication. Reduction in secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor was achieved by UGB, of interleukin-6 by UGL, and of interleukin-8 by both UGB and UGL. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The U. guianensis extracts presented, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects for DENV and possibly a hepatocyte-protective activity. Further studies may be performed to consider these products as potential candidates for the development of an herbal product for the future treatment of dengue.

Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Chemokines/drug effects , Chemokines/immunology , Uncaria/chemistry , Dengue/physiopathology , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Dengue Virus/immunology , Antigens, Viral/drug effects , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 26(4): 502-506, July-Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-792707


ABSTRACT Dengue is the most important viral infection transmitted among humans by arthropod-borne. There are currently no vaccines or specific therapeutical treatment. Therefore, immunomodulatory compounds from plants have been widely examined for their antiviral effects. Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler, Menispermaceae, has scientifically proven to present immunomodulatory activities. Here we assessed the antiviral activity of leaf hydroalcoholic extract, warifteine or methylwarifteine from C. sympodialis in an in vitro dengue virus infection model. The results demonstrated that leaf hydroalcoholic extract or warifteine/methylwarifteine treatment did not reduce dengue virus-Ag+ hepatocyte (Huh-7 cell) rates in present experimental conditions. However, we assessed the potential antiviral effect of leaf hydroalcoholic extract or warifteine/methylwarifteine on dengue virus-infection by the production of inflammatory molecules, TNF-α, MIF, IL-8 and PGE2. Dengue virus infection enhanced TNF-α, MIF, IL-8 and PGE2 production in infected Huh-7 cells and leaf hydroalcoholic extract but not warifteine/methylwarifteine treatments, significantly reduced these molecules in infected cells. In dengue virus-infected Huh-7 cells, non-structural protein-1 is produced and leaf hydroalcoholic extract significantly inhibited it independently of alkaloids. Our findings imply that leaf hydroalcoholic extract may attenuate dengue virus infection in Huh-7 cells by inhibiting the enhanced of pro-inflammatory mediators and non-structural protein-1 production induce by dengue virus independently of warifteine/methywarifteine its major compound.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(6): 675-681, Nov.-Dec. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-661065


INTRODUCTION: To analyze the liver dysfunction and evolution of signs and symptoms in adult dengue patients during a two-month follow-up period. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to July, 2008. The evolution of laboratory and clinical manifestations of 90 adult dengue patients was evaluated in five scheduled visits within a two-month follow-up period. Twenty controls were enrolled for the analysis of liver function. Patients with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, those known to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive and pregnant women were excluded from the study. RESULTS: At the end of the second month following diagnosis, we observed that symptoms persisted in 33.3% (30/90) of dengue patients. We also observed that, 57.7% (15/26) of the symptoms persisted at the end of the second month. The most persistent symptoms were arthralgia, fatigue, weakness, adynamia, anorexia, taste alteration, and hair loss. Prior dengue virus (DENV) infection did not predispose patients to a longer duration of symptoms. Among hepatic functions, transaminases had the most remarkable elevation and in some cases remained elevated up to the second month after the disease onset. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels overcame aspartate aminotransferase (AST) during the convalescent period. Male patients were more severely affected than females. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue fever may present a wide number of symptoms and elevated liver transaminases at the end of the second month.

INTRODUÇÃO: Analisar prospectivamente a disfunção hepática e a evolução dos sinais e sintomas em pacientes adultos com dengue durante um período de dois meses. MÉTODOS: Realizamos um estudo prospectivo em Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, de janeiro a julho de 2008. Foi avaliada a evolução das manifestações clínicas e laboratoriais em 90 pacientes adultos com dengue, em um período de dois meses. Vinte controles foram arrolados para análise da função hepática. Em ambos os grupos foram realizadas coletas de dados e sangue nos primeiros cinco dias da doença, e aos 8, 15, 30 e 60 dias após o início da doença. Foram excluídos pacientes com hepatite B, hepatite C, gestantes e aqueles sabidamente soropositivos para HIV. RESULTADOS: No final do segundo mês do início da dengue, 33,3% (30/90) dos pacientes apresentaram persistência de pelo menos um sinal ou sintoma. Estavam presentes no final do segundo mês 57,7% (15/26) dos sinais ou sintomas. Os maiores percentuais de persistência foram: artralgia, adinamia, fraqueza, fadiga, anorexia, alteração do paladar e queda de cabelo. A infecção prévia pelo vírus da dengue (DENV) não predispôs a uma maior duração dos sintomas. Da função hepática, observamos alterações relevantes somente nos níveis das transaminases, que em alguns casos permaneceram elevados até o final do segundo mês. Os níveis de ALT ultrapassaram os de AST na convalescença. Homens apresentaram níveis mais elevados de transaminases quando comparados aos de mulheres. CONCLUSÕES: Dengue apresenta grande número de sintomas e transaminases elevadas no final do segundo mês de doença.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Dengue/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Cohort Studies , Creatine Kinase/blood , Dengue/blood , Liver Function Tests , Liver Diseases/blood , Prospective Studies , Prothrombin Time , Severity of Illness Index
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(1): 48-56, Feb. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612805


Dengue virus (DENV) and parvovirus B19 (B19V) infections are acute exanthematic febrile illnesses that are not easily differentiated on clinical grounds and affect the paediatric population. Patients with these acute exanthematic diseases were studied. Fever was more frequent in DENV than in B19V-infected patients. Arthritis/arthralgias with DENV infection were shown to be significantly more frequent in adults than in children. The circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (Ra), CXCL10/inducible protein-10 (IP-10), CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples obtained from B19V (37) and DENV-infected (36) patients and from healthy individuals (7). Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that circulating CXCL10/IP-10 tends to be associated with DENV infection and that IL-1Ra was significantly associated with DENV infection. Similar analysis showed that circulating CCL2/MCP-1 tends to be associated with B19V infection. In dengue fever, increased circulating IL-1Ra may exert antipyretic actions in an effort to counteract the already increased concentrations of IL-1β, while CXCL10/IP-10 was confirmed as a strong pro-inflammatory marker. Recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and upregulation of the humoral immune response by CCL2/MCP-1 by B19V may be involved in the persistence of the infection. Children with B19V or DENV infections had levels of these cytokines similar to those of adult patients.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , /blood , /blood , /blood , Dengue/blood , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/blood , Parvoviridae Infections/blood , Acute Disease , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , /immunology , /immunology , /immunology , Dengue/immunology , Immunoassay , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Prospective Studies , Parvoviridae Infections/immunology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(5): 594-605, Aug. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597720


Flaviviruses cause severe acute febrile and haemorrhagic infections, including dengue and yellow fever and the pathogenesis of these infections is caused by an exacerbated immune response. Dendritic cells (DCs) are targets for dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YF) replication and are the first cell population to interact with these viruses during a natural infection, which leads to an induction of protective immunity in humans. We studied the infectivity of DENV2 (strain 16681), a YF vaccine (YF17DD) and a chimeric YF17D/DENV2 vaccine in monocyte-derived DCs in vitro with regard to cell maturation, activation and cytokine production. Higher viral antigen positive cell frequencies were observed for DENV2 when compared with both vaccine viruses. Flavivirus-infected cultures exhibited dendritic cell activation and maturation molecules. CD38 expression on DCs was enhanced for both DENV2 and YF17DD, whereas OX40L expression was decreased as compared to mock-stimulated cells, suggesting that a T helper 1 profile is favoured. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production in cell cultures was significantly higher in DENV2-infected cultures than in cultures infected with YF17DD or YF17D/DENV. In contrast, the vaccines induced higher IFN-α levels than DENV2. The differential cytokine production indicates that DENV2 results in TNF induction, which discriminates it from vaccine viruses that preferentially stimulate interferon expression. These differential response profiles may influence the pathogenic infection outcome.

Humans , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue/immunology , Yellow Fever/immunology , Yellow fever virus/immunology , Biomarkers , Cell Differentiation , Chemokines/biosynthesis , Dendritic Cells , Dengue Vaccines/immunology , Dengue Virus/physiology , Dengue , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Interferon-alpha , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Virus Replication , Yellow Fever Vaccine/immunology , Yellow Fever , Yellow fever virus/physiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(8): 983-990, Dec. 2007. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-471848


An important cytokine role in dengue fever pathogenesis has been described. These molecules can be associated with haemorrhagic manifestations, coagulation disorders, hypotension and shock, all symptoms implicated in vascular permeability and disease worsening conditions. Several immunological diseases have been treated by cytokine modulation and dexamethasone is utilized clinically to treat pathologies with inflammatory and autoimmune ethiologies. We established an in vitro model with human monocytes infected by dengue virus-2 for evaluating immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of potential pharmaceutical products. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant dengue antigen detection in target cells two days after infection. TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 are produced by in vitro infected monocytes and are significantly detected in cell culture supernatants by multiplex microbead immunoassay. Dexamethasone action was tested for the first time for its modulation in dengue infection, presenting optimistic results in both decreasing cell infection rates and inhibiting TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IL-10 production. This model is proposed for novel drug trials yet to be applyed for dengue fever.

Humans , Cytokines/drug effects , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Monocytes/virology , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Dengue Virus/immunology , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Interferon-alpha/biosynthesis , Interferon-alpha/drug effects , Interleukins/biosynthesis , Monocytes/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 94(3): 387-94, May-Jun. 1999. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-239048


Pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-[alfa]), interleukin-6(IL-6) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) as well as anti-inflammatory compounds, soluble TNF-Receptor p55 (sTNFRp55), sTNFRp75 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1Ra), were investigated in 34 Brazilian cases of dengue fever (DF) originated from a study of exanthematic virosis. The presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines was detected in sera from these patients by ELISA. TNF-[alfa] and IL-6 levels were significantly higher than control subjects in 32 (por cento) and 52(por cento) patients, respectively. To our knowledge this was the first time a receptor antagonist and soluble receptors for cytokines were detected in sera obtained during exanthematic DF without hemorrhagic manifestations. Both sTNFRp55 and sTNFRp75 were consistently elevated in 42 (por cento) and 84 (por cento) patients, respectively. Most patients had IL-1ß levels not different from those of normal subjects, except for one case. Only 16 (por cento) patients had altered levels of IL-Ra. Previous studies in dengue hemorrhagic fever patients demonstrated production of these soluble factors; here we observed that they are found in absence of hemorrhagic manifestations. The possible role of these anti-inflammatory compounds in immune cell activation and in regulating cytokine-mediated pathogenesis during dengue infection is discussed.

Humans , Child , Cytokines/physiology , Dengue/blood , Dengue/immunology , Interleukin-6/physiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 89(3): 395-402, Jul.-Sept. 1994. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-164108


Viral replication, histopathological and ultrastructural changes were observed for a period of nine days in the small intestine of suckling mice infected with a simian rotavirus (SA11). Samples taken from duodenum, jejunun and ileum were prepared for light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Histopathologic effect could be detected within 8 hr post-infection, when only a few altered cells were observed. Damage was extensive after 16 hr post-infection, showing swollen enterocytes and reduced and irregularly oriented microvilli at intestinal villi tips. Virus particles were detected at 16 and 48 hr post-infection, budding from the viroplasm into the rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae in ileum enterocytes. Clear evidence of viral replication, observed by electron microscopy was not described before in heterologous murine models. Regeneration of the intestinal villi began at the third day post-infection. Despite some differences observed in clinical symptoms and microscopic analysis of homologous and heterologous rotavirus infections, we concluded that mechanisms of heterologous rotavirus infection in mice follow similar patterns to those observed in the homologous models.

Animals , Haplorhini/parasitology , Rotavirus/ultrastructure