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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1243-1252, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928049

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix(EPR) on intestinal flora structure before and after vinegar processing and explored the detoxification mechanism of vinegar-processed EPR. In this study, the extraction efficiency of casbane diterpenes from EPR with different solvents was investigated, and the optimal solvent was selected to enrich these components. After 14 days of intragastric administration of total diterpene extract of EPR and vinegar-processed EPR, 16 S rDNA sequencing technology was used to detect the structural changes of intestinal flora. The flora related to the intestinal toxicity of EPR was screened out based on the results of intestinal pathological damage by correlation analysis. The results showed that Soxhlet extraction with chloroform as extraction solvent could enrich Casbane diterpenes in EPR. As revealed by 16 S rDNA sequencing results, EPR could significantly change the structure of intestinal flora, which could be reversed by vinegar-processing EPR. Some intestinal flora candidates might be related to detoxification of vinegar processing. The correlation analysis of intestinal flora candidates and indexes related to intestinal mucosal injury showed that compared with EPR, vinegar-processed EPR could down-regulate the abundance of some pathogenic bacteria such as Mucispirillum, Bilophila, and Ruminiclostridium, and up-regulated some probiotics such as Enterorhabdus, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014, Barnesiella, and Candidatus. The intestinal toxicity caused by EPR may be related to the disturbance of intestinal flora, and vinegar-processed EPR can improve intestinal flora disorder by up-regulating the abundance of probiotics and down-regulating the abundance of pathogenic bacteria to remodel the intestinal mucosal barrier and reduce toxicity.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid/chemistry , Colon , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Roots
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2516-2521, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687425

ABSTRACT

To investigate the toxicity changes of Euphorbiae Ebracteolatae Radix (EER) before and after vinegar processing, toxic diterpenoids were concentrated with chloroform as extraction solvent from EER. Then the residue was extracted for non-chloroform extract with 95% ethanol and water after extraction with chloroform. The chloroform extraction of vinegar processed EER was prepared with the same method. The mice received the drug by oral administration. Moisture content in mice feces, duodenum and colon tissue, aquaporin AQP1, AQP3, AQP4 protein expression levels were assayed as the indexes to investigate the toxicity variation of chloroform fraction, non-chloroform fraction, as well as intestinal tract toxicity before and after vinegar processing of EER. The results showed that the chloroform fraction extracted from EER could significantly increase the moisture content in mice feces, duodenum and colon, and decrease AQP1 protein expression level, increase AQP3 and AQP4 protein expression levels in the colon. The intestinal toxicity of the chloroform extract was significantly higher than that of non-chloroform extract. The moisture content in mice feces, duodenum and colon was significantly decreased, and the AQPs protein expression tended to be normal in the colon after vinegar processing. The results showed that the chloroform fraction extracted from EER could lead to diarrhea, intestinal edema, and the intestinal toxicity action was associated with interfering AQPs protein expression and promoting intestinal fluid transport disorder in mice. Vinegar-processing could reduce intestinal toxicity of EER, so vinegar processing was considered to be the scientific processing method of EER.

3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2580-2585, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687415

ABSTRACT

To establish the fingerprints of biles of pig, cattle and sheep, HPLC was used with Acclaim™ RSLC 120 C₁₈ column (3.0 mm×100 mm, 2.2 μm, 120 Å), the column temperature 35 °C, acetonitrile-1% perchloric acid as mobile phase, gradient elution, 0.5 mL·min⁻¹ flow rate, and detection wavelength at 200 nm. The fingerprint was generated by using Similarity Evaluation Software of Chromatographic Fingerprint of Chinese Medicine (2004A Edition). The fingerprint peaks were identified by reference substances and verified by ELSD and LC-MS/MS. Then, the biles of pig, cattle and sheep were detected to contain 14, 9 and 8 common fingerprint peaks respectively, and the similarity was greater than 0.92. To analyze each technical parameter, GHDCA in pig bile and TCA in cattle and sheep bile were selected as reference peak. The precision, repeatability and stability all meet the requirements of fingerprint establishment. The RSD of the relative retention time of the fingerprint peaks was less than 1.5%, and the RSD of the relative peak area was less than 5%. The fingerprint peaks in pig bile were THDCA, TCDCA, GHDCA and GCDCA, and TCA, TCDCA, GCA, GCDCA and GDCA in cattle and sheep bile. The main components of pig, cattle and sheep bile were conjugated bile acids, but there were significant differences in bile acids between pig bile and cattle, sheep biles. The HPLC method established in this paper is simple, rapid and reproducible, and could be applied to the identification and quality control of biles.

4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4716-4721, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338213

ABSTRACT

To study the antagonistic effect of ginkgolide homologues on platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation and investigate its neuroprotective effect. PAF was used as a coagulant, and ginkgolides were added to the rabbit blood samples respectively. The inhibitory effect of each compound on platelet aggregation was detected by turbidimetry. In L-glutamate induced primary cortical neuron cell injury model, MTT assay was used to detect cell viability. Intracellular free Ca2+ concentration in neurons was measured by using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Fura-2 AM. Morphological observation and Hoechst 33258 staining were used to detect the inhibitory effect of ginkgolide on neuronal apoptosis. The results showed that the inhibitory effect on PAF-induced platelet aggregation activity in ginkgolide homologues was ginkgolide K (GK), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide C (GC), ginkgolide M (GM), ginkgolide J (GJ) and ginkgolide (GL) from high to low. GB and GK (1-100 μmol•L ⁻¹) could significantly reduce the cell damage caused by L-glutamate, with survival rate increasing, intracellular calcium concentration reducing and cell morphology restoring. This paper has identified the activities and characteristics of various compounds of ginkgolide homologues on PAF-induced platelet aggregation as well as its neuroprotective effect.

5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4722-4726, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338212

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB) and ginkgolide K (GK) on platelet aggregation in rabbits, and compare the similarities and differences among these three components. The effects of different doses of ginkgolide A, B and K on platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor (PAF) were observed by using in vitro experiment. The results showed that three compounds could inhibit platelet aggregation induced by PAF in vitro, and the intensity was GK> GB> GA. It was further found that all of them can mobilize [Ca2+]i and enhance intracellular c-AMP level in a dose-dependent manner, which was consistent to the ability to antagonize PAF receptor. These findings indicated that GK was highly selective for PAF receptor, and may inhibit platelet aggregation by activating cAMP signaling pathway and inhibiting intracellular [Ca2+]i mobilization; GB and GA also had strong antagonism to PAF receptor, but the effect was weaker than that of GK.

6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 125-129, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230983

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate the effect of vinegar processing on esculentosides in n-BuOH fraction and the contents of the main toxic components esculentoside B (EsB) and esculentoside C (EsC) in Phytolaccae Radix pieces. n-BuOH fraction of Phytolaccae Radix pieces was processed with vinegar according to the processing method in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. HPLC-MS-MS was adopted to analyze the esculentosides composition changes in n-BuOH fraction before and after vinegar processing. HPLC-ELSD was used to detect EsC and EsB contents in raw and vinegar processed Phytolaccae Radix pieces, and investigate the content changes before and after vinegar processing. Results showed that the esculentosides contents in n-BuOH fraction were significantly decreased except esculentoside A (EsA); there were significant changes in saponins compositions, but no new compounds were generated in n-BuOH fraction after vinegar processing. The contents of EsC and EsB were 0.12% and 0.20% respectively in raw Phytolaccae Radix, and decreased to 0.048% and 0.094% accordingly after vinegar processing. It showed that vinegar processing could significantly change the composition of esculentosides in n-BuOH fraction from Phytolaccae Radix and reduce the contents of toxic components EsC and EsB, indicating the scientificity of vinegar processing for Phytolaccae Radix.

7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 216-219, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304867

ABSTRACT

To research the intestinal toxicity of n-BuOH fraction in Phytolacca Radix before and after being processed with vinegar. Toxic n-BuOH fractions were separated from Phytolacca Radix. In the animal model, the level of intestinal edema, water content of intestine and stool, IC₅₀ values of HT-29 and IEC-6 were detected with MTT method to compare the changes in toxicity of n-BuOH fractions from Phytolacca Radix before and after being processed with vinegar. n-BuOH fractions of Phytolacca Radix could cause intestinal edema in mice, increase the edema of duodenum, jejunum and the water content in stool, inhibit the proliferation of HT-29 cells and IEC-6 cells, indicating its intestinal toxicity, with HT-29 IC₅₀ at 14.59 mg•L⁻¹ and IEC-6 IC₅₀ at 43.77 mg•L⁻¹. After being processed with vinegar, the level of intestinal edema, edema of duodenum and jejunum and the water content in stool and inhibition ratio of cells line were reduced, with HT-29 IC₅₀ at 58.51 mg•L⁻¹ and IEC-6 IC₅₀ at 84.37 mg•L⁻¹. After being processed with vinegar, the toxicity of n-BuOH fractions from Phytolacca Radix decreased obviously.

8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2571-2575, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275203

ABSTRACT

In order to compare the effect of sulfur fumigation processing and direct hot air heating technology on puerarin contents and efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix, the fresh roots of Pueraria thomsonii were cut into small pieces and prepared into direct sunshine drying samples, direct hot air drying samples, and sulfur fumigation-hot air drying samples. Moisture contents of the samples were then determined. The puerarin contents of different samples were compared by HPLC method. Moreover, the models of drunkenness mice were established, and then with superoxide dismutase (SOD) content as the index, aqueous decoction extracts of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix samples with sulfur fumigation processing and non-sulfur fumigation processing methods were administrated by ig; the effects of sulfur fumigation on contents of SOD in mice liver and serum were determined, and the sulfur fumigation samples and non-sulfur fumigation samples were investigated for moth and mildew under different packaging and storage conditions. Results showed that the sulfur fumigation samples significantly changed the puerarin content from Puerariae Thomsonii Radix. The content of puerarin was decreased gradually when increasing the times of sulfur fumigation and amount of sulfur. SOD content in drunken mice liver and serum was significantly decreased when increasing the times of sulfur fumigation, showing significant difference with both direct sunshine drying group and direct hot air drying group. Moth and mildew were not found in the sulfur fumigation samples and direct hot air drying samples whose moisture contents were lower than the limit in Pharmacopoeia. Research showed that sulfur fumigation can significantly reduce the content of main active ingredients and reduce the efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix, indicating that the quality of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix was significantly decreased after sulfur fumigation. However, the contents of the main active ingredients, efficacy and storage results of the direct hot air drying samples were similar to those in direct sunshine drying samples, so the hot air drying process was a nice drying technology which could be promoted for use.

9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1087-1092, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237759

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate the mechanism of gingerols antagonizing the inflammatory effect of toxic raphides from Pinella pedatisecta. Mice peritonitis models induced by toxic raphides from P. pedatisecta were applied to observe the effect of gingerols on inflammatory mediators PGE2 in the exudates of abdominal inflammation in mice; rats peritoneal macrophage in vitro culture models were adopted to study the anti-inflammatory effects of gingerol against toxic raphides, with TNF-α and IL-1β in supernatant as indexes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the changes in surface morphology of macrophages treated by raphides and gingerols. Macrophages-neutrophils co-cultured models were used to study the antagonism of gingerols against the effect of toxic raphides' stimulation on neutrophils migration. Results showed that gingerols could significantly inhibit the production of PGE2 in the exudates of abdominal inflammation induced by toxic raphides from P. pedatisecta in mice. Gingerols could significantly inhibit the toxic raphides from P. pedatisecta to induce the release of inflammatory factors, with certain dose dependence. Scanning electron microscopy showed that gingerols could significantly inhibit phagocytosis of macrophages, cytomembrane injury, and neutrophils migration induced by toxic raphides from P. pedatisecta. The results showed that the antagonism mechanism of gingerols against the toxic raphides from P. pedatisecta may be associated with inhibiting the pro-inflammatory toxicity including macrophage activation, inflammatory factors release, and neutrophils migration.

10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4603-4608, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250446

ABSTRACT

To look for the toxicity fraction of Euphorbia pekinensis and discuss the vinegar processing mechanism. The level of intestinal edema, water content of intestine and stool, IC50 values of IEC-6 were applied to evaluate the toxicity of different fractions. RT-PCR was employed for detecting AQP1, AQP3 mRNA expression. The petroleum ether (PE) fraction and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction could significant cause intestinal edema in mice, increase the water content of duodenum, colon and stool, inhibited the mRNA expression of AQP1 and increased the mRNA level of AQP3 in colon, and the petroleum ether (PE) fraction was more poisonous. After the petroleum ether (PE) fraction was processed with vinegar, the level of intestinal edema, water content of duodenum, colon, stool and inhibition ratio of cells line were reduced. And we compared the composition change after vinegar processing, finding that the conpekinensis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Acetic Acid , Chemistry , Cell Line , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Toxicity , Euphorbia , Chemistry , Toxicity , Mice, Inbred ICR , Molecular Structure
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