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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222023

ABSTRACT

Background: Skin diseases occur in all age groups in developed and developing countries. Various types of skin diseases are found worldwide and depend on factors like environment, surrounding ecology, dietary habits, socioeconomic status, mental health, and literacy. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) improves after treatment or cure of the diseases. Objectives: To estimate the pattern of skin disease. To find out the quality of life and association of skin disease with sociodemographic factors among patients. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was done in skin OPD at the tertiary care center, Banda district of Uttar Pradesh, India from May 2022 to July 2022. All patients who attended to skin OPD during study period were included in the study after taking informed verbal consent. Results: Skin diseases had further divided in subcategories which were infectious conditions, pigmentary disorders, inflammatory dermatoses, miscellaneous skin conditions, benign tumor and other lesions with their percentage 44.8, 10.5, 28.6, 7.1, 2.9 and 6.2%, respectively in this study Classes of DQLI where major portion of patients (49.52%) were in ‘Small effect on patient’s life’ category. The relation of age, religion, education and member of household with history of skin disease were found to be highly statistically significant. Conclusion: Infectious skin diseases were found more common in study area. Male populations were more commonly affected. Skin diseases were more common in age group of 18–60 years. Study participants showed no predominant effect on quality of life. But small effect class had major effect on participant’s quality of life.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218904

ABSTRACT

The use of root coverage procedures to treat gingival recession defects, a common periodontal condition, is an important aspect of periodontal regenerative therapy. The synergistic relationship between vascular configuration and involved tissues is the most important factor in soft tissue graft success. The present case reports the clinical effectiveness of Gingival Unit Graft (GUG) for the management of Miller's class III gingival recession.Clinical parameters like Probing depth, recession depth, keratinized tissue width and clinical attachment level were measured at baseline and postoperative 6 months. Percentage of defect coverage was evaluated at postoperative 6 months. Healing was uneventful and 3mm root coverage was observed with 1mm residual recession and increase in keratinized gingiva after 6 months follow up. Free soft tissue autografts such as gingival unit transfers can be used along with bio-adhesives such as cyanoacrylates for predictable results in the management of recession defects.

3.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2023 Mar; 66(1): 44-53
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223462

ABSTRACT

Background: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the heart of invasion. EMT associated with cancer progression and metastasis is known as type III EMT. Beta-catenin, E-cadherin, and MMP9 markers of EMT are routinely employed for diagnostic purposes. Aims: We employed these markers to study EMT by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in gall bladder cancer (GBC) with respect to depth of tumor invasion, clinical outcome, and disease-free survival. Settings and Design: This was a prospective case-control study. Material and Methods: Seventy gall bladders were included (50 GBC and 20 CC). After detailed histology, immunoexpression was studied in terms of percentage and strength of expression. Statistics Analysis Used: Expression was compared between CC and GBC by Student t test and analysis of variance. Kaplan–Meier was used for survival analysis, and the extent of agreement (“Kappa”) was calculated. Results and Conclusions: The age of incidence of GBC was 49.40 (+11.6) years with female predominance (F:M = 4:1). In 88% (44/50) of GBC, the fundus was involved. Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma was most frequent [54%; 27/50]. Significant downregulation of E-cadherin (P = 0.022) and beta-catenin (P < 0.001) and upregulation in MMP9 (P < 0.001) were seen in GBC with respect to CC with significant association among them. MMP9 expression was significantly associated with higher tumor stage but with chemotherapeutic response. Our results display that epithelial-mesenchymal transition type III plays a role in GBC invasion. MMP9 overexpression and loss of membranous beta-catenin may be considered a marker for poor clinical outcomes and advanced disease.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222042

ABSTRACT

Background: Competency-based medical education (CBME) curriculum has been implemented in India since 2019 with a goal to create an “Indian Medical Graduate” (IMG) possessing requisite knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and responsiveness. Objectives: To explore teachers’ perceptions across India at medical colleges on the newly implemented competency-based medical education curriculum. Methods: This was a qualitative cross?sectional study conducted among teachers working at medical colleges across India, between February and April 2022 (n = 192). The data collection was done using Google forms online survey platform on teachers’ perception regarding CBME, its specific components, and perceived bottlenecks. We analyzed this qualitative data using manual, theoretical thematic content analysis following the steps endorsed in Braun and Clarke’s six-phase framework. Results: The majority of the teachers (64.1%) have positively responded to the CBME curriculum’s implementation. However, it came with a caution that the curriculum should continuously evolve and adapt to regional demands. The foundation course, early clinical exposure, and the family adoption program were the specific components of CBME curriculum over which the teachers raised concerns. The need for additional teachers in each department (department-specific teacher or faculty per hundred students ratio to be worked out) and the need for enabling faculty preparedness through adequate training was highlighted. Concerns were also raised regarding implementing CBME with teachers without a medical background (especially in preclinical departments). Conclusion: It is the need of the hour for the curriculum to incorporate a systematic feedback mechanism built into the system, though which such critical appraisals can be meaning collated and acted upon, to ultimately evolve, thereby creating an “Indian Medical Graduate” for the needs of todays’ society.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221854

ABSTRACT

Background: Around 2.6 billion people cook their food using biomass fuel (BMF), kerosene oil, and coal fuel, by which each year, 4 million people die prematurely from household air pollution or by this inefficient cooking practices. So, this study was planned to measure the effect of interventions of cooking fuel (BMF to LPG) to reduce the indoor air pollution in asthmatic children of rural India. Methods: Prospective observational study was done by door-to-door survey, among school-age children. Households of asthmatic children were encouraged to change their cooking fuel to more secure and were followed up for a period of 9 months. The intervention was in the form of a change of cooking fuel (from BMF to LPG) and proper education. The levels of indoor pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) were measured before and after 3 months of follow-up. Result: A total of 56 asthmatic children from 42 households were followed-up for the following 9 months at every 3 months visit. The mean age was 9.27 ± 3.94 years with an equivalent sex ratio. There was at least one smoker in 73.81% of households of asthmatic children. Nearly, 45% of children were living in 101–500 square yard area and 67.86% with the inhabitation of ? 3/room. The level of all particulate matter decreased significantly at 3 months (p < 0.05). At 3, 6, 9 months of follow-up, respiratory symptoms and morbidity significantly diminished. Conclusion: The change in cooking fuel to more secure was found to be one of the factors decreasing indoor pollutants and respiratory symptoms/morbidity among asthmatic children in rural areas.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218345

ABSTRACT

Background: Renal ganglioneuroma is an extremely rare benign tumour that affects neural crest cells. Here we report a case of renal ganglioneuroma with nodal metastasis managed by surgical resection. Case report: A 38-year-old female presented with anorexia and early satiety. On examination, she had a palpable mass per abdomen. CT scan revealed a large heterogenous mass in retroperitoneum in right suprarenal region with enlarged retrocrural lymph nodes. She underwent right radical nephrectomy as the mass was inseparable from the right kidney. Postoperative period was uneventful. HPE revealed renal ganglioneuroma. Conclusion: Primary renal ganglioneuroma is difficrult to differentiate from other etroperitoneal lesions. Surgical resection is the most effective treatment.

7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Feb; 71(2): 486-497
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224834

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the perception of college?going girls toward corneal donation in Northern India. Methods: An online survey with a pre?structured, pre?validated questionnaire was conducted on 1721 college?going girls in Northern India. The knowledge and attitude scores were regressed, and latent class analysis was carried out. Results: The average of scores for all participants was computed individually for the knowledge questions and the attitude questions, and based on this score, total participants were divided into two groups: Better corneal donation behaviors (BCDB) and poor corneal donation behaviors. The binomial logistic regression model of knowledge domain for predicting BCDB, age of the participant, their awareness about corneal donation, and willingness to discuss eye donation among family members were found significant. Similarly, for the attitude domain, awareness about corneal donation, knowledge about hours within which ideal eye donation needs to be undertaken, and knowledge about eye donation during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID?19) pandemic were found to be significant. Latent class analysis identified one subset of participants having poorer knowledge and attitude scores and that they were more from a rural background, were having more than first order as birth order, were belonging to SC/ST classes, had illiterate or secondary education of father and mother, and were living in rented houses. Conclusion: The findings of the study significantly contribute to devising a mechanism to improve knowledge and influencing the attitude about eye donation among the youth, especially young women, who can act as counselors and motivators for the masses as well as their own families, in the generations to come.

8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217934

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the most prevalent chronic liver ailments is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The correction of numerous genes connected to various metabolic diseases depends heavily on Vitamin D. Aims and Objectives: This investigation was intended to look at the relationships among those with NAFLD serum levels of Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), insulin, and insulin resistance (IR). Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients with NAFLD and 250 age-matched participants without NAFLD served as the study’s control group. Serum Vitamin D, PTH, insulin, and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured after 8–12 h of not eating or drinking. By controlling for the independent factors, the multivariate logistic regression analysis model was utilized to assess the relationship between Vitamin D, PTH, and IR in the occurrence of NAFLD. Results: When compared to controls, patients with NAFLD had significantly lower serum Vitamin D levels and higher levels of PTH, insulin, and FBG (P = 0.001). Confounders had no impact on the association between NAFLD and the lower Vitamin D readings. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that raised insulin and IR values and lower serum Vitamin D concentrations were each independently related with an increased risk of having NAFLD.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217928

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of chronic renal failure has increased, as has the need for renal replacement therapy, as both diabetes and hypertension have become more prevalent. Patients’ mortality rates from cardiac causes have increased despite effective monitoring and care. Dyslipidemia significantly contributes to the risk of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease, the main cause of death in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Aims and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to measurement of hyperlipidemia in patients with CKD on hemodialysis/conservative management. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted on 250 patients with CKD at all stages who were receiving hemodialysis and conservative of both sexes aged 20 years or more and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Lipid profiles of each subject were measured in specimens. Results: In our study, dyslipidemia was identified as having high levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein and low levels of high-density lipoprotein. Conclusion: The significance of dyslipidemia as a standalone risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) in CKD patients was examined in this study. Hence, based on the evidence presented above, we conclude that close monitoring of the ideal cholesterol levels in CKD patients is necessary to reduce the risk of CAD-related death. In CKD patients, monitoring and treating dyslipidemia can reduce mortality.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217375

ABSTRACT

Context: The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of anemia among adolescents 10 to 19 years of age disaggregated by age group and gender. We also assessed the determinants of anemia among ad-olescents. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out between July and November 2019 in a senior secondary public school, located in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India using a predesigned, semi-structured, pretested proforma that included haemoglobin estimation using oxyhemoglobin method. Results: The overall prevalence of anemia was 88.6% (95% CI 87.2 to 89.8); it was ten percent points higher in females (93.8%, 95% CI 92.1 to 95.1) compared to males (83.9%, 95% CI 81.7 to 85.8). Multivariate regres-sion analysis showed that early adolescents (AOR 3.05, 95% CI 2.19 to 4.24), females (AOR 6.94, 95% CI 4.90 to 9.83), those with A or B or AB blood groups (AOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.92 to 3.49), physical inactivity (AOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.43 to 3.33) and attainment of menarche (AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.73 to 4.21) were independent predic-tors of anemia in adolescents. Conclusion: It is the need of the hour to identify vulnerable groups; factors that predict occurrence, prioritize them to design and implement an effective public health action. Also, the effectiveness of existing strategies in the form of periodic deworming, Iron and Folic acid tablets (IFA) should be reassessed.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217874

ABSTRACT

Background: Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) although rare is most frequent malignant neoplasm of biliary tract system and sixth most common malignancy of digestive tract. GBC is more common in females and there are studies which show expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 neu (HER2/neu) in GBC suggesting possible molecules for targeted therapy, but results are inconsistent. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out expression of ER, PR, and HER2/neu in GBC in North Indian population and their possible association with clinicopathological features. Materials and Methods: A total 59 resected cases of GBC diagnosed by histopathological examination were included in the study. Expression of ER, PR, and HER2/neu was accessed by immunohistochemistry method and correlated with various clinicopathological features. Results: ER expression was absent in all GBC cases. PR expression was present in only one case. Positive expression of HER2/neu was present in 13 (22%) cases, in which 12 cases were of conventional adenocarcinoma and one case was of papillary adenocarcinoma. Well and moderately differentiated tumor had significantly higher HER2/neu expression as compared to poorly differentiated tumors (P = 0.001). Pre-obese patients had significantly higher HER2/neu expression as compared to non-obese patients (P = 0.008). Conclusion: In our study, there was no expression of estrogen and PR in GBC in North Indian population. Although small in number, there is a subset of patients who overexpress HER2/neu receptor that may benefit from targeted therapy.

12.
J. vasc. bras ; 22: e20220147, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430732

ABSTRACT

Abstract The subclavian artery is a significant branch of the aortic arch. We present a rare case of a bilateral variation in the branching pattern of the subclavian artery, observed in an adult male cadaver aged 70 years. On both the sides of the neck, all the branches of the subclavian artery took their origin from its first part. There was a rare occurrence of a cervicodorsoscapular trunk, which gave rise to superficial cervical, suprascapular, and dorsal scapular arteries. The same branching pattern was observed on the left side of the neck, with the presence of another cervicodorsoscapular trunk. Thyrocervical trunk and transverse cervical artery were both absent from the cervical region bilaterally. The inferior thyroid artery was a direct branch from the subclavian artery. Knowledge regarding variations of the subclavian artery is very important as lateral cervical region arteries are important for flap harvesting in plastic and reconstruction surgery. Preoperative radiologic evaluation of pedicles might help in choosing the optimal flap design, prevent ischemic complications, and help to improve overall treatment outcomes.


Resumo A artéria subclávia é um ramo significativo do arco da aorta. Apresentamos um caso raro de variação bilateral do padrão de ramificação da artéria subclávia, observada em um cadáver adulto do sexo masculino de 70 anos. Em ambos os lados do pescoço, todos os ramos da artéria subclávia originavam-se de sua primeira parte. Houve rara ocorrência de tronco escapular cervical dorsal, que deu origem às artérias cervical superficial, supraescapular e escapular dorsal. O mesmo padrão de ramificação foi observado no lado esquerdo do pescoço, com a presença de tronco escapular cervical dorsal. O tronco tireocervical e a artéria cervical transversa estavam ausentes em ambas as regiões cervicais direita e esquerda. A artéria tireóidea inferior consistia em um ramo direto da artéria subclávia. O conhecimento das variações da artéria subclávia é fundamental, pois as artérias da região cervical lateral são importantes para a obtenção de retalhos em cirurgias plásticas e reconstrutivas. A avaliação radiológica pré-operatória dos pedículos pode ajudar na escolha do desenho ideal do retalho, prevenir complicações isquêmicas e ajudar a melhorar o resultado geral do tratamento.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221318

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency, but its diagnosis remains an enigmatic challenge, plagued by a high rate of negative explorations. There is no single reliable test with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. Ultrasonography is not often available at a rural surgical setup. This study is intended to evaluate the importance Aim: of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level estimation in diagnosis of acute appendicitis, by comparing with histopathology report. In a Methods: prospective study,100 patients clinically diagnosed as acute appendicitis were selected by purposive sampling method and evaluated as per criteria for serum CRP levels, leucocyte count preoperatively and were followed up postoperatively with histopathology reports. The data was analysed for finding the significance of serum CRP in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. CRP was positive in 75 of the 77 patients who Results: had histologically proven acute appendicitis and in 3 with normal appendix. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 97.4%, 86.96% and 95% respectively. Leucocytosis and neutrophilia when used alone were not specific for acute appendicitis, but when combined with CRP value, diagnostic accuracy was high. Ultrasonography was useful in establishing alternative diagnoses, but had low sensitivity for acute appendicitis. CRP contains important diagnostic information and hence should always Interpretation & Conclusion: be included in the diagnostic workup of acute appendicitis. Since acute appendicitis is very unlikely in those patients with normal WBC count and CRP value, conservative treatment is advised.This study does not undercut the skill of an experienced surgeon in diagnosing acute appendicitis, but CRP estimation compliments clinical diagnosis.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-220418

ABSTRACT

Intramuscular lipoma of the chest wall is a rare finding. We present the case of a 51years male who presented to the hospital with mass on the left side of the chest which was gradually progressive in size. After re- evaluation swelling was round in shape, single with well-defined margin and rubbery consistency. Preoperative imaging HRCT thorax was done which suggested a well-defined round, hypodense, non-enhancing space occupying lesion (10.2x 8.6 x2.3cm) with volume of approximately 100ml noted in the muscle of the chest wall (pectoralis major to pectoralis minor) in the left side of the chest most likely lipoma. Histopathology revealed normal adipocytes with small eccentric nucleus.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217366

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Lifestyle modification is key to management of diabetes. Behavioural change is key to adopt lifestyle modification. The current study was planned with objective to assess the impact of coun-selling on knowledge, attitude, and practices among patients with diabetes mellitus in rural and urban areas of Gujarat. Method: It was a non-randomized interventional study conducted in the state of Gujarat, India. Known cases of diabetes were enrolled for the study. Two equal size groups of study participants from urban and rural area were divided equally for intervention group (N=77; 28 urban +49 Rural) and control group (N=77; 28 urban +49 Rural). Regular counselling on role of diet in DM management, self-care, deaddiction, role of physical activity, and drug compliance was given by community physician for three months to 6 months. Pre and post intervention KAP score was collected and evaluated. Result: The knowledge, attitude and practice score were increased among counselling group in compar-ison to traditional treatment group in both urban and rural area. The score increased from 5.4 to 10.4 in knowledge; 3.07 to 5.07 in attitude and 5.07 to 8.92 in practice among urban participants. Similarly, the score increased from 4.14 to 7.16 in knowledge, 2.57 to 3.67 in attitude and 4.73 to 7.42 in practice among rural participants. Conclusion: With counselling the knowledge, practice and attitude of chronic patients are improving. The study recommended that counselling services should be available to all diabetes patients. It should be available to patients at their doorstep if possible as study depict

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217332

ABSTRACT

Background: Hyperhomocystenemia and genetic variants are factors for causing young age stroke glob-ally. This study aims to identify homocysteine related-MTHFR gene polymorphism that associated with recurrent cardiovascular outcomes. Methodology: A randomized controlled trial conducted upon 90 hyperhomocysteinemic ischemic stroke patients were taken from the neurology wards of a tertiary care hospital were randomly selected into vitamin B therapy group and control groups (n=45 in each group). Baseline subject details were col-lected venous blood sample for MTHFR genetic testing via PCR-RFLP technique along with blood homo-cysteine levels, vitamin B12, folic acid levels. Results: The results showed that the frequency of CT genotype polymorphism was 15.5% vs 13.3% for the MTHFR C677T gene without any significant difference between vitamin group and control group re-spectively (p-value >0.05). The reduction in mean homocysteine up to -6.77±4.50 versus -2.08±0.71 μmol/L in the vitamin group as compared to control group respectively, p value 0.001. Conclusion: Considerable amount of MTHFR gene polymorphism found among hyperhomocysteinemic ischemic stroke of sub-Himalayan region. Nutritional deficiencies including vitamin B 12 & folic acid, and some hidden reasons found, which could lead to the primary cause of hyperhomocysteinemia. Vitamin B therapy is an effective for reducing homocysteine.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217328

ABSTRACT

Jealousy and Envy are essential part of human emotions and behavior. In today’s fast-moving world where everyone is in rush to cut-throat competition, it is more important to discuss these emotions than ever before. Jealousy and envy somewhere connected. Jealousy is a practice to defend something that is owned and threatened whereas envy is a tendency to obtain something that does not own by one. Jeal-ousy and envy develop naturally and also test their character by the response they give due to emotional burnout. Sometimes these situations broke and turn healthy competition into a rivalry at cost of long-standing personal relationships. Jealousy and envy include compound emotional experiences during the exercises to acquire or not lose something desirable. The impact of envy and jealousy is not assessed in academia and research area moreover it is important to understand that envy is often hidden in the classroom context, but it must still be discussed.

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217321

ABSTRACT

Introduction: First case of COVID-19 in the district was reported on 19th March 2020, thereby increas-ing exponentially, presenting with various symptoms to having few or no symptoms, posing challenge to prevent disease transmission by being a significant source of infection. This study conducted to assess relationship between COVID-19 infection within blood groups and burden of reported cases in the dis-trict to seropositivity among donors. Methodology: This is a prospective observational study from second largest blood bank of south Guja-rat, catering to a population of seven million, 4916 donors from the month of August 2020 to May 2021 participated in the study. Observations: Seropositivity was found to be 54.6%, with higher prevalence (68.63%) among female compared to male (54.45%), there was no statistical difference among age groups & RH groups, blood group AB was found to have highest seropositivity followed by A, B and O group. First time donors sero-positivity was higher compared to frequent donors among the study participants. Seropositivity among donors was positively corelated with RTPCR Positivity rate reported in the district. Conclusions: Looking at similar trend of active surveillance and its correlation to blood bank positivity, we urge policy makers to strengthen hospital-based surveillance for real time insights.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217308

ABSTRACT

There is no doubt that consequences of health workforce migration are serious for any developing coun-try. The world's largest health care migrating population is from India. India has a population of 1.38 bil-lion, about 17.7% of the world’s population and we, as a nation, are struggling to prepare future-ready health care professionals and our own health professionals’ needs are not met. However, large numbers of Indian nurses migrate to developed countries due to numerous factors. Economic factors are consid-ered main force for migration, but not always purely responsible, as nurses look for safety, security, re-spect, and dignity of their profession. This scoping review is employed to find causes, consequences, and strategies related to international migration of Indian Nurses.

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