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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212566

ABSTRACT

Metformin is considered as gold standard anti-diabetic drug and is the preferred initial pharmacologic agent for most of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin is cheap, widely available and safe, backed by pharmaco-epidemiological evidence of more than 60 years regular use in clinical practice. Due to its durable efficacy, once initiated, metformin will be continued as long as it is tolerated and not contraindicated.  It has got additional benefits on cholesterol, liver, cardio vascular system and cancer. Recent evidence and recall of metformin extended release formulation due to detection of excess amount of cancer-causing nitrosamine impurities has created concern among health care providers and patients. Adherence to regulatory guidelines and use of approved technologies in manufacturing and quality control may help in solving the issue.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210653

ABSTRACT

The disabling mental illness anxiety is gradually affecting the modern society in any age group worldwide. The searchfor novel bioactive entity from herbal origin for different disorders has become the center of attraction significantlyfrom the past few decades. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter known tobe responsible for the anxiolytic activity of most of the potent anxiolytic agents. All the available data of pongamol1-(4-methoxybenzofuran-5-yl)-3-phenylpropane-1, 3-dione (MPD) were based on natural or semi-synthetic source.The synthetic routes were using easily available source and quick, cost-effective, and high yielding process. MPD hastraditionally been acquired from natural sources mainly from the extracts of fruits of Pongamia pinnata and Pongamiaglabra, where the yield value and the yield time are the main drawbacks. Keeping in view of the above aspects in thepresent research, it was approached to synthesize and evaluate the anxiolytic potential 1-(methoxybenzofuran-5yl)-3-phenylpropane-1, 3-dione on experimental animals and docking procedure after its synthesis. The study of MPDon the gross behavior of mice showed a significant Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant effect. Furthermore,its anxiolytic activity was confirmed by observing its reduced locomotion of mice using actophotometer and elevatedplus-maze apparatus. The highest docking score was observed to be −3.22 than the diazepam (−3.21) against GammaAmino Butyric Acid-A (GABAA). The present study provides a promising anxiolytic agent, MPD, which has itspotency due to the GABAA receptor binding and causing the mitigation of the symptoms of anxiety.

3.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 2020 Aug; 12(8): 111-116
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206006

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of the present study is the evaluation of the effect of the sublethal (40% and 60% of 48h LC50) binary combination (1:5 ratios) of molluscicides deltamethrin+MGK-264 on the endogenous levels of protein, amino acid and nucleic acid in different tissues of snail Lymnaea acuminata. Methods: The snails were treated with 1:5 mixtures of sub-lethal concentration of (40% and 60% of 48h LC50) deltamethrin+MGK-264 on the protein, amino acid and nucleic acid levels in gonadal, nervous and foot tissue of L. acuminata. In order to study the effect of withdrawal from treatment, the snails were first exposed to the above concentrations for 96h, after which they were transferred to freshwater. Water was changed every 24h for the next seven days, after which different biochemical parameters were estimated. Results: There was a significant change in the levels of protein (sublethal concentration of 60% of 48h LC50 after 96h) gonadal, nervous and foot tissues are 48.1, 12.1 and 14.5%, respectively, amino acid are 273, 234 and 252%, respectively, DNA are 25.1, 38.9 and 42.1%, respectively and RNA are 12.2, 30.7 and 30.5%, respectively. These changes were time and concentration-dependent. In the withdrawal experiment, the snails were treated for 96h to transfer in freshwater for 7 d, which caused significant recovery in all the biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the high molluscicidal activity of deltamethrin+MGK-264 simultaneous decrease in the levels of proteins, DNA, RNA and increase in the level of amino acids.

4.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Jul; 41(4): 695-702
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214531

ABSTRACT

Aim: To screen wheat generations derived from cross HD2967 × Kharchia65 for two Nax loci imparting salt tolerance and background selection of the plants using polymorphic SSRs.Methodology: The study for salt tolerance was carried out on three generations, i.e., BC1F3, BC2F2 and F4, derived from the cross HD2967 × Kharchia65 in net house. Salt stress was provided at germination stage and the plants were grown to maturity. Data was recorded for various agro-morphological traits which contributed to yield. DNA isolated from young leaves of morphologically superior plants were checked for the presence of Nax1 and Nax2 genes using gene specific primers. Plants having either or both Nax loci were then subjected to polymorphic SSR markers screening for background selection of foreground selected plants. Results: On the basis of agro-morphological performance and presence of either or both Nax genes, 68 high yielding plants were selected. Out of total 178 SSR markers screened covering the whole genome uniformly (A, B and D), 31 markers were polymorphic for the parents HD2967 and Kharchia65. These polymorphic SSR markers were used to produce molecular diversity among the selected progeny plants. Cluster analysis of parents and all the three generations, showed that all the selected plants were inclined towards recurrent parent. Interpretation: This study showed that a linked marker like Nax1 and Nax2 could be a promising tool for breeding wheat with enhanced tolerance to salinity conditions. However, growth rates and biomass production provide reliable criteria for assessing the degree of salt stress and the ability of a plant to withstand it. Therefore, initial screening of seeds in the presence of salt stress provides additional advantage in directional selection. Plants selected with Nax loci, better mean performances, high heritability, and high genetic advance as 5% of mean for the studied traits could be further backcrossed with the recurrent parent to develop salt tolerant wheat lines.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209456

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus (CoV) infection has become a pandemic worldwide for February 2020. The infection rate has beenincreasing in India also which prompted the Government to implement countrywide lockdown.Aims and Objectives: The main objective of our study is to evaluate risk factors predisposing the patients to COVID-19 infection.Methods: This is a single center prospective observational study done during April and May 2020, where we have collectedall demographic details of total 59 COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit or general ward in our institute. Wehave evaluated the detailed history of these patients for risk factors such as age, gender, smoking, alcohol exposure, diabetesmellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease and studied their association with COVID-19.Results: In our study, we have found the mean age of presentation to be 51 years and males with 64.4% are more infectedthan females. Diabetics with 32% is the most common risk factor followed by hypertension with 20.3%. Alcohol is next only tohypertension with 12% and smoking comprising 10% of the population studied.Conclusion: Elderly male population, diabetes, and hypertension pose a greater risk for CoV severe acute respiratory syndromecoronavirus 2 infection in our population.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205352

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The standard of care for treatment of cancer cervix is concurrent chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy in the majority of cases. Conventional radiotherapy with chemotherapy causes haematological toxicities which may be related to radiation to pelvic bone marrow. The present study aims to study the haematological toxicities and correlate with the mean dose to the bone marrow. Material and Methods: Retrospective data of cancer patients treated in the institute in the year 2019 was retrieved. Haematological toxicities were analyzed in terms of CTCAE criteria. Mean dose to bone marrow was calculated after the delineation in the CT scan. The correlation between haematological toxicity and mean bone marrow was done using a paired t-test for statistical significance. Results: The data of 20 patients were retrieved. Anaemia Grade, I and Grade II-IV was seen in 65% and 35% respectively. Leukopenia Grade I and Grade II-IV were seen in 85% and 15% respectively and Lymphopenia Grade I and Grade II-Iv were seen in 55% and 45% respectively. The mean dose to bone marrow did not show any statistical significance with the severity of haematological toxicity. There was no Grade II-IV toxicity of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: Conventional radiotherapy can safely be practice for patients with cancer cervix with acceptable haematological toxicities.

7.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205351

ABSTRACT

Background:Palliative radiotherapy offers significant relief in the huge physical distress of patients with bony metastasis. The enormous potential of conformal techniques has not been tested in palliative settings. However,the increasing life span of patients with metastatic disease demands to optimize the radiotherapy techniques to provide maximal durable symptomatic relief. Despitean increase in the utilization of the 3DCRT technique for palliative bony metastasis, the optimal beam arrangement remains unknown. Materials and Methods:Ten patients of vertebral bony metastasis were retrospectively selected and four virtual 3DCRT plans were generated for each patient. The field approaches were a single field, two fields, three fields and five field approaches. For PTV, D90, D50, Dmean, Conformity index (CI) were evaluated.Dmean was evaluated for the esophagus, bowel, kidneys, and combined lungs. Dose-volume histograms were computed for the various treatment plans and compared. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA test. Results:A total of forty radiotherapy plans were generated. PTV parameters were significantly better with two field plans over one field plans in terms of D90 (p= 0.002), D50 (p= 0.02), Dmean(p=0.0009). Dmeanwassignificantly better with three field approach compared to two field approach (p=0.0006). The Dmeanwas significantly increased for organs at risk in two fields and three field plans.Five field approach did not showan advantage in terms of dosimetry of PTV but there was a significant rise in the dose to Organs at risk (OAR’s). Conclusion:The three field plans showed better dose distribution to the PTV with an acceptable increase in the dose to OAR’s.

8.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 May; 41(3): 586-591
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214515

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to develop a quick, easy and reliable method for isolation of RNA from starch rich mature wheat grains; and to check the quality of isolated RNA for downstream applications.Methodology: In the present protocol, highly efficient modified RNA extraction buffer [100 mM Tris (pH 9.0), 150 mM NaCl, 50 mM EDTA, 1.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 1.5% 2-mercaptoethanol] was used, subsequently followed by TRIzol extraction. Carryover starch was effectively solubilized by adding NaCl before RNA precipitation step. RNA quality was assured by agarose gel electrophoresis, spectrophotometric analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Results: The problem of co-precipitation of starch along with RNA was resolved effectively. Intact sharp bands of 18S and 28S rRNA on agarose gel confirmed the integrity of isolated RNA. The average A260/A280 ratios ranged from 2.06 to 2.11 and A260/A230 ratio was higher than the respective A260/A280 ratio, indicating high purity of isolated RNA. The isolated RNA was found suitable for gene expression analysis through quantitative real-time PCR. Interpretation: An improved quick, easy and reliable method developed for isolation of high-quality RNA from starch-rich mature wheat grains could be useful for downstream molecular analysis

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209336

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Difficulties to find the ideal donor site with perfect matching tissues have always made the reconstruction of facial complex defect a tough problem for surgeons. The main aim of reconstruction is to restore facial contour (esthetics) and function (mastication, deglutition, and speech). Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the versatility of forehead flap in maxillofacial/nasal and intraoral defects. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted to analyze the versatility of forehead flap in maxillofacial/nasal and intraoral defects. A total of 25 consecutive patients, of either sex, who required soft tissue reconstruction of the maxillofacial region, including oral cavity and nasal defects due to tumor ablative surgery. Follow-up was done for up to 4 months – 1 year and on every follow-up visit, patients were questioned about the degree of satisfaction, with mouth opening, swallowing, and donor site esthetics. Cosmetic deformity judged subjectively. Results: Of 25 patients, 17 patients were males, 12 patients were above 60 years. Maximum number of site of tumor involvement was noted in cheek 9 patients (36%) and in lower lip 5 patients (20%). About 44% patient had stage 2 tumors and 28% had stage 3 tumors. About 18 patient had adjuvant radiation, 1 patients had chemo RT, and 6 patients had no adjuvant treatment. About 16% of patients had a complication of altered forehead sensation. Conclusion: Forehead flap is a reliable technique for the reconstruction of maxillofacial region defects. It is easy to rise and can provide coverage for wide defects as far as the para mandibular and submandibular regions. Moreover, it does not require patient repositioning.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209335

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Major head and neck surgery involve dissections close to crucial structures such as nerves and vessels. For this reason, it is very important to use safe instruments for dissection and hemostasis. In a wide variety of surgical procedures, advanced vessel sealing devices are replacing traditional techniques for vessel ligation. Aim: Our study aimed to compare the bipolar vessel sealing system versus suture ligation in selective neck dissection in patients with oral cancer. Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted to compare the outcome of the bipolar vessel sealing system versus suture ligation in selective neck dissection in patients with oral cancer. Out of 40 patients enrolled in the study, 20 patients were in Group A (bipolar vessel sealing system) and 20 patients in Group B (Suture ligation). The outcome measures recorded were blood loss, operating time, duration of hospital stay, pre-operative blood transfusion, Fromme’s surgical field scale, post-operative pain, and drainage volume. Treatment protocol and follow-up protocol were followed and the results were statistically analyzed and discussed. Results: Out of 40 patients, 20 patients had bipolar vessel sealing system and 20 patients had suture ligation. In bipolar vessel sealing system of 20 patients, 12 patients were male and 8 patients were female, mean value of blood loss is 26.84 ± 22.34 ml, operating time is 48.56 ± 5.48 min, duration of hospital stay is 12.92 ± 1.28 days, mean value of post-operative pain in day 0 is 3.5 ± 1, day 1 is 3.1 ± 1, day 2 is 1.8 ± 0.5, and day 3 is 1.1 ± 0.5, and drainage volume (ml) in 24 h is 72.48 ± 28.46, 48 h is 24.57 ± 18.29, and 72 h is 7.24 ± 6.7. In suture ligation of 20 patients, 15 patients were male and 5 patients were female, mean value of blood loss is 39.28 ± 16.44 ml, operating time is 54.22 ± 4.14 min, duration of hospital stay is 13.87 ± 1.42 days, mean value of post-operative pain in day 0 is 4.01 ± 0.9, day 1 is 3.8 ± 1.1, day 2 is 2.4 ± 0.6, and day 3 is 1.6 ± 0.8, and drainage volume (ml) in 24 h is 98.28 ± 36.87, 48 h is 41.28 ± 21.24, and 72 h is 18.29 ± 9.45. Conclusion: Bipolar vessel sealing system is more efficacious in terms of reducing blood loss, operating time, and better surgical field than conventional suture ligation. Thus, bipolar vessel sealing system is more advantageous compared to the traditional techniques, from both a clinical and economic point of view.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209281

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Laparoscopic surgeries in various surgical specialties are most routinely performed with general anesthesia. Thephysiological effects of intra-abdominal CO2 insufflation combined with the variations in patient positioning can have a majorimpact on cardiorespiratory function. Prolongation of corrected QT interval (QTc) has been known to predispose torsades depointes, a potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmia may occur during CO2 insufflation. Our aim is to evaluate the effect of insufflationof CO2 on QT interval and QTc during prolonged laparoscopic surgeries.Methodology: Fifty patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2, of either sex, between the agesof 25 and 65 years posted for laparoscopic surgeries included in the study. After general anesthesia, we measured mean arterialpressure, heart rate, SpO2 and ETCO2 before anesthesia induction, before CO2 insufflation, 30, 60, 120, and 150 min after CO2insufflation, 5 min after CO2 deflation, and at the end of surgery. We observed statistically significant increase of QTc intervalaround 120 min after CO2 insufflation.Conclusion: The cause of this QTc interval prolongation is multifactorial and clinical significance of producing life-threateningcardiac arrhythmias has to be determined.

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204444

ABSTRACT

Background: Dengue fever continues to be one of the major public health problems in large parts of the world, with an estimated 50 million dengue infections occurring annually. Liver enzyme variation is commonly seen in patients with dengue fever. This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of liver enzyme variation in children with dengue fever and to correlate it with the severity of this disease.Methods: Observational, descriptive hospital-based study involving 100 children who were serologically positive for dengue fever. The cases were classified as Mild, Moderate and Severe Dengue based on National Guidelines of clinical management of Dengue fever, 2015 and severity was assessed in each category. The study assessed the variability of liver enzymes in these children.Results: Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) was elevated in 56 cases whereas Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) was elevated in 44 cases. The elevation in liver enzymes in mild cases was 52%, moderate cases was 75% and severe cases was 100%. In cases presenting on day 1 of fever, enzymes were elevated in 0%, on day 2 in 20%, on day 3 in 38%, on day 4 in 51%, on day 5 in 90% and on day 6 in 88%.Conclusions: Liver Enzyme (AST and ALT) elevation in Dengue is a common feature. AST elevation was more common than ALT. Highest elevation in liver enzymes were observed on 5th and 6th day of fever. Liver enzyme elevation was more commonly seen in moderate and severe cases.

13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Feb; 68(13): 115-120
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197921

ABSTRACT

Purpose: With improving survival of preterm neonates, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is emerging as a major cause of childhood blindness. Incidence of sight-threatening ROP can be reduced by improving the quality of care provided to preterm neonates. Methods: This before-and-after study was designed to develop a need-based intervention package to improve knowledge, skills, and practices of those providing care for preterm neonates, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this package when combined with point-of-care quality improvement (POCQI) in improving survival of preterm neonates without sight-threatening ROP. The study had a formative component to assess baseline knowledge, skills, practices and attitudes, and to assess the needs of the healthcare staff to improve the care of preterm neonates. It was conducted in four special care neonatal units (SCNU) in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. Results: A theory of change was developed to guide the development of study tools including needs assessment and educational package development. The educational package thus developed has been tested at the study sites in combination with POCQI projects driven by local teams of healthcare providers. The effectiveness of the interventions has been evaluated by collection of individual-level data on neonates admitted at the study sites. Conclusion: A multidimensional educational package integrated with system changes in the form of quality improvement (QI) endeavours driven by local context and needs were developed and evaluated in the project.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206298

ABSTRACT

Amino acids play important roles in organisms to sustain in living state and perform as body constituents, enzymes and antibodies. At insalubrious situations, use of amino acids derivatives as drugs in the maintenance of normal health is better choice than common unnatural synthetic drugs. This is due to the fact that the amino acids derivatives may be more bio-compatible, biodegradable and eliminate easily than others. In this sense we have made an effort and report herein the synthesis of N-{2-(4-chlorophenyl) acetyl} amino alcohols synthesised by reduction of N-{2-(4-chlorophenyl)acetyl} derivatives of (S)-amino acids such as (S)-phenylalanine, (S)-alanine, (S)-methionine, (S)-leucine, (S)-tryptophan and (S)-proline. These newly synthesized amino acids derivatives were analysed by proton, carbon-13 NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The composition of solid derivatives was determined by elemental analysis. Further, antimicrobial activities of these derivatives were assessed on usual bacteria K. aerogenes, E. coli, S. aureus and P. desmolyticum and fungi A. flavus and C. albicans. The compounds were witnessed moderate activity than authorised antibacterial and fungal agents Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole respectively. The antimicrobial studies also revealed that, these derivatives could be better antifungal agents than antibacterial agents. Finally we compared the experimental results of antimicrobial activities with docking studies.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206290

ABSTRACT

To synthesize a series of ornidazole thiosemicarbazone analogues on the basis of literature reviews of 2-Methyl-5-nitroimidazoles and thiosemicarbazones and to evaluate all the analogues in vitro for their activity against Aspergillus niger and fumigatus. Thiosemicarbazone analogues were synthesized from oxidising ornidazole with potassium dichromate and refluxing the oxidised product with substituted thiosemicarbazide using ethanol as solvent in the acidic medium overnight. All the synthesized analogues of ornidazole showed good antifungal action against fumigatus and niger except compound C-4. Unsubstituted amine analogue C-2 has shown highest percentage inhibition (96.6%, 500 μg/ml) against fumigatus while aromatic amine with or without electronegative atom analogues C-3 and C-5 has shown highest activity against Aspergillus niger which is two times than standard drug ornidazole (100%, 1000 μg/ml).

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205318

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Radiotherapy in head and neck cancers is treated for several weeks and daily setup and reproducibility is a challenge. This daily variability causes setup errors which accounts planning target volume margins. Reduced PTV margins have to be taken to decrease the dose to the parotid glands, without compromising on loco regional control rates. The present study is done to identify setup errors and see the feasibility to decrease the PTV margins by creating dummy radiotherapy plans in order to decrease dose to parotid glands. Material and Methods: 420 portal images were evaluated for setup errors in three dimensions (Antero Posterior, Left to Right and Superior to Inferior) which were performed in ten patients of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were treated in supine position using immobilization cast. After target volume delineation a PTV margin of 7mm was given. Dosimetric parameters of PTV and organs at risk were assessed. PTV margins were calculated according to three methods proposed by Stroom, Van Herk and ICRU 62. Dummy radiotherapy plans were generated using new PTV margins and compared with 7mm PTV margins. The data was analyzed using 3-way ANNOVA test for statistical significance. Results: The optimum PTV margins were 4mm in LR and SI direction and 7mm in AP direction. The PTV parameters (V95, D95, Dmax, Dmean, HI and CI) had no significant difference among different radiotherapy plans with different PTV margins. There was a significant decrease in the dose to right parotid (39.12 Gy to 32.88Gy; p-0.04), left parotid (37.90 to 31.21Gy; p-0.03) and parotid combined (38.65 to 31.45 Gy; p-0.01) when 7mm PTV margins were reduced to 4mm PTV margins. The results of dummy radiotherapy plans using asymmetric PTV margins (LR-4mm, SI-4mm and AP-7mm) and symmetrical PTV margins (4mm in all directions) are compared with PTV margins (7mm in all directions), in terms of PTV and OAR dosimetric parameters. Conclusion: The decreased PTV margins of 4mm decreases the dose to the parotid significantly. The implementation of radiotherapy plans needs to be supplemented by daily IGRT.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205314

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With sectional imaging, wide variations are reported in pelvic anatomy of individual patients raising concerns over adequate coverage of target volume with conventional radiotherapy based on standard bony landmarks. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) is reported to decrease normal tissue toxicity, along with decrease in chances of geographic miss. Present study is done for dosimetric comparison of Planning Target Volume (PTV) and Organs at Risk (OAR) in cancer cervix patients treated with conventional and conformal radiotherapy along with clinical correlation in terms of side effects and tumor response. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of cancer cervix underwent planning contrast enhanced CT scan. Target volumes & OAR were contoured. Patients were randomized into conventional & conformal arms. Conventional fields were planned using standard bony landmarks. CT based radiotherapy planning was done for 3DCRT arm. Field sizes &dose volume histogram (DVH) were recorded & compared for target coverage & OAR sparing in both arms. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy followed by brachytherapy. Results: Field sizes used for the 3DCRT plans were significantly larger than those used for the conventional plans (p= 0.000). Optimal PTV coverage was significantly improved using 3DCRT as compared to conventional radiotherapy (p= 0.0001). Dose homogeneity in both arms were almost similar (p= 0.292), while conformity index was better in 3DCRT which was statistically significant between the groups (p= 0.000). Mean dose to the Planning Target Volume was increased significantly in the CT based plan when compared with the standard four field plan (p= 0.0001).Difference in doses to the organs at risk (urinary bladder, and small bowel)and their side effects were statistically significant across both groups. There was no difference in tumor response. Conclusion: The present study showed significantly better target volume coverage & dose homogeneity with 3DCRT which may translate into better local control & survival but longer follow up is required to validate it.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205306

ABSTRACT

Background: Conformal Radiotherapy techniques adapting to the ballistics of delineated volumes allowed significant reduction in excess radiation induced mortality however the increasing number of long-term survivors and expanding use of cardiotoxic drug highlight the persistent need for maximal cardiac possible sparing. The low dose volume of left ventricle are better predictor of acute coronary events than mean heart dose. Materials and Methods: 38 post-MRM patients were randomized to treatment by 3Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy (3D CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. Two tangential beams were used in 3D CRT technique while five to seven (mostly tangential beams) were used in inversely planned IMRT technique. The dose volume parameters of planning target volume, heart and left ventricle were compared. Results: The dosimetry of Planning target volume showed significantly better coverage in IMRT technique (D90, D95) however the D50 was comparable in both the techniques. In dosimetry of heart, the high dose volumes (V30, V40) were nearly comparable in both the techniques. The other dose volume parameters (V5, V10, V20, V25, D33, D67, D100) and the mean dose were significantly lesser in 3D CRT technique along with significantly better sparing of left ventricle (Dmean and V5). Conclusion: The dosimetry of target volume was better with IMRT technique, but this was accompanied by a huge increase in dose to whole heart and specifically the left ventricle which has strong potential to translate into an increased cardiotoxicity. A better distribution of the target region may be obtained by multiple segmentation of the two tangential fields in 3D CRT plans with further reduction in dose to heart and left ventricle.

19.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Dec; 67(12): 2029-2034
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197653

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Retinal hemangioblastomas (RHs) are characteristic of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Early diagnosis of retinal lesions may aid in systemic diagnosis. Early identification of VHL is life-saving and also prevents vision loss. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) is a useful tool in the diagnosis and management of RHs. The aim of this study is to report FFA features of RH using ultra-widefield (UWF) imaging. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of consecutive patients of RH who underwent UWF FFA at a tertiary eye care center. Images were analyzed and assessed by authors. The main outcome measures were (a) the number and size of RH in each eye and (b) vascular characteristics of the retina. UWF-FFA characteristics in each eye were tabulated. The number of clock hours involved by these characteristics and their correlation with the number and size of RH were analyzed. Results: The study evaluated 24 eyes of 13 patients. The mean age was 28.4 years. The median number of RHs in an eye was 3.5 (range 1�16), and the size of RHs varied from 0.1 to 4 disc diameters. Novel UWF-FFA findings noted in this study were the presence of abnormal capillary network in 22 of 24 eyes (91.7%), capillary leakage in 15 of 24 eyes (62.5%), and capillary telangiectasia in 7 of 24 eyes (29.2%). In addition, feeder arterioles and venules showed bulbous projections in 8 of 24 eyes (33.3%). Conclusion: The UWF-FFA characteristics of RH, which have not been described before, were identified. These add to our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and may pave the way for future therapeutic targets.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206262

ABSTRACT

The present investigation, the successful preparation of pure ZnO (Z1) NPs and SrBa dual doped ZnO (Z2) NPs by chemical co-precipitation technique without use of any capping agent. The structural and morphological properties of Z1 and Z2 NPs were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Elemental analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). An optical property was studied by UV–Vis spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The antimicrobial activity of Z1 and Z2 NPs has been investigated against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial strains. It has been interestingly observed that Z2 NPs has enhanced the inhibitory activity than that of Z1 NPs against S. aureus and more efficiently than the K. pneumoniae bacterial strain.

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