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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-216392

ABSTRACT

Background: Anemia-causing fever has been described in patients with megaloblastic anemia. Although the exact mechanism of this is unknown, high-grade fever is relatively less reported. Materials and methods: This prospective observational study included all new cases of megaloblastic anemia presenting with febrile illness (>101°F) during a 3-year period. Patients with existing anemia, comorbidities, and other causes of macrocytosis were excluded. A detailed evaluation for megaloblastic anemia and workup for excluding tropical infections was done. The patients were treated with parenteral vitamin B12, folic acid, and other hematinics. Results: Around 24 cases of megaloblastic anemia presenting with high-grade fever were included, with 14 (58.3%) males, mean duration of fever 7.7 days (4–18 days), and 09 (37.5%) having temperature >103°F. The mean hemoglobin (Hb) was 8.15 g/dL (3.7–11.1 g/dL), the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was 111 ± 7.8 fL, 18 (75%) had unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, the mean lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was 814 ± 24 IU/L, and 21 (87.5%) had low B12 or folate levels. Most showed good therapeutic response to B12 or folic acid with defervescence in 1–5 days (mean 2.6 days) and improvement in lab parameters in 1 week. The study population was divided into those with temperature ?103°F, and temperature <103°F it was seen that there was a significant association (p < 0.05) with leucocyte count of ?3000/cumm, and MCV ?110 fL, in patients with temperature ?103°F Conclusion: Megaloblastic anemia should be considered in the differentials of a patient presenting with a febrile illness with no clinical localization and a negative initial fever workup. Early identification and prompt therapy of this easily treatable disorder are very essential.

2.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2023 Mar; 66(1): 159-161
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223406

ABSTRACT

SMARCB1 deficient sinonasal carcinomas are rare neoplasms, classified under sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas by the fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of head and neck tumors. It is characterized immunohistochemically by loss of SMARCB1(INI1) expression. We are reporting the case of a 63-year-old man who was evaluated for nasal stuffiness of 3 months duration in another hospital where a radiological evaluation showed a polypoidal soft tissue lesion in the right maxillary sinus extending to the right nasal cavity and spheno-ethmoidal sinus. He underwent excision biopsy which was reported as non- keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma. He was referred to our center with residual disease in spheno-ethmoidal recess for which radiotherapy was given. After completion of radiotherapy, the primary site had no residual disease, but while on follow-up he developed left sided neck nodes within 4 months of completion of treatment. Excision of the lesion was done and histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed it to be metastasis from SMARCB1 deficient sinonasal carcinoma and not nasopharyngeal carcinoma as diagnosed from the other center. This case is being reported to highlight the diagnostic challenge associated with this rare entity.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221854

ABSTRACT

Background: Around 2.6 billion people cook their food using biomass fuel (BMF), kerosene oil, and coal fuel, by which each year, 4 million people die prematurely from household air pollution or by this inefficient cooking practices. So, this study was planned to measure the effect of interventions of cooking fuel (BMF to LPG) to reduce the indoor air pollution in asthmatic children of rural India. Methods: Prospective observational study was done by door-to-door survey, among school-age children. Households of asthmatic children were encouraged to change their cooking fuel to more secure and were followed up for a period of 9 months. The intervention was in the form of a change of cooking fuel (from BMF to LPG) and proper education. The levels of indoor pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) were measured before and after 3 months of follow-up. Result: A total of 56 asthmatic children from 42 households were followed-up for the following 9 months at every 3 months visit. The mean age was 9.27 ± 3.94 years with an equivalent sex ratio. There was at least one smoker in 73.81% of households of asthmatic children. Nearly, 45% of children were living in 101–500 square yard area and 67.86% with the inhabitation of ? 3/room. The level of all particulate matter decreased significantly at 3 months (p < 0.05). At 3, 6, 9 months of follow-up, respiratory symptoms and morbidity significantly diminished. Conclusion: The change in cooking fuel to more secure was found to be one of the factors decreasing indoor pollutants and respiratory symptoms/morbidity among asthmatic children in rural areas.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217388

ABSTRACT

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) patients suffer enormously due to huge cost on diagnosis and treatment. This study aims to assess the total expenditure and its predictors among patients of TB. Methodology: A longitudinal study was conducted among TB Patients registered in first quarter of 2018 at District Tuberculosis Center, Jammu. Data was collected by interviewing the patients and their attendants. Statistical significance of median expenditure between patients of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB in rela-tion to various predictors was assessed using nonparametric tests followed by Multiple Linear Regression. Results: Total median cost, median direct and indirect cost incurred by a TB patient were recorded as USD 489.55, USD 246.55 and USD 229.5 respectively. Treatment costs were slightly higher in patients of pulmo-nary TB in comparison to extrapulmonary TB (p>0.05). On bivariate analysis, upper class, previously treated patients, Category 2 patients, with chronic illnesses, with guardians and who were employed expended signif-icantly higher amounts on their treatment, but on multivariate analysis, only formal employment, current earning and being reimbursed significantly predicted the total cost (p < .001, adjusted R square = 0.56). Conclusion: Huge direct costs incurred by patients is a matter of great concern, more so as the Indian gov-ernment has made all diagnostics and treatment free since the inception of the RNTCP.

5.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2022 Dec; 65(4): 796-801
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223346

ABSTRACT

Background: Frozen Sections (FS) are used to assess margins, for staging, and primary diagnosis. FS guide intraoperative treatment decisions in oncological gastro-intestinal tract surgeries and further management of the patients. Aim: To analyze the distribution, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of frozen sections in gastrointestinal pathology in our institution during the period of 3 years (2016–2018). Material and Methods: This study was an audit to determine the accuracy of FS reports by comparing them with the paraffin section (PS) reports. The FS diagnoses and their PS diagnoses were noted in 1704 gastrointestinal surgeries during the period from 2016 to 2018. Discrepancies were noted and slides of discrepant cases were reviewed to determine the cause. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated using the standard formulae. Results: Out of 1704 cases, correct diagnosis on frozen section was made in 1649 cases (96.77%), 20 (1.17%) were deferred cases, and 35 (2.05%) were discrepant cases. The commonest discrepancies were seen in the primary diagnosis of the gall bladder and gastrectomy margins. The commonest causes for discrepancies were interpretation errors and technical errors. Sensitivity was 91.71%, specificity was 99.69%, positive predictive value was 98.84%, negative predictive value was 97.68%, and accuracy was 97.92%. Conclusion: FS diagnosis is a reliable guide to surgeons for intraoperative management. Studying deep cuts and careful sampling at frozen sections will help reduce discrepancies.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221987

ABSTRACT

Background: Selfie’ means “A photograph that one has taken of oneself or a self portrait photograph typically taken with a smart phone or digital camera and shared via social media”. Considering the dependency on Internet and selfie taking behavior among professional students, the study was undertaken. Aims and Objective- to determine the demographic profile of selfie users and different variables related to selfie taking and posting and its association with risky dangerous selfie. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 220 undergraduate medical students were using smartphone. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: Male students of middle class family of urban areas were more involved in taking selfie. Females were comparatively spending more time (2-3 hrs) on Internet (X2 =19.494 and p = .001).Total 14% students were taking 3-5 selfie and posted on social media(Statistically significant,X2 =7.882,p =0.019). 19(8.63%) participants admitted of taking dangerous selfie of which male 13(14.0%) more than female 06(8.4%). Conclusion: Age and gender affects the number of selfies one clicks. This is developing a new mental disorder ‘selfitis’ as well as desire to take dangerous selfie. There is need of health awareness programme, IEC regarding importance of healthy life style.

7.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221832

ABSTRACT

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in pediatric population is associated with cardiac, respiratory, metabolic, neurocognitive, and behavioral dysfunctions. Adenotonsillectomy (AT) is the treatment of choice in children who have hypertrophied adenoid and/or palatine tonsils. However, there is paucity of literature on the impact of AT on cardiorespiratory and sleep parameters in these cases. Methods: We did a retrospective study on children who had undergone AT from July 2016 to December 2018 at a tertiary hospital in north India. Only those children, whose polysomnography (PSG) was available both before and after AT were enrolled in this study. � Cardiac parameters: Mean heart rate (MHR) and highest heart rate (HHR), number and duration of arrhythmias, and pulse transit time (PTT) drops. � Respiratory parameters: Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), respiratory disturbance index (RDI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), mean oxygen saturation (MOS). � Sleep parameters: Time spent in different stages, sleep efficiency (SE), and arousal index (AI) on PSG were compared before and after AT. Results: A total of 56 children had undergone AT for OSA. Also, PSG, both before and after AT, was available in 37 children. After excluding children having undergone other surgeries for OSA and those with comorbidities, 32 children were enrolled. AT led to significant positive change in AHI (from 7.86 � 7.91 to 2.03 � 3.10, p = 0.01), RDI (from 16.319 � 15.64 to 7.38 � 3.72, p < 0.01), AI (from 22.10 � 14.93 to 15.90 � 8.48, p = 0.012), SE (from 91.47 � 6.31 to 95.866 � 3.03, p < 0.01), ODI (from 6.7959 � 5.03 to 1.865 � 2.09, p < 0.01), MOS (from 95.59 � 2.19 to 97.28 � 1.27), HHR (from 141.68 � 17.93 to 120.93 � 16.98, p < 0.01), MHR (86.68 � 12.95 to 80.29 � 8.81, p = 0.01), and PTT AI (from 36.67 � 27.72 to 26.93 � 24.86, p < 0.01). There was no non-sinus wide or narrow complex tachyarrhythmia in any child before or after AT. There was no statistically significant change in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration or number and duration of bradycardia episodes in these children (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Adenotonsillectomy improved SE and oxygenation, and decreased the number of obstructive events, arousals, heart rate, and PTT AI during sleep in children with OSA. Some children had residual disease after surgery. Heart rate and PTT can be excellent non-invasive parameters for detecting obstructive events during sleep in children and monitoring the impact of various therapeutic modalities.

8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221823

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The basic requirements for human survival include air, food, and water; a decrease in quality of which has a deep impact on health. An increase in population with increasing globalization, industrialization, and increased energy demand has led to increased air pollution in cities world over. Multiple national programs to improve air quality have been unsuccessful. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-led lockdown is a large-scale experiment that is unprecedented and could not have been done at regular times. Indirect effects include cutting down emissions from industries, vehicles, and diesel generators. Materials and methods: In this ambispective observational study, we compared the air quality index (AQI) and levels of other pollutants in the two cities of Delhi and Kanpur during the period of the lockdown, the same period during the preceding year, and during the rainy season. Results: It was observed that the cities of India with notoriously polluted air, i.e., Delhi and Kanpur, had unprecedented improvement in air quality during lockdown (Delhi, AQI: 86.91 � 32.38 vs 249.36 � 60.25 and Kanpur, AQI: 81.60 � 38.54 vs 137.06 � 46.74). The improvement was even better than the preceding year's monsoon for Delhi. The AQI was comparable in both cities during the lockdown. Conclusion: The AQI was falling in the 搒atisfactory� range in both Delhi and Kanpur during the lockdown. This may, in turn, favorably unfold a reduction in the incidence, progression, and exacerbation of respiratory illnesses. This is an eye-opening change and calls for urgent action to maintain the same. Timely and well-framed steps should be sought; a revolutionary carbon-free and green energy economic model is much needed. Most air pollution is preventable and can be managed by humans if a stringent action plan is rolled out and implemented sternly by government agencies.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221822

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global public health problem. The real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard test for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, the assay requires hours to get the final results. Therefore, antigen-based rapid assays are being used extensively to reduce the time. We have evaluated the performance of the antigen-based rapid test for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in comparison with RT-PCR. Materials and methods: Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were collected from 366 suspected patients of COVID-19 visiting our institute and subjected to qualitative RT-PCR and antigen-based rapid assays to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus. The sensitivity and specificity of the antigen-based assay were calculated in comparison with RT-PCR. Results: Compared with RT-PCR, sensitivity and specificity of the antigen-based rapid assay were observed to be 70.5% and 98.6%, respectively, in comparison with RT-PCR. However, the sensitivity of antigen-based rapid assay varied significantly with decreasing viral load. The sensitivity of the rapid antigen assay was equivalent to RT-PCR (23/23, 100%) at a higher viral load (Ct value 15�). In contrast, the antigen assay could only detect 3/21 (14.28%) samples with Ct value >30. Conclusion: The antigen-based assay could assist in the rapid screening of a large population. However, the rapid antigen assay might not detect early stages of infection represented by low viral load. Therefore, the antigen-based assay could not replace RT-PCR testing. The study reiterates that all antigen-based negative tests should be confirmed by RT-PCR.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221818

ABSTRACT

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has association with many comorbidities. Based on the postulated hypothesis from few studies, the primary objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of subclinical interstitial lung disease in moderate-to-severe OSA patients. Materials and methods: It was a prospective observational study, conducted at a tertiary care chest institute of India, 43 moderate-to-severe OSA patients diagnosed by level-I polysomnography were enrolled. All the patients underwent detailed clinical examination with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest, pulmonary function test (PFT), and serum markers MMP-1,7, SP-A, and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6). Subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) was identified based on the two validated measures: high-attenuation areas (HAA), defined as the percentage of imaged lung volume having computed tomography (CT) attenuation between ?600 and ?250 HU and interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA), defined as the presence of ground-glass, reticular abnormality, diffuse centrilobular nodularity, honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis, nonemphysematous cysts, or architectural distortion in at least 5% of nondependent portions of the lung in HRCT chest without respiratory symptoms with preserved lung function. Results: The mean age was 54.33 � 11.5 years with 22 (51%) males. The mean apnea?hypopnea index (AHI) was 42.38 � 27.6 with BMI >30 kg/m2 in 18 (42%) patients. The subclinical ILD was diagnosed in 12 patients. The HRCT finding of ILA was seen in 12 and high-attenuation areas (HAA) in 5 patients. The serum markers were higher in subclinical ILD compared with non-ILD OSA patients, however, only the level of MMP-7 was significantly higher in subclinical ILD patients. Conclusion: It was concluded that subclinical ILD is quite common among OSA patients with HRCT findings seen in nearly 30% of cases. This supports the hypothesis that OSA may be considered as a risk factor of subclinical ILD.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225608

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding of thoroughly explained anatomical basis is must for various surgical approaches at the craniovertebral junction. High mortality and morbidity are anticipated during the surgical procedures when undertaken without in depth anatomical knowledge. With so much clinical importance in this area, our study will present a thorough understanding in terms of skull. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the various shapes of foramen magnum in dry adult human skulls of Indian population and to find out their clinical correlation. Materials and methods: 347 dried adult human skull base obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan and other medical colleges were used in the present study. All the dry adult human skulls were observed from outer side at their base by naked eyes to determine the shape of foramen magnum. It was classified into one of the following shapes: - Oval, round, tetragonal, egg shaped, hexagonal, pentagonal and irregular. Results: The shape of the foramen magnum in dry skulls were oval in 44.95%, round in 30.84%, hexagonal in 9.23%, irregular in 6.63%, pentagonal in 5.19%, tetragonal in 1.73 %, and egg shaped in 1.44%. Conclusion: Inferences of the present study in the form of variations in the shapes of foramen magnum will be useful to the neurosurgeons, radiologists, orthopedics, anthropologists, forensic experts as well as anatomists. Further these data can be used as an anatomical reference for the researchers.

12.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Jul; 59(7): 553-562
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225352

ABSTRACT

Justification: Suicide is an important cause of adolescent mortality and morbidity in India. As pediatricians are often the first point of contact for adolescents and their families in the healthcare system, they need guidelines to screen, assess, manage and prevent adolescent suicidal behavior to ensure survival, health and mental well-being of this vulnerable population. Objectives: To formulate guidelines to aid pediatricians for prevention and management of adolescent suicidal behavior. Process: Indian Academy of Pediatrics, in association with Adolescent Health Academy, formed a multidisciplinary committee of subject experts in June, 2019 to formulate guidelines for adolescent suicide prevention and management. After a review of current scientific literature and preparation of draft guidelines, a national consultative meeting was organized on 16 August, 2019 for detailed discussions and deliberations. This was followed by refining of draft guidelines, and discussions over e-mail where suggestions were incorporated and the final document was approved. Guidelines: Pediatricians should screen for mental distress, mental disorders and suicidal and para-suicidal (non-suicidal self-injury) behavior during adolescent health visits. Those with suicidal behavior should be referred to a psychiatrist after providing emergency healthcare, risk assessment, immediate counselling and formulation of a safety plan. Pediatricians should partner with the community and policymakers for primary and secondary prevention of adolescent suicide.

13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2022 Jun; 65(2): 422-425
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223246

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are uncommon; intermediate grade soft tissue tumors occurring in young individuals with an uncertain behaviour. The incidence of pulmonary lymphangitis carcinomatosis (PLC) is around 6-8% of all pulmonary metastases. However, PLC due to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is very uncommon. We present a case of a 26-year-old male, who presented with a solitary left lung nodule on radiological scans. There was also a past history of thyroid surgery done two years back for PTC. Histology revealed a soft tissue tumor reminiscent of IMT. The periphery of the IMT nodule showed metastatic PTC in the form of extensive PLC. In view of this unusual histology, a diagnosis of PTC with nodular fasciitis-like stroma (PTC-NFS) was initially considered. However, molecular studies for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement confirmed the diagnosis of IMT. This case highlights the unusual occurrence of tumor-to-tumor metastasis causing diagnostic challenges and also the importance of molecular testing.

14.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Jun; 59(6): 477-484
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225343

ABSTRACT

Justification: Adolescent health is critical to the current and future well- being of the world. Pediatricians need country specific guidelines in accordance with international and national standards to establish comprehensive adolescent friendly health services in clinical practice. Process: Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) in association with Adolescent Health Academy formed a committee of subject experts in June, 2019 to formulate guidelines for adolescent friendly health services. After a review of current scientific literature and drafting guidelines on each topic, a national consultative meeting was organized on 16 August, 2019 for detailed discussions and deliberations. This was followed by discussions over e-mail and refining of draft recommendations. The final guidelines were approved by the IAP Executive Board in December, 2021. Objective: To formulate guidelines to enable pediatricians to establish adolescent friendly health services. Recommendations: Pediatricians should coordinate healthcare for adolescents and plan for transition of care to an adult physician by 18 years of age. Pediatricians should establish respectful, confidential and quality adolescent friendly health services for both out-patient and in-patient care. The healthcare facility should provide preventive, therapeutic, and health promoting services. Pediatricians should partner with the multidisciplinary speciality services, community, and adolescents to expand the scope and reach of adolescent friendly health services.

15.
Indian J Public Health ; 2023 Mar; 67(1): 54-60
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223940

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Health workforce is the important pillar of health system in India. Efficient utilization of scarce community‑level human resources in health care is critical to ensure optimum care in a community. Objective: To describe the time utilization pattern of health workers (HWs) during field activity at the primary healthcare level and to study the facilitators and barriers in efficient time utilization. Methods: A mixed‑method study with a time and motion approach was carried out in the rural areas of Ballabgarh block of Haryana. Time and motion approach was continuous, direct, synchronous and both active and passive method of time logging was adapted. Electronic Geo‑Positioning System based mobile, timestamp application and the digital stopwatch were used to capture time utilization. The quality of the data collected in the daily work plan during the household (HH) visits was assessed using semi‑structured interview schedule. In‑depth interview with the HWs was carried out to understand the facilitating factors and barriers in their efficient functioning. Results: Proportion of HH s covered in data collection for time and motion patterns was 36% out of the total number of HH s in the SCs. The completeness of work plan was 74.8%. The average number of HHs covered per day by an HW was 38. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) time duration spent in each HH in completing the work plan was 2.9 (0.8) minutes. Mean (SD) total distance travelled by HW per day was 1845.1 (974.2) metres. Mean (SD) time duration spent idle in the field was 22.7 (13.0) minutes. Proportion of effective time utilised in the field was 54.3%. Several enabling factors and barriers were identified at personal, community, and health system level. Conclusion: Only half of the allotted time was effectively utilized by the HWs for house visit in the community. Planning the beat schedule as per the feasibility and ensuring quality of HH visits using information technology is critical for providing primary healthcare at village level.

16.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2022 Mar; 65(1): 133-136
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223184

ABSTRACT

Primary hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) is a rare tumor with an incidence of <0.1 per 100,000. The clinical course is variable with variable outcomes. Due to its rarity, treatment protocols, prognostic and predictive factors are not well established underscoring the need for such a study. Pathologists’ awareness of this entity, a meticulous morphologic examination coupled with immunohistochemistry can aid in accurate diagnosis.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221808

ABSTRACT

Background. Ambient aeroallergens and organic or inorganic air pollutants are known to cause asthma exacerbation and subsequent asthma-related hospital admissions. Methods. This study was carried out to study the impact of meteorological factors, air pollution, pollens over hospital visits for respiratory illness in north Delhi region from July 2014 to June 2015. Daily monitoring of pollen grains was done on the roof of the multistorey building (height up to 20m) of the Institute. Meteorological factors including temperature, relative humidity, and precipitations were recorded daily. Daily concentrations of nitric dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM2.5) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were also recorded. Number of hospital visits of patients with respiratory illness were assessed in relation to air pollutants (NO2, SO2 and PM2.5) and climate change (temperature, relative humidity and rain). Results. During the study period, 113,462 pollen counts were recorded. Two highest peaks of mean pollen counts were observed in post-monsoon season (October-2014) and in the spring season (March 2015). The maximum and minimum pollen concentration was observed in the month of March 2015 (18818/m3) and August 2014 (4731/m3). Our results showed that pollen numbers significantly correlated with respiratory emergency department patient visits (P=0.037, r=0.604), and temperature and humidity (P=0.711, r=-120, and (P=0.670, r=-0.137), respectively. NO2 significantly correlated with SO2, respiratory emergency department patient visits and new respiratory OPD patients (P=0.017, r=0.670, P=0.031, r=0.622 and P=0.016, r=0.675, respectively). A statistically significant correlation between rainfall and SO2 was observed (P=0.004, r=-0.757) in the present study. Conclusion. Our study suggests that significant increase in pollen concentration and air pollutants in the ambient environment causes respiratory illness.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221098

ABSTRACT

To study the physical properties of biomaterials like bony hard tissues through the propagation of elastic waves is one of the most successful method.With the help of internal friction measurement, we can study the processes such as recrystallization, annealing, quenching and tempering, plastic deformation and strain ageing. In the present investigation we calculate and -1 reported the internal friction loss (Q ) for all the six types of bovine compact bones for the first time in a single experiment by using the ultrasonic piezoelectric composite oscillator technique with the help of X-cut crystal in different physiological conditions. Significant variation is observed from bone to bone. This may be attributed to composition and mineral content of the bones. Peak temperature data also is also determined. Temperature variation of logarithmic decrement in X-cut quartz transducer is also verified with mounting of bovine compact bar shaped bone -1 samples. Change of internal friction (Q ) with temperature is also calculated to predict the mechanism of acoustic losses and phase transitions in these bony hard tissues. Internal friction measurements are also useful to obtain the information about imperfections in bony hard tissues. The present investigation constitutes a step towards the application of natural bovine bone ceramic materials for the transducer applications

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215895

ABSTRACT

Silica based nanoparticles are used in various fields of medical sciences to diagnose, control disease, for genetic disorders, owing to their size, surface area, biocompatibility and low toxicity. In dentistry, silica nanoparticles have been used as dental filler, teeth whitening agent but limited evidence is there regarding antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess the anti-bacterial activity of mouthwash incorporated with silica nanoparticles against oral pathogens. Tetraethoxysilane, ammonium hydroxide, absolute ethanol were used and centrifuged to obtain the silica nanoparticle pellet. XRD analysis was done to confirm the characterization of the thus obtained silica nanoparticle. The mouthwash was prepared with the synthesized silica nanoparticle as the main constituent. Agar well diffusion method was used to assess the antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, S. aureus and E. faecalis. The XRD analysis confirmed the amorphous nature of the synthesized silica nanoparticles.The zone of inhibition was found to increase as the concentrations increased mainly for S. aureus and E. faecalis. The synthesized nanoparticles incorporated mouthwash showed good potential as antimicrobial agents against strains of gram positive bacteria. Further animal studies/in vivo research should be conducted to validate the above findings

20.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Jul; 41(4): 745-754
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214538

ABSTRACT

Aim: The present study was aimed to analyze the ecological significance of Ulhas River estuary of the western coast of India using the taxonomic, functional and conservation aspects, and also to record an updated data base on the estuarine community structure.Methodology: Ichthyo faunal diversity was assessed by experimental fishing conducted at 3 selected stations using single day dolnets of code end mesh size of 10mm, from September 2017 to August 2018. The diversity of fish species was recorded considering the most relevant taxonomic classification data and further supplemented by the information pertaining to ecological roles played by the individual species (using guild approach) and the IUCN- conservation status. Results: There were 105 species, belonging to 4 classes, 19 orders, 44 families and 75 genera, recorded from Ulhas River Estuary. The class: Actinopterygii was the most diverse taxa, (including 12 orders, 32 families and 55 genera) among the total ichthyofauna reported. Order Perciformes was the most representative order of the class (40 species, 31 genera and 17 families), followed by Decapoda (21species, 8 genera and 6 families). Based on the estuarine usefunctional guild categorization, 51.42 % of the species were marine migrants, followed by amphidromous species (21.9%). Zoobenthivores (29.41%) was found to be the most dominant feeding guild followed by omnivores (19.6%). Based on the IUCN Red List, 53.33% of the fish species observed from Ulhas River Estuary were categorized as “Not Evaluated”, and 7% were “Data Deficient”, signifying the lack of information on biological aspects of the species along Indian waters. Tenualosa toli marked its presence under threatened category (Vulnerable) from Ulhas River Estuary. Interpretation: The abundance of marine migrants as well as the amphidromous species in the estuary signifies the use of this ecosystem for the nursery function of commercially important marine fisheries resources. Increased proportion of “Not Evaluated” and “Data Deficient” categories in the context of high level of anthropogenic stress demands for more updated documentation of the biodiversity and periodic changes in its ecological structure for formulating and implementing effective ecosystem-based management programs for such sensitive estuarine ecosystems.

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