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1.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148142

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is a serious public health concern. The Indian smoke-free legislation 'Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules, 2008' prohibits smoking in public places, including workplaces. Objective: To measure the status of compliance to legal provisions that protects the public against harms of SHS exposure, identifies the potential areas of violations and informs policy makers for strengthening enforcement measures. Design: A cross-sectional survey in 1401 public places across 11 district headquarters in Himachal Pradesh, India, using a compliance guide developed by partners of the Bloomberg initiatives to reduce tobacco use. Results: In 1401 public places across 11 district headquarters, 42.8% public places had signage; in 84.2% public places, no smoking was observed and in 83.7%, there was absence of smoking accessories such as ashtray, matchbox and lighter . Tobacco litter like cigarette butts was absent in 64.7% of the public places. Overall, at the state level, there was more than 80% compliance on at least three of the five indicators. Among all categories of public places, educational institutions and offices demonstrated highest compliance, whereas most frequently visited public places, eateries and accommodation facilities had least compliance. Conclusions: The compliance to 'Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules, 2008' was variable in various district headquarters of Himachal Pradesh. This study identified the potential areas of violations that need attention from enforcement agencies and policymakers.

2.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2012 Sept-Oct; 78(5): 599-604
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141174

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a need to develop an in vitro skin models which can be used as alternative system for research and testing pharmacological products in place of laboratory animals. Therefore to study the biology and pathophysiology of pigmentation and vitiligo, reliable in vitro skin pigmentation models are required. Aim: In this study, we used primary cultured melanocytes and keratinocytes to prepare the skin co-culture model in control and vitiligo patients. Methods: The skin grafts were taken from control and patients of vitiligo. In vitro co-culture was prepared after culturing primary melanocytes and keratinocytes. Co- cultures were treated with melanogenic stimulators and inhibitors and after that tyrosinase assay, MTT assay and melanin content assay were performed. Results: Melanocytes and keratinocytes were successfully cultured from control and vitiligo patients and after that co-culture models were prepared. After treatment of co-culture model with melanogenic stimulator we found that tyrosinase activity, cell proliferation and melanin content increased whereas after treatment with melanogenic inhibitor, tyrosinase activity, cell proliferation and melanin content decreased. We also found some differences in the control co-culture model and vitiligo co-culture model. Conclusion: We successfully constructed in vitro co-culture pigmentation model for control and vitiligo patients using primary cultured melanocytes and keratinocytes. The use of primary melanocytes and keratinocytes is more appropriate over the use of transformed cells. The only limitation of these models is that these can be used for screening small numbers of compounds.

3.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172195

ABSTRACT

Injuries to Lisfranc complex are infrequent, usually a result of high energy trauma. Upto 20% of these go unrecognized initially and can have significant long term consequences. Complete isolated dislocation of cuboid is extremely rare. When present, it is usually in conjunction with the complex injuries of hindfoot and midfoot.We report a case of 30yr old male, presenting to the emergency room after having sustained a motor vehicle accident with injury to right foot and ankle region.The injury was diagnosed to be Lisfranc injury with associated cuboid dislocation, the latter part was missed initially. Lisfranc injury is most commonly associated with second metatarsal fracture but rarely it can also be associated with cuboid dislocation which can be easily missed on initial evaluation. High suspicion of this type of injury should be present following high energy trauma as it can result in prolonged recovery and significant long term morbidity.

4.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2012 Jan-Feb; 78(1): 19-23
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140993

ABSTRACT

Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder characterized by a chronic and progressive loss of melanocytes from the epidermis and follicular reservoir. The mechanism of melanocyte disappearance has never been clearly understood. This review discussed the data supporting the theory of melanocytorrhagy and apoptosis as one of the primary defects underlying melanocyte loss. Theory of melanocytorrhagy proposes that non-segmental vitiligo is a primary melanocytorrhagic disorder with altered melanocyte responses to friction and possibly other types of stress, inducing their detachment and subsequent transepidermal loss. Melanocytes detachment induces apoptosis whereas adherence to basement membrane suppresses apoptosis. The study of apoptosis, mechanisms of its induction, and the ways to block apoptosis is one possible way to find both the causes of depigmentation and medications to prevent its progression.

5.
J Biosci ; 2011 Mar; 36(1): 175-188
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-161528

ABSTRACT

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. In the present study, the distribution of mastitic MRSA and antibiotic resistance was studied in 107 strains of S. aureus isolated from milk samples from 195 infected udders. The characterizations pathogenic factors (adhesin and toxin genes) and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates were carried out using gene amplification and disc diffusion assays, respectively. A high prevalence of MRSA was observed in the tested isolates (13.1%). The isolates were also highly resistant to antibiotics, i.e. 36.4% were resistant to streptomycin, 33.6% to oxytetracycline, 29.9% to gentamicin and 26.2% each to chloramphenicol, pristinomycin and ciprofloxacin. A significant variation in the expression of pathogenic factors (Ig, coa and clf) was observed in these isolates. The overall distribution of adhesin genes ebp, fib, bbp, fnbB, cap5, cap8, map and cna in the isolates was found to be 69.1, 67.2, 6.5, 20.5, 60.7, 26.1, 81.3 and 8.4%, respectively. The presence of fib, fnbB, bbp and map genes was considerably greater in MRSA than in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. The proportions of toxin genes, namely, hlb, seb, sec, sed, seg and sei, in the isolates were found to be 94.3, 0.9, 8.4, 0.9, 10.2 and 49.5%, respectively. The proportions of agr genes I, II, III and IV were found to be 39.2, 27.1, 21.5 and 12.1%, respectively. A few isolates showed similar antibiotic-resistance patterns, which could be due to identical strains or the dissemination of the same strains among animals. These findings can be utilized in mastitis treatment programmes and antimicrobials strategies in organized herds.

6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158176

ABSTRACT

Colors are capable of influencing many aspects of our lives, including our mood, mental state and energy level. According to color therapy, each color is thought to be associated with one of seven energy centers. The method of color therapy is based on the law of resonant colors interaction, conterminous to frequency characteristics of body. Colored light can be used directly on the body's health and immune strength, affecting the body and the emotions. It does not alter the material make up of the body, but rather the vibrational aspect, similar to homeopathy. The treatment itself involves the application of colored light to the acupuncture points on the skin with an instrument that resembles a simple penlight. Treatment by color can be performed on finger meridians, on chakras, painting the certain points by the certain color following the laws of colors interaction (and consequently, energies) and thus changing the energy potential (balance) both in the point, and in all meridian, and, hence, in organ.

7.
Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci ; 2008 Jul-Sep; 50(3): 263-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-29602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is scarcity of published literature on manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among elderly patients in India. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical, radiological and laboratory manifestations of PTB among young and elderly patients. METHODS: This prospective study involved 100 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative patients with PTB. The demographic, clinical, radiological and laboratory manifestations were compared between young (n=50; under 60 years of age) and elderly (n=50; aged 60 years and above) with PTB. RESULTS: Elderly patients, in comparison to younger patients, tended to be heavier smokers and had more co-morbidities (40% vs 8%; p < 0.05). They presented more frequently with constitutional symptoms (except fever) and less frequently with respiratory symptoms. The mean duration of symptoms and rate of sputum smear-positivity for acid-fast bacilli was similar in both groups. Both the groups were similar with respect to physical examination and chest radiograph findings. Median values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and total leukocyte count were significantly higher and lower respectively in the elderly patients. CONCLUSIONS: The presentation of PTB in elderly patients differs from that of younger patients by the predominance of constitutional rather than respiratory symptoms. A high index of suspicion is required to make a timely diagnosis of tuberculosis in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications
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