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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206315

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research was to isolate and characterize the novel biopolymer from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds and to formulate lamotrigine loaded bionanoparticles using this biomaterial. The biopolymer was isolated by simplified and economical process and analysed for different physico-chemical and spectral properties. The nanosizing of lamotrigine was done by bath sonication method and its particle size in nano-range was screened by UV method. The bionanosuspension loaded with nanosized lamotrigine was prepared by bath sonication for 15 cycles (1cycle equal to 3 minutes). The formulated bionanosuspension loaded with lamotrigine using biopolymer was compared with lamotrigine loaded bionanosuspension by using HPMC. The bionanosuspension was subjected for pH study, dispersibility study, % entrapment efficiency, nanosizing screening, particle size study and in vitro study for drug release and stability study of formulated bionanosuspension. The best formulation LPVu7 showed up to 90.36 ±0.9% drug release in 36 hours. having t 50% of 17 hours and t80% of 29 hours with r2 value of 0.9927 as compared to release from LSP5 with 92.43±0.68% having t 50% of 16 hours and t80% of 28 hours with r2 value of 0.9951 in 36 hours. The results reveal that isolated biopolymer may be used as an alternative to synthetic polymer because of its novel inbuilt bioretardant cum biostabilizing properties. The formulated bionanosuspension are feasible for delivering the nanosized lamotrigine in sustained manner for prolonged time for long term treatment of epilepsy.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206311

ABSTRACT

In the context of the dangerous phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance to the available drugs, we present here the synthesis and evaluation of 7-(2-((substituted phenyl) imino)-2-phenylethoxy)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-ones as antifungal agents. Among the compounds, SB-4 was found to be most potent against Candida albicans when compared with the reference drugs Clotrimazole and Terbinafine. The molecular properties of the newly target compounds were performed by online software, and results showed good drug-like properties. The results showed target compounds further optimized as lead compounds as anti-Candida potential.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203066

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the male and female proportion for variouscountries and India. The secondary aim of the study was to identify the multiple influencing factorsthat are playing a role in the male to female ratio and how India differs from other countries. For thisstudy, we have used the available data and reports from various countries, health organisations andWHO from Dec 2019 to May 2020 for comparison and interpretation. There are multiple influencersfor women getting less infected by COVID-19. There are biological reasons such as chromosomesand oestrogen; lifestyle reasons such as smoking and drinking habits, and controlled food habits;social causes such as working hard in rural areas, less exposure to the crowd and minimalinternational travelling opportunities; cultural reasons such as less social gathering, default socialdistancing system and also there is an assumption that Indian women are culturally more disciplined.It is vital to understand gender-based differences in the human immune systems and how it affects thespread of the virus. Knowing the steps and precautionary measures can help us to prevent the spreadof coronavirus. Prevention is always better than cure. By following the advisories from WHO andother nation’s health organisation, making a collaborative effort, we all should be able to managebetter.

4.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 May; 41(3): 607-612
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214518

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present study was to isolate antifungal protein from seeds of Acacia senegal in order to develop a new, effective and environmental friendly biofungicide.Methodology: Antifungal protein from A. senegal seeds was extracted and purified through ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The novel antifungal was characterized employing SDS-PAGE, chitinase activity and antifungal efficacy. The purified protein was also characterized through MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Results: The yield of purified antifungal protein was estimated to be 0.96 mg 25 g-1 seeds and its molecular mass determined by SDS PAGE was 52.9 kDa. The purified protein exhibited antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum also possessed chitinase activity. The purified protein was characterized through MALDI-TOF MS/MS and its spectra revealed 14 peptides with their specific amino acid sequences. Interpretation: The antifungal protein isolated from A. senegal seeds has broad-spectrum antifungal activity with chitinase activity against pathogenic fungi that can be exploited for management of fungal disease as biopesticide to promote sustainable agriculture

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205625

ABSTRACT

Background: Laboratory workers are exposed to a variety of potential occupational health hazards including infectious materials and cultures, toxic and flammable chemicals, as well as electrical hazard. It is important for laboratory workers to be aware of the potential hazards and ensure safety in practices. Carelessness, negligence, and unsafe practices may result in serious injuries not only to the individual but also coworkers and patients as well. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of laboratory safety precautions among technicians working in clinical microbiology laboratory. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study on KAP of laboratory safety precautions among technicians. A close-ended structured questionnaire was canvassed to the technicians and responses were analyzed. Results: A total of 30 laboratory workers participated in the study. The overall correct responses regarding knowledge of laboratory safety precautions were 74% (673/900) and practices of the same were 79% (427/540). Few (10/30) perceived biomedical waste management as a burden and some (9/30) felt that too much of effort is required to follow optimal hand hygiene. Conclusion: Training and retraining on laboratory safety precautions are required along with counseling to induce a positive attitudinal change.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212107

ABSTRACT

Background: Human body is studied by dissection method on unclaimed or donated human cadavers. Anatomy is of paramount importance taught for the first year M.B.B.S students all over Indian Medical Colleges since decades.Methods: Medical Institution was started in month of September 2019 with 100 intakes on merit basis. Aim was to teach the human anatomy to 1st MBBS students by dissecting the cadavers for which an Awareness programme was conducted by department of anatomy regarding to Body donation. Study was done going through and studying the donated forms with full consent in duly signed consent forms. Their age, physical conditions and mental status were taken into considerations as the yard sticks.Results: Since college has started in September 2019, there was poor response and awareness about body donation. So far fifteen live donors including 12 males and 3 females have filled their forms in perfect normal status and with NO compulsion from anybody. Five dead bodies (Cadavers) received in the Department of Anatomy of Government Medical College, Barmer for the propose of dissection to teach the 1st year MBBS students. Awareness of donation of the body is in progress.Conclusions: In the present study, authors concluded that only few people gave response in favour of awareness programme of body donation showing the lack of awareness towards the body donation. So, the study has shown the requirement of more awareness programmes about body donation among the population. It will help to clarifying any myths or/and superstition so that the general public should aware and show interest towards the body donation.

7.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209334

ABSTRACT

introduction: Despite many advances in both surgery and radiotherapy, the treatment of esophageal cancer remains a challenge for both surgeons and oncologists. The treatment of choice for patients with carcinoma esophagus is controversial. Recent studies have suggested that combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy may result in improved survival. Aim: The aim of our study was to analyze the role of concurrent chemoradiation in inoperable carcinomas esophagus. Materials and Methods: This single-arm prospective study was conducted in the Department of Radiotherapy, Thanjavur Medical College Hospital from August 2018 to August 2019 to analyze the role of concurrent chemoradiation in inoperable carcinomas esophagus. A total of 26 cases of inoperable cases of carcinoma esophagus were treated with once-weekly cisplatin 30 mg/ m2 along with radiotherapy 60 Gy in 30 fractions in 6 weeks on telecobalt machine. Results: Of 26 patients 16 patients were males, 10 patients were females, 17 patients had age <60 years, 9 patients had age above 61 years, 22 patients had squamous cell carcinoma, 4 patients had adenocarcinoma, 4 patients had lesion in upper part of esophagus, 14 patients had lesion in middle part, 8 patients had lesion in lower part, 4 patients had tumor dimension <5 cm, 22 patients had dimension >5.1 cm, 2 patients had tumor stage T1, 22 patients had T2, 2 patients had T3, 1 patient had Nx, 21 patients had No, 4 patients had N1, 15 patients had mild dysphagia, 8 patients had moderate dysphagia, 3 patients had severe dysphagia1 patients had diarrhea, 1 patient had fatigue, 4 patients had leukopenia, and 1 patient had neutropenia. Conclusion: Combined modality therapy plays a significant role in the treatment of patients with carcinoma esophagus. Concurrent chemoradiation is a superior treatment in inoperable carcinoma esophagus in terms of local control and survival. Hence, concurrent chemoradiation can also be tried in early cases and surgical morbidity survival and quality of life can be improved.

8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Mar; 68(3): 494-499
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197837

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate age-related changes in macular vessels and their perfusion densities using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: A total of 108 eyes of 54 healthy subjects between the age group of 11 to 60 years having unaided visual acuity of 20/20 were studied on spectral domain OCTS using 3 * 3 mm macula protocol. These subjects were divided into 5 groups; Group 1: 11–20 years, Group 2: 21–30 years, Group 3: 31–40 years, Group 4: 41–50 years, and Group 5: 51–60 years. An early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) grid overlay at the macula was used to calculate changes in different quadrants of the superficial retinal plexus. Results: A total of 98 eyes of 49 patients were considered for the final analysis. The vessel density values decreased from the second to the sixth decade in all four quadrants (except the third decade, where a slight increase was noted). The total vessel density decreased from 168 ± 78 mm-1 (group 1) to 131.47 ± 18.32 mm-1 (group 5). A similar reduction pattern in perfusion density was seen in each quadrant from the second to the sixth decade. The total perfusion density reduced from 309 ± 15.63% (group 1) to 283.05 ± 45.23% (group 5). The foveal avascular zone area was 0.18 ± 0.09 mm2 in group 1, 0.33 ± 0.13 mm2 in group 2, 0.30 ± 0.10 mm2 in group 3, 0.38 ± 0.05 mm2 in group 4, and 0.46 ± 0.06 mm2 in group 5. Conclusion: In our population, macular vessel density appears to decrease noticeably from the fourth decade onwards but a statistically significant decrease was observed only from the fifth decade onwards. However, it was not uniform along with all the quadrants. Similarly, the percentage of perfusion density dropped from the fourth decade but these values also varied among the different quadrants.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196424

ABSTRACT

Objective: Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are low-grade malignant sex cord-stromal tumors (SCST) with late metastasis/recurrences and long disease-free periods. We performed a clinicopathological evaluation of GCT to ascertain features having prognostic impact. Materials and Methods: All cases of GCT of ovary from January 2006 to December 2018 were assessed for architectural patterns, nuclear grooves, and Call-Exner bodies. Each feature was graded on frequency of occurrence: not present (0)–very frequent (3). Anisonucleosis, necrosis, and inflammation were noted. Cases were grouped on mitotic count; <10 mitosis/10 High power field (HPF) or >=11 mitoses/10 HPF and Ki-67 index; <10% Ki-67 and >=11% Ki-67. Results: GCT formed 60.1% of SCST. Sixty cases' ages were in the range of 15–78 years (median 45). Clinical details were available in 37. Commonest presentation was abnormal uterine bleeding. Serum CA125 was raised in 16.1% and Inhibin in 58.8%. Seventy percent were in stage I. Disease recurrence was associated with higher stage (P = 0.007). The most frequent pattern was diffuse sheets (47%). Call-Exner bodies were absent in 22.2%. Grooves with score 1, 2, and 3 were seen in 35.8%, 23.5%, and 13.6%, respectively. Anisonucleosis was present in 26.7%, necrosis in 11.1%, and lympho-plasmacytic infiltrate in 43%. Out of total, 93.3% had <10 mitosis/10 HPF and 43.2% had recurrence, most with high Ki-67 (P = 0.064). Conclusion: Our study outlines histomorphological spectrum of GCT and emphasizes its frequent occurrence in lower stages with late recurrences. The presence of grooves may indicate granulosa-cell origin. Call-Exner bodies are not a necessity. Histomorphological features are not prognostically important. However, prognostic value of Ki-67 cannot be excluded. Limitation of the study was a small number of cases with follow-up.

10.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Mar; 41(2): 202-206
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214494

ABSTRACT

Aim: The present study was conducted to characterize VRSA isolates on the basis of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the presence of spa gene, recovered from different Doon Valley Hospitals.Methodology: Six VRSA isolates were analyzed using PFGE and spa typing. spa gene coded Protein A was used as a genetic marker for the characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Dendrogram were constructed on the basis of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA method) for clusters analyses.Results: Dendrogram finally showed two major banding patterns at about 85% similarity designated as PFGE type A and PFGE type B exhibiting differences of 4-6 bands. The length of spa gene varied from 1200 to 1500 bp, showing variation in length. The most prevalent length was 1200bp.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210898

ABSTRACT

A total of twelve healthy adult Madras Red ewe and Boer local she-goat teats were histologically and immunohistochemically examined. In between the teat canal and teat cistern Furstenberg’s rosette was appeared as modified zone of mucosa thrown into primary and secondary folds. The mucosal folds were lined by a bilayered cuboidal epithelium. Subepithelial area of rosette was composed of numerous lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages and plasma cells. Mucosa below the Furstenberg’s rosette was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining of rosette by CD3 antibody revealed the localization of intraepithelial ‘T’ lymphocytes in the mucosal folds. ‘T’ lymphocytes were also localized in the lamina propria region

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196468

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT) are a unique group of neoplasms with diverse morphology and immunophenotypic characteristics, coexpressing sex cord, epithelial, and smooth-muscle markers. To date, less than 100 cases have been reported and there is paucity of data concerning their clinical behavior. Materials and Methods: All cases of uterine body tumors diagnosed over a period of two and a half years (2016-2018) were retrieved. Histopathological features were reviewed and extended panel of immunohistochemistry was performed to identify cases of UTROSCTs. Results: Six cases of UTROSCTs were identified with a median age of 46.5 years. Four of them presented with menorrhagia, while two with postmenopausal bleeding including one with a history of carcinoma breast. Three of these cases were initially misdiagnosed as endometrial stromal sarcoma and adenocarcinomas. They all underwent hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Conclusion: It is considered a tumor with low malignant potential; however, one out of six cases (16.7%) in our study showed metastasis, within 1 year of diagnosis. It is important to recognize this entity as it mimics a wide range of both benign and malignant tumors. Molecular pathogenesis and exact management protocols remain elusive due to rarity,hence, multi-institutional studies are warranted.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212758

ABSTRACT

Background: Perforative peritonitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies in India. Perforation of the intestines results in the potential for bacterial contamination resulting in peritonitis.Methods: A total of 65 patients (January 2018 to Dec 2018) who presented with features of perforative peritonitis admitted to various surgical units of PES institute of medical sciences, Kuppam were included in this study. The following study was conducted to analyze bacteriology of peritoneal fluid, to assess antibiotic sensitivity pattern, to assess its impact on morbidity, mortality pattern in these cases.Results: Males outnumbered females with a ratio of 4.9:1. The most common site of perforation was pre-pyloric part of stomach (35.3%), followed by an appendix (33.8%). Peritoneal fluid was negative for culture (21.5%) in the majority of cases. Culture was positive for E. coli in 27.6% of cases and Klebsiella in 18.4% of cases, respectively. Majority of the isolated strains were sensitive to cephalosporins, quinolones, aminoglycosides. Most common postoperative complications were wound infection, respiratory complications, death.Conclusions: Studies have shown that delay in management and treatment will affect the prognosis. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is initiated and changed accordingly with peritoneal fluid culture sensitivity reports. This may reduce the incidence of postoperative complications, morbidity, and mortality.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205588

ABSTRACT

Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a non-infectious cutaneous disease, characterized by the presence of itchy, flat from top, polygonal, and papular lesions having a strikingly violaceous color. Objectives: The objectives are as follows: (1) To establish the association of hepatitis B and hepatitis C with LP in urban areas of Ajmer and (2) to analyze the derangements in liver function tests of LP patients who attended the outpatient Department of Dermatology in JLN Hospital Ajmer. Materials and Methods: To conduct the study, 102 patients of LP and 100 control subjects were selected between age groups of 18 and 60 years. A detailed history including age, sex, race, residence, clinical symptoms, and their duration was recorded. Control group was selected from blood donors at blood bank of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Ajmer, and was corresponding in age and sex to those of study group. A thorough clinical examination, systemic and cutaneous examination was performed. Clinical findings classical of LP and lesions confirmed histopathologically were used to establish the diagnosis of LP. A rapid test kit was used for detecting seropositivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis using SPSS version 16 were used to analyze the collected research data. Results: None of the patients of LP in the study group were HCV and HBV positive. None of the control group was positive for both viral infections. In 16 patients (15.68%), the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase were beyond the normal limits, and higher levels of alanine aminotransferase were detected in 5 patients (4.90%). Bilirubin concentrations higher than the normal limits were detected in total 16 patients (15.68%). Conclusion: No association of hepatitis B and C with LP could be established from the present study. More detailed research is needed to establish the correlation between hepatitis B and C and LP.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204410

ABSTRACT

Background: Child sexual abuse leads to several adverse impacts in the affected children. A study on awareness and attitude of mothers towards child sexual abuse will help to formulate better techniques to improve awareness and prevent child sexual abuse. The objective is to study the awareness and attitude of mothers of primary school students towards child sexual abuse.Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was done in the state of Tamil Nadu, India among 186 mothers of primary school children. Data were collected from the mothers using a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed.Results: Only 12.9% of the mothers were aware of the POCSO Act and 32.8% were aware of the child helpline 1098. 76.9% of the mothers were aware of unexplained genital injury as a physical indicator of child sexual abuse. Acute traumatic response (83.9%) and regression in behavior (82.8%) were the commonly aware behavioral indicators of child sexual abuse. Only 25.3% of the mothers believed that boys can be sexually abused. 75.3% of the mothers believed that the offenders were usually unknown persons. 88.7% of the mothers believed that unaccompanied children were a risk factor. 88.2 % of the mother believed that physical and mental disability in children was a risk factor. Majority of the mothers believed that streets (88.7%) and institutions (80.1%) were the common environment for child sexual abuse. Only 23.7% of the mothers had taught regarding good touch and bad touch to their children. 50.5 % of the mothers believed that the major role in preventing child sexual abuse is played by the parents.Conclusions: Awareness regarding child sexual abuse was low among the mothers of primary school children.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204394

ABSTRACT

Background: In recent times, one of the factors implied in poor school performance in children is increasing screen time. Objective of the study was to find the association of screen time duration with school performance among primary school children in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 134 primary school students at the state of Tamil Nadu, India from June 2019 to August 2019. Data regarding screen time were collected from the parents and school performance from teachers using a predesigned questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed with suitable statistical methods using SPSS 25 software.Results: Of the 134 children, 72(53.7%) were male and 62(46.3%) female children. 52(38.8%) were in the age group of 6 to 7 years, 47(35.1%) in the age group of 8 to 9 years and 35(26.1%) in the age group of 10 to 11 years. Majority of the children (56.7%) had an average daily screen time of >120 minutes followed by 61 to 120 minutes (29.1%) and ?60 minutes (14.2%). Based on composite academic performance, 23(17.2%) children were categorized as having poor academic performance, 71(52.9%) as average and 40(29.9%) as good academic performance. There was no statistically significant correlation of screen time duration with composite academic performance and academic performance in mathematics, science and language. (p Value >0.05).Conclusions: There was no significant correlation between screen time duration and school performance in primary school children in this study. Further studies are required to find the influence of screen time on various domains of learning and on long term cognition and educational achievement.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204392

ABSTRACT

Background: Screen time behavior in young children is highly influenced by parental attitude towards screen time.The objective of this study is to assess the awareness and attitude among parents of primary school students in the state of Tamil Nadu, India towards screen time in children.'Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the state of Tamil Nadu, India among 134 parents of primary school children. Data collected using a predesigned questionnaire were analyzed using suitable statistical methods.Results: Of the 134 participants, 48.5% were fathers and 51.5% mothers. Majority (77.6%) were in the age group of 24 to 35 years. Only 3.7% of the participants were aware of the exact screen time guidelines in children. 93.3% of the participants felt that it was important to limit screen time in children. 84.3% of the participants believed that the content of screen time should be controlled in children. 82.1% of parents felt that they should co view media with their children. 65.7% of the participants believed that the ideal screen time in children per day is 1 to 2 hours. 82.1% of the participants believed that using screen time as a replacement for caretaker was an important reason for increasing screen time. The awareness of adverse effects of increased screen time was high among the participants. 91.8% of the participants believed that establishing limits for screen time in children was the most efficient way to limit screen time in children. 89.6 % believed that increasing awareness among children was important.Conclusions: In this study, we conclude that majority of the parents were aware of the adverse effects of increasing screen time and want to establish healthy screen time behaviours in children.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204385

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of this study was to find the association of screen time with physical activity and BMI in middle school children in the age group of 11 to 13 years in Tamil Nadu, India.Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 139 middle school children aged 11 to 13 years at the state of Tamil Nadu, India from June 2019 to August 2019. Data regarding screen time and physical activity were collected from the children using a predesigned questionnaire and anthropometric measurements done. The data collected were analyzed with suitable statistical methods using SPSS 25 software.Results: Of the 139 children, 46(33.1%) were 11 years, 48(34.5%) were 12 years and 45(32.4%) were 13 years old. 74(53.2%) were male and 65(46.8%) were female. Majority of the study subjects (52.5%) had an average daily screen time of >120 minutes followed by 61 to 120 minutes (28.8%) and ?60 minutes (18.7%). Of the 139 children studied, only 31.7% (44 children) followed the WHO recommendations of moderate to vigorous physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day, 57.5% of the children had normal BMI, 10.8 % had thinness, 25.2% were overweight and 6.5% were obese. Physical activity was found to decrease with increasing screen time, and this was found to be statistically significant. No statistically significant correlation between screen time and BMI was found. There was statistically significant correlation between physical activity and BMI.Conclusions: There is a significant correlation of screen time with physical activity in this study. Urgent measures need to be taken to decrease screen time and promote a healthy lifestyle.

19.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Jan; 41(1): 125-130
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214483

ABSTRACT

Aim: A study was designed to measure the solar UV- B in Uttarakhand, Garhwal region and to observe the effect of retene and psoralene photosensitizers on hill stream fishes, Tor tor and Garra gotyla in the presence of natural solar ultraviolet and equal intensity of artificial UV-B radiation.Methodology: Solar UV-B was measured with the help of Kipps and Zonen radiometer having UV-B sensors. Experimental sites selected were Dehradun and Tehri located in Garhwal region of Uttarakhand. The artificial radiation was provided with Philips UV-B Lamps. Mortality, biochemical and enzymological parameters, which included glutathione, glucose-6-phosphatase, catalase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed. Results: The data of monitoring of UV-B showed that the maximum UV-B intensity was observed during the month of May to August and the minimum was in the month of December to February. Mortality rate of fish exposed to solar radiation, artificial UV-B, psoralene and retene indicated highest with 26% in Tor tor, exposed with psoralene+ artificial UV-B. Reduced glutathione, glucose- 6- phosphatase and catalase level decreased in all the groups compared to control. The maximum reduction in GSH level was observed after treatment of artificial UV-B + psoralene in Tor tor, while maximum reduction in catalase and glucose-6- phosphatase was observed after retene and artificial UV-B. Interpretation: Tor tor and Garra gotyla are important hill stream fishes. Retene and psoralene are natural photosensitizers present in the aquatic ecosystem and become phototoxic by generating oxidative radicals. Artificial UV-B was more toxic than natural solar radiation and Tor tor was found more sensitive than Garra gotyla. Enhanced UV-B with retene and psoralene photosensitizers affect hill stream fishes and aquatic biodiversity.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209239

ABSTRACT

Introduction: About 30% of all colorectal tumors develop in the rectum. The location of the rectum within the bony pelvisand its proximity to vital structures presents significant therapeutic challenges when considering neoadjuvant options andsurgical interventions. Neoadjuvant therapy may comprise either radiotherapy (RT) alone or in combination with chemotherapy.Commonly prescribed chemotherapy agents include 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. These agents act to limit tumor cell divisionin several ways.Aim: The aim of this study was to study the outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvantchemotherapy and RT.Materials and Methods: Patients with locally advanced pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the rectum, without detectabledistant metastasis at presentation, were included in this study. Patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy.Results: In 67 patients, 63% of patients were female; Stage IIA cases were 69% followed by Stages IIB and IIC 10% in each.About 19% of patients underwent surgery and 81% of patients underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by reassessmentfor surgery. Overall survival in 3 years in this study was noted as 67.6%.Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by radical surgery has shown very satisfactory results in the managementof locally advanced rectal cancers.

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