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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924943

ABSTRACT

Background@#Elevated γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GTP) level is associated with metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance, which are risk factors for type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the association of cumulative exposure to high γ-GTP level with risk of diabetes. @*Methods@#Using nationally representative data from the Korean National Health Insurance system, 346,206 people who were free of diabetes and who underwent 5 consecutive health examinations from 2005 to 2009 were followed to the end of 2018. High γ-GTP level was defined as those in the highest quartile, and the number of exposures to high γ-GTP level ranged from 0 to 5. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for diabetes were analyzed using the multivariable Cox proportional-hazards model. @*Results@#The mean follow-up duration was 9.2±1.0 years, during which 15,183 (4.4%) patients developed diabetes. There was a linear increase in the incidence rate and the risk of diabetes with cumulative exposure to high γ-GTP level. After adjusting for possible confounders, the HR of diabetes in subjects with five consecutive high γ-GTP levels were 2.60 (95% CI, 2.47 to 2.73) in men and 3.05 (95% CI, 2.73 to 3.41) in women compared with those who never had a high γ-GTP level. Similar results were observed in various subgroup and sensitivity analyses. @*Conclusion@#There was a linear relationship between cumulative exposure to high γ-GTP level and risk of diabetes. Monitoring and lowering γ-GTP level should be considered for prevention of diabetes in the general population.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875485

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We examined the concordance rate among fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2hr PG), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the diagnosis of diabetes in a population with a high-risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korea. @*Methods@#Among the participants from the Korean Diabetes Prevention Study, individuals with FPG ≥ 100 mg/dL, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23.0 kg/m2, and no previous history of T2DM were consecutively enrolled after a 75 g glucose tolerance test. We analyzed the differences in the clinical characteristics in subjects with stage 1 (FPG, 100 to 109 mg/dL) and stage 2 (FPG, 110 to 125 mg/dL) impaired fasting glucose (IFG). @*Results@#Of 1,637 participants, 27.2% had T2DM and 59.3% had IFG and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The mean age was 55.0 ± 8.1 years and the mean BMI was 26.3 ± 2.7 kg/m2. Based on FPG criteria, 515 (31.4%) and 352 (21.5%) subjects were classified as having stage 1 and stage 2 IFG, respectively. The 19.0% of stage 1 and 43.5% of stage 2 subjects showed 2hr PG levels in the diabetic range. Even for those in the normal FPG range, 63 (9.5%) participants showed a 2hr PG level of ≥ 200 mg/dL. Of 446 subjects with newly-diagnosed diabetes, 340 (76.2%) showed FPG levels < 126 mg/dL. @*Conclusions@#The oral glucose tolerance test should be actively considered for Korean adults who are overweight or obese with the IFG range (FPG, 100 to 125 mg/ dL) to allow for early detection of diabetes and prompt intervention.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874827

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to investigate the relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and causespecific mortality. @*Methods@#Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, we identified 343,687 subjects (men, 176,243; women, 167,444) aged ≥20 years who underwent health examinations between 2009 and 2012. HDL-C levels were categorized based on the concentration with 10 mg/dL intervals, starting from levels <30 mg/dL, with levels ≥90 mg/ dL considered the highest. The endpoints of the study were newly-diagnosed MI, stroke, or mortality. We used the Cox proportional hazards model with restricted cubic splines. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 6.0 years, the number of cases of death, MI, and stroke were 6,617, 4,064, and 3,435 in men and 3,677, 2,804, and 2,891 in women, respectively. The risk of all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, other mortality, and stroke was the lowest at HDL-C concentrations of 57–76 mg/dL in the spline curves; inverse associations with increased risk were observed at the lower HDL-C levels. In contrast, the lowest risk of cardiovascular mortality and MI was observed at the extreme high end. In men, there was a significant inverse and graded increase in hazard ratios of all outcomes in the lower HDL-C categories compared to the reference group (50–59 mg/dL). In the higher HDL-C categories, no significant increase in outcomes was observed. Women showed similar trends. @*Conclusion@#The risk of mortality, MI, and stroke was high at low HDL-C levels in the Korean general population. However, extremely high HDL-C levels were not associated with an increased risk of mortality, MI, and stroke.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874539

ABSTRACT

Background@#The microencapsulation is an ideal solution to overcome immune rejection without immunosuppressive treatment. Poor biocompatibility and small molecular antigens secreted from encapsulated islets induce fibrosis infiltration. Therefore, the aims of this study were to improve the biocompatibility of microcapsules by dexamethasone coating and to verify its effect after xenogeneic transplantation in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes mice. @*Methods@#Dexamethasone 21-phosphate (Dexa) was dissolved in 1% chitosan and was cross-linked with the alginate microcapsule surface. Insulin secretion and viability assays were performed 14 days after microencapsulation. Dexa-containing chitosan-coated alginate (Dexa-chitosan) or alginate microencapsulated porcine islets were transplanted into diabetic mice. The fibrosis infiltration score was calculated from the harvested microcapsules. The harvested microcapsules were stained with trichrome and for insulin and macrophages. @*Results@#No significant differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet viability were noted among naked, alginate, and Dexa-chitosan microencapsulated islets. After transplantation of microencapsulated porcine islets, nonfasting blood glucose were normalized in both the Dexa-chitosan and alginate groups until 231 days. The average glucose after transplantation were lower in the Dexa-chitosan group than the alginate group. Pericapsular fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration of microcapsules were significantly reduced in Dexa-chitosan compared with alginate microcapsules. Dithizone and insulin were positive in Dexa-chitosan capsules. Although fibrosis and macrophage infiltration was noted on the surface, some alginate microcapsules were stained with insulin. @*Conclusion@#Dexa coating on microcapsules significantly suppressed the fibrotic reaction on the capsule surface after transplantation of xenogenic islets containing microcapsules without any harmful effects on the function and survival of the islets.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874521

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the recent prevalence, management, and comorbidities of diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥30 years by analyzing nationally representative data. @*Methods@#This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2016 to 2018, and the percentage and total number of people ≥30 years of age with diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were estimated. @*Results@#In 2018, 13.8% of Korean adults aged ≥30 years had diabetes, and adults aged ≥65 years showed a prevalence rate of 28%. The prevalence of IFG was 26.9% in adults aged ≥30 years. From 2016 to 2018, 35% of the subjects with diabetes were not aware of their condition. Regarding comorbidities, 53.2% and 61.3% were obese and hypertensive, respectively, and 72% had hypercholesterolemia as defined by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥100 mg/dL in people with diabetes. Of the subjects with diabetes, 43.7% had both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. With regard to glycemic control, only 28.3% reached the target level of <6.5%. Moreover, only 11.5% of subjects with diabetes met all three targets of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. The percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates was higher in diabetes patients than in those without diabetes, while that from protein and fat was lower in subjects with diabetes. @*Conclusion@#The high prevalence and low control rate of diabetes and its comorbidities in Korean adults were confirmed. More stringent efforts are needed to improve the comprehensive management of diabetes to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898169

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolic disturbances are modifiable risk factors for dementia. Because the status of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components changes over time, we aimed to investigate the association of the cumulative exposure to MetS and its components with the risk of dementia. @*Methods@#Adults (n=1,492,776; ≥45-years-old) who received health examinations for 4 consecutive years were identified from a nationwide population-based cohort in Korea. Two exposure-weighted scores were calculated: cumulative number of MetS diagnoses (MetS exposure score, range of 0 to 4) and the composite of its five components (MetS component exposure score, range of 0 to 20). Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) values for dementia were analyzed using the multivariable Cox proportional-hazards model. @*Results@#Overall, 47.1% of subjects were diagnosed with MetS at least once, and 11.5% had persistent MetS. During the mean 5.2 years of follow-up, there were 7,341 cases (0.5%) of incident dementia. There was a stepwise increase in the risk of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia with increasing MetS exposure score and MetS component exposure score (each P for trend <0.0001). The HR of all-cause dementia was 2.62 (95% CI, 1.87 to 3.68) in subjects with a MetS component exposure score of 20 compared with those with a score of 0. People fulfilling only one MetS component out of 20 already had an approximately 40% increased risk of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. @*Conclusion@#More cumulative exposure to metabolic disturbances was associated with a higher risk of dementia. Of note, even minimal exposure to MetS components had a significant effect on the risk of dementia.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898108

ABSTRACT

The year 2021 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of insulin, which has greatly changed the lives of people with diabetes and become a cornerstone of advances in medical science. A rapid bench-to-bedside application of the lifesaving pancreatic extract and its immediate commercialization was the result of a promising idea, positive drive, perseverance, and collaboration of Banting and colleagues. As one of the very few proteins isolated in a pure form at that time, insulin also played a key role in the development of important methodologies and in the beginning of various fields of modern science. Since its discovery, insulin has evolved continuously to optimize the care of people with diabetes. Since the 1980s, recombinant DNA technology has been employed to engineer insulin analogs by modifying their amino acid sequence, which has resulted in the production of insulins with various profiles that are currently used. However, unmet needs in insulin treatment still exist, and several forms of future insulins are under development. In this review, we discuss the past, present, and future of insulin, including a history of ceaseless innovations and collective intelligence. We believe that this story will be a solid foundation and an unerring guide for the future.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898097

ABSTRACT

BackgroundGlycemic variability is associated with the development of diabetic complications and hypoglycemia. However, the effect of sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on glycemic variability is controversial. We aimed to examine the effect of dapagliflozin as an add-on therapy to insulin on the glycemic variability assessed using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodsIn this multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study, 84 subjects received 10 mg of dapagliflozin (n=41) or the placebo (n=43) for 12 weeks. CGM was performed before and after treatment to compare the changes in glycemic variability measures (standard deviation [SD], mean amplitude of glycemic excursions [MAGEs]).ResultsAt week 12, significant reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin (−0.74%±0.66% vs. 0.01%±0.65%, PPPConclusionDapagliflozin effectively decreased glucose levels, but not glucose variability, after 12 weeks of treatment in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin treatment. The role of SGLT2 inhibitors in glycemic variability warrants further investigations.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914197

ABSTRACT

We assessed the glycaemic durability with early combination (EC; vildagliptin+metformin [MET], n=22) versus MET monotherapy (n=17), among newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) enrolled (between 2012 and 2014) in the VERIFY study from Korea (n=39). Primary endpoint was time to initial treatment failure (TF) (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] ≥7.0% at two consecutive scheduled visits after randomization [end of period 1]). Time to second TF was assessed when both groups were receiving and failing on the combination (end of period 2). With EC the risk of initial TF significantly reduced by 78% compared to MET (n=3 [15%] vs. n=10 [58.7%], P=0.0228). No secondary TF occurred in EC group versus five patients (29.4%) in MET. Patients receiving EC treatment achieved consistently lower HbA1c levels. Both treatment approaches were well tolerated with no hypoglycaemic events. In Korean patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, EC treatment significantly and consistently improved the long-term glycaemic durability as compared with MET.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914193

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to determine the short-term effectiveness of an internet-based lifestyle modification (LSM) program in preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in prediabetes patients in community settings. A total of 415 subjects who were diagnosed with prediabetes were randomly assigned to the LSM and standard management (SM) groups. After the 6-month intervention, the LSM group had a statistically significant reduction in body weight, body mass index compared to the SM group participants. In the LSM group, blood glucose levels were significantly decreased after intervention and the clinical improvement effect was evident in the group that achieved the target weight loss of 5% or more of the initial weight for 6 months. Internet-based 6-month-intensive LSM programs conducted by public health center personnel are an effective way to provide lifestyle intervention programs and encourage maintenance of healthy behaviors in subjects with a high risk of T2DM in community settings.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890465

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolic disturbances are modifiable risk factors for dementia. Because the status of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components changes over time, we aimed to investigate the association of the cumulative exposure to MetS and its components with the risk of dementia. @*Methods@#Adults (n=1,492,776; ≥45-years-old) who received health examinations for 4 consecutive years were identified from a nationwide population-based cohort in Korea. Two exposure-weighted scores were calculated: cumulative number of MetS diagnoses (MetS exposure score, range of 0 to 4) and the composite of its five components (MetS component exposure score, range of 0 to 20). Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) values for dementia were analyzed using the multivariable Cox proportional-hazards model. @*Results@#Overall, 47.1% of subjects were diagnosed with MetS at least once, and 11.5% had persistent MetS. During the mean 5.2 years of follow-up, there were 7,341 cases (0.5%) of incident dementia. There was a stepwise increase in the risk of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia with increasing MetS exposure score and MetS component exposure score (each P for trend <0.0001). The HR of all-cause dementia was 2.62 (95% CI, 1.87 to 3.68) in subjects with a MetS component exposure score of 20 compared with those with a score of 0. People fulfilling only one MetS component out of 20 already had an approximately 40% increased risk of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. @*Conclusion@#More cumulative exposure to metabolic disturbances was associated with a higher risk of dementia. Of note, even minimal exposure to MetS components had a significant effect on the risk of dementia.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890404

ABSTRACT

The year 2021 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of insulin, which has greatly changed the lives of people with diabetes and become a cornerstone of advances in medical science. A rapid bench-to-bedside application of the lifesaving pancreatic extract and its immediate commercialization was the result of a promising idea, positive drive, perseverance, and collaboration of Banting and colleagues. As one of the very few proteins isolated in a pure form at that time, insulin also played a key role in the development of important methodologies and in the beginning of various fields of modern science. Since its discovery, insulin has evolved continuously to optimize the care of people with diabetes. Since the 1980s, recombinant DNA technology has been employed to engineer insulin analogs by modifying their amino acid sequence, which has resulted in the production of insulins with various profiles that are currently used. However, unmet needs in insulin treatment still exist, and several forms of future insulins are under development. In this review, we discuss the past, present, and future of insulin, including a history of ceaseless innovations and collective intelligence. We believe that this story will be a solid foundation and an unerring guide for the future.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890393

ABSTRACT

BackgroundGlycemic variability is associated with the development of diabetic complications and hypoglycemia. However, the effect of sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on glycemic variability is controversial. We aimed to examine the effect of dapagliflozin as an add-on therapy to insulin on the glycemic variability assessed using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodsIn this multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study, 84 subjects received 10 mg of dapagliflozin (n=41) or the placebo (n=43) for 12 weeks. CGM was performed before and after treatment to compare the changes in glycemic variability measures (standard deviation [SD], mean amplitude of glycemic excursions [MAGEs]).ResultsAt week 12, significant reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin (−0.74%±0.66% vs. 0.01%±0.65%, PPPConclusionDapagliflozin effectively decreased glucose levels, but not glucose variability, after 12 weeks of treatment in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin treatment. The role of SGLT2 inhibitors in glycemic variability warrants further investigations.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832425

ABSTRACT

We live in a digital world where a variety of wearable medical devices are available. These technologies enable us to measure our health in our daily lives. It is increasingly possible to manage our own health directly through data gathered from these wearable devices. Likewise, healthcare professionals have also been able to indirectly monitor patients’ health. Healthcare professionals have accepted that digital technologies will play an increasingly important role in healthcare. Wearable technologies allow better collection of personal medical data, which healthcare professionals can use to improve the quality of healthcare provided to the public. The use of continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) is the most representative and desirable case in the adoption of digital technology in healthcare. Using the case of CGMS and examining its use from the perspective of healthcare professionals, this paper discusses the necessary adjustments required in clinical practices. There is a need for various stakeholders, such as medical staff, patients, industry partners, and policy-makers, to utilize and harness the potential of digital technology.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832415

ABSTRACT

Background@#Most of the widely used prediction models for cardiovascular disease are known to overestimate the risk of this disease in Asians. We aimed to generate a risk model for predicting myocardial infarction (MI) in middle-aged Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes. @*Methods@#A total of 1,272,992 subjects with type 2 diabetes aged 40 to 64 who received health examinations from 2009 to 2012 were recruited from the Korean National Health Insurance database. Seventy percent of the subjects (n=891,095) were sampled to develop the risk prediction model, and the remaining 30% (n=381,897) were used for internal validation. A Cox proportional hazards regression model and Cox coefficients were used to derive a risk scoring system. Twelve risk variables were selected, and a risk nomogram was created to estimate the 5-year risk of MI. @*Results@#During 7.1 years of follow-up, 24,809 cases of MI (1.9%) were observed. Age, sex, smoking status, regular exercise, body mass index, chronic kidney disease, duration of diabetes, number of anti-diabetic medications, fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and atrial fibrillation were significant risk factors for the development of MI and were incorporated into the risk model. The concordance index for MI prediction was 0.682 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.678 to 0.686) in the development cohort and 0.669 (95% CI, 0.663 to 0.675) in the validation cohort. @*Conclusion@#A novel risk engine was generated for predicting the development of MI among middle-aged Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This model may provide useful information for identifying high-risk patients and improving quality of care.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832371

ABSTRACT

Background@#Inconsistent results have been observed regarding the independent effect of diabetes on the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study to evaluate the relationship between diabetes and COVID-19 severity in South Korea. @*Methods@#Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 aged ≥30 years were enrolled and medical claims data were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Hospitalization, oxygen treatment, ventilator application, and mortality were assessed as severity outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. @*Results@#Of 5,307 COVID-19 patients, the mean age was 56.0±14.4 years, 2,043 (38.5%) were male, and 770 (14.5%) had diabetes.The number of patients who were hospitalized, who received oxygen, who required ventilator support, and who died was 4,986 (94.0%), 884 (16.7%), 121 (2.3%), and 211 (4.0%), respectively. The proportion of patients with diabetes in the abovementioned outcome groups was 14.7%, 28.1%, 41.3%, 44.6%, showing an increasing trend according to outcome severity. In multivariate analyses, diabetes was associated with worse outcomes, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.349 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.099 to 1.656; P=0.004) for oxygen treatment, an aOR of 1.930 (95% CI, 1.276 to 2.915; P<0.001) for ventilator use, and an aOR of 2.659 (95% CI, 1.896 to 3.729; P<0.001) for mortality. @*Conclusion@#Diabetes was associated with worse clinical outcomes in Korean patients with COVID-19, independent of other comorbidities. Therefore, patients with diabetes and COVID-19 should be treated with caution.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832357

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has been associated with more severe outcomes and higher mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients compare to morbidity and mortality in patients without diabetes. Several mechanisms may play a role in this greater morbidity and mortality, especially uncontrolled hyperglycemia, an impaired immune system, pre-existing proinflammatory states, multiple comorbidities, and dysregulated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 signaling. Thus, the diabetes medical community emergently needs to know about COVID-19 and its effects on patients with diabetes, as they must take precautions to carefully manage these patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Korean Diabetes Association provides some guidance and practical recommendations for the management of diabetes during the pandemic. This report provides insight into the association between diabetes and COVID-19, proper management of diabetes in patients with COVID-19 and an official suggestion by the Korean Diabetes Association for managing the COVID-19 outbreak.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832333

ABSTRACT

Background@#Some patients admitted to hospitals for glycemic control experience hypoglycemia despite regular meals and despite adhering to standard blood glucose control protocols. Different factors can have a negative impact on blood glucose control and prognosis after discharge. This study investigated risk factors for hypoglycemia and its effects on glycemic control during the hospitalization of patients in the general ward. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included patients who were admitted between 2009 and 2018. Patients were provided regular meals at fixed times according to ideal body weights during hospitalization. We categorized the patients into two groups: those with and those without hypoglycemia during hospitalization. @*Results@#Of the 3,031 patients, 379 experienced at least one episode of hypoglycemia during hospitalization (HYPO group). Hypoglycemia occurred more frequently particularly in cases of premixed insulin therapy. Compared with the control group, the HYPO group was older (61.0±16.8 years vs. 59.1±16.5 years, p=0.035), with more females (60.4% vs. 49.6%, p<0.001), lower body mass index (BMI) (23.5±4.2 kg/m 2 vs. 25.1±4.4 kg/m 2 , p<0.001), and higher prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (6.1% vs. 2.6%, P< 0.001), They had longer hospital stay (11.1±13.5 days vs. 7.6±4.6 days, p<0.001). After discharge the HYPO group had lower glycosylated hemoglobin reduction rate (−2.0%±0.2% vs. −2.5%±0.1%, p=0.003) and tended to have more frequent cases of cardiovascular disease. @*Conclusion@#Hypoglycemia occurred more frequently in older female patients with lower BMI and was associated with longer hospital stay and poorer glycemic control after discharge. Therefore, clinicians must carefully ensure that patients do not experience hypoglycemia during hospitalization.

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