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1.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 241-261, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001326

ABSTRACT

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) was introduced in 1977 with the administration of chemotherapeutic agent to gelatin sponge particles through the hepatic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and was established as conventional TACE using Lipiodol in the 1980s. In the 2000s, drug-eluting beads were developed and applied clinically. Currently, TACE is a commonly used non-surgical treatment modality for patients with HCC who are unsuitable for curative treatment. Considering the vital role of TACE in the management of HCC, it is crucial to organize current knowledge and expert opinions regarding patient preparation, procedural techniques, and post-treatment care in TACE, which can enhance therapeutic efficacy and safety. A group of 12 experts in the fields of interventional radiology and hepatology, convened by the Research Committee of the Korean Liver Cancer Association (KLCA), has developed expert consensus-based practical recommendations in TACE. These recommendations have been endorsed by the Korean Society of Interventional Radiology and provide useful information and direction in performing TACE procedure as well as pre- and post- procedural patient care.

2.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 521-541, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999969

ABSTRACT

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) was introduced in 1977 with the administration of chemotherapeutic agent to gelatin sponge particles through the hepatic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and was established as conventional TACE using Lipiodol in the 1980s. In the 2000s, drug-eluting beads were developed and applied clinically. Currently, TACE is a commonly used non-surgical treatment modality for patients with HCC who are unsuitable for curative treatment. Considering the vital role of TACE in the management of HCC, it is crucial to organize current knowledge and expert opinions regarding patient preparation, procedural techniques, and post-treatment care in TACE, which can enhance therapeutic efficacy and safety. A group of 12 experts in the fields of interventional radiology and hepatology, convened by the Research Committee of the Korean Liver Cancer Association (KLCA), has developed expert consensus-based practical recommendations in TACE. These recommendations have been endorsed by the Korean Society of Interventional Radiology and provide useful information and direction in performing TACE procedure as well as pre- and post- procedural patient care.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 733-743, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897465

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to develop a novel method for orthotopic colon cancer model, using tissue adhesive in place of conventional surgical method. @*Materials and Methods@#RFP HCT 116 cell line were used to establish the colon cancer model. Fresh tumor tissue harvested from a subcutaneous injection was grafted into twenty nude mice, divided into group A (suture method) and group B (tissue adhesive method). For the group A, we fixed the tissue on the serosa layer of proximal colon by 8-0 surgical suture. For the group B, tissue adhesive (10 μL) was used to fix the tumor. The mortality, tumor implantation success, tumor metastasis, primary tumor size, and operation time were compared between the two groups. Dissected tumor tissue was analyzed for the histology and immunohistochemistry. Also, we performed tumor marker analysis. @*Results@#We observed 30% increase in graft success and 20% decrease in mortality, by using tissue adhesive method, respectively. The median colon tumor size was significantly increased by 4 mm and operation time was shortened by 6.5 minutes. The H&E showed similar tumor structure between the two groups. The immunohistochemistry staining for cancer antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 20, and Ki-67 showed comparable intensities in both groups. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription analysis showed eight out of nine tumor markers are unchanged in the tissue adhesive group. Western blot indicated the tissue adhesive group expressed less p-JNK (apototic marker) and more p-MEK/p-p38 (proliferation marker) levels. @*Conclusion@#We concluded the tissue adhesive method is a quick and safe way to generate orthotopic, colon cancer model.

4.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 371-381, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893641

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of bronchial occluders in the treatment of postoperative bronchopleural fistula (BPF). @*Materials and Methods@#The subjects of the study were six out of seven postoperative BPF patients who underwent surgery due to tuberculosis or lung cancer between 2009 and 2019. Each patient had a bronchial occluder inserted to treat BPF that occurred after surgery. Of the six patients, five had lung cancers and one had tuberculosis. Five were male and one was female;their ages ranged from 59 to 74 years, with an average of 69 years. The diagnosis of BPF was based on findings from bronchoscopy and CT, and treatment was initiated approximately 1 to 2 weeks after diagnosis. The technical and clinical success of the bronchial occluders in the treatment of BPF was evaluated. The study assessed the postoperative clinical effects of the occluders, survival duration, and additional treatments. @*Results@#All six patients were successfully treated. Clinical success was achieved in five patients, while partial clinical success was achieved in one; there was no clinical failure. No complications during the migration of the device or device perforations were observed. Two patients were diagnosed with BPF by CT, while four were diagnosed by bronchoscopy. Lobectomy, bilobectomy, and pneumonectomy were performed on two patients each. The periods between surgery and diagnosis ranged from 1 to 34 months; the average was 10 months. Four patients (59–103 days; an average of 80.5 days) died and two (313 days, 3331 days) survived. The causes of death were aggravation of the underlying disease (n = 2), pulmonary edema and pleural effusion (n = 1), and pneumonia (n = 1). Additional catheter drainage was performed in one patient, and a chest tube was maintained in two patients. @*Conclusion@#Bronchial occluders are useful and effective in the treatment of BPF after pulmonary resection.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 733-743, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889761

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to develop a novel method for orthotopic colon cancer model, using tissue adhesive in place of conventional surgical method. @*Materials and Methods@#RFP HCT 116 cell line were used to establish the colon cancer model. Fresh tumor tissue harvested from a subcutaneous injection was grafted into twenty nude mice, divided into group A (suture method) and group B (tissue adhesive method). For the group A, we fixed the tissue on the serosa layer of proximal colon by 8-0 surgical suture. For the group B, tissue adhesive (10 μL) was used to fix the tumor. The mortality, tumor implantation success, tumor metastasis, primary tumor size, and operation time were compared between the two groups. Dissected tumor tissue was analyzed for the histology and immunohistochemistry. Also, we performed tumor marker analysis. @*Results@#We observed 30% increase in graft success and 20% decrease in mortality, by using tissue adhesive method, respectively. The median colon tumor size was significantly increased by 4 mm and operation time was shortened by 6.5 minutes. The H&E showed similar tumor structure between the two groups. The immunohistochemistry staining for cancer antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 20, and Ki-67 showed comparable intensities in both groups. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription analysis showed eight out of nine tumor markers are unchanged in the tissue adhesive group. Western blot indicated the tissue adhesive group expressed less p-JNK (apototic marker) and more p-MEK/p-p38 (proliferation marker) levels. @*Conclusion@#We concluded the tissue adhesive method is a quick and safe way to generate orthotopic, colon cancer model.

6.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 371-381, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901345

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of bronchial occluders in the treatment of postoperative bronchopleural fistula (BPF). @*Materials and Methods@#The subjects of the study were six out of seven postoperative BPF patients who underwent surgery due to tuberculosis or lung cancer between 2009 and 2019. Each patient had a bronchial occluder inserted to treat BPF that occurred after surgery. Of the six patients, five had lung cancers and one had tuberculosis. Five were male and one was female;their ages ranged from 59 to 74 years, with an average of 69 years. The diagnosis of BPF was based on findings from bronchoscopy and CT, and treatment was initiated approximately 1 to 2 weeks after diagnosis. The technical and clinical success of the bronchial occluders in the treatment of BPF was evaluated. The study assessed the postoperative clinical effects of the occluders, survival duration, and additional treatments. @*Results@#All six patients were successfully treated. Clinical success was achieved in five patients, while partial clinical success was achieved in one; there was no clinical failure. No complications during the migration of the device or device perforations were observed. Two patients were diagnosed with BPF by CT, while four were diagnosed by bronchoscopy. Lobectomy, bilobectomy, and pneumonectomy were performed on two patients each. The periods between surgery and diagnosis ranged from 1 to 34 months; the average was 10 months. Four patients (59–103 days; an average of 80.5 days) died and two (313 days, 3331 days) survived. The causes of death were aggravation of the underlying disease (n = 2), pulmonary edema and pleural effusion (n = 1), and pneumonia (n = 1). Additional catheter drainage was performed in one patient, and a chest tube was maintained in two patients. @*Conclusion@#Bronchial occluders are useful and effective in the treatment of BPF after pulmonary resection.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 298-305, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the technical feasibility of intranodal lymphangiography and thoracic duct (TD) access in a canine model.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five male mongrel dogs were studied. The dog was placed in the supine position, and the most prominent lymph node in the groin was accessed using a 26-gauge spinal needle under ultrasonography (US) guidance. If the cisterna chyli (CC) was not opacified by bilateral lymphangiography, the medial iliac lymph nodes were directly punctured and Lipiodol was injected. After opacification, the CC was directly punctured with a 22-gauge needle. A 0.018-in microguidewire was advanced through the CC and TD. A 4-Fr introducer and dilator were then advanced over the wire. The microguidewire was changed to a 0.035-in guidewire, and this was advanced into the left subclavian vein through the terminal valve of the TD. Retrograde TD access was performed using a snare kit.RESULTS: US-guided lymphangiography (including intranodal injection of Lipiodol [Guerbet]) was successful in all five dogs. However, in three of the five dogs (60%), the medial iliac lymph nodes were not fully opacified due to overt Lipiodol extravasation at the initial injection site. In these dogs, contralateral superficial inguinal intranodal injection was performed. However, two of these three dogs subsequently underwent direct medial iliac lymph node puncture under fluoroscopy guidance to deliver additional Lipiodol into the lymphatic system. Transabdominal CC puncture and cannulation with a 4-Fr introducer was successful in all five dogs. Transvenous retrograde catheterization of the TD (performed using a snare kit) was also successful in all five dogs.CONCLUSION: A canine model may be appropriate for intranodal lymphangiography and TD access. Most lymphatic intervention techniques can be performed in a canine using the same instruments that are employed in a clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Male , Catheterization , Catheters , Ethiodized Oil , Fluoroscopy , Groin , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic System , Lymphography , Needles , Punctures , SNARE Proteins , Subclavian Vein , Supine Position , Thoracic Duct , Ultrasonography
8.
Vascular Specialist International ; : 245-250, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786687

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is a well-known treatment for arteriovenous fistula stenosis. Balloon rupture during endovascular procedures is a rare but possible complication. The bursting balloon itself does not cause a serious problem, but it can occasionally cause entrapment, especially in case of breakdown of the balloon catheter tip. Here, we present four cases of balloon rupture during angioplasty in the hemodialysis circuit. In three cases, the ruptured balloon catheter was removed by cutdown of access conduit, while in one case, tip of ruptured balloon catheter was migrated into the pulmonary artery and was removed surgically. The operator must attempt to reduce the risk of balloon rupture by gradually expanding the balloons under bursting pressure. If the balloon bursts, it should not be removed excessively and attempt should be made to remove it using endovascular techniques. Surgical removal is considered after careful evaluation of the condition of the balloon and vessel.


Subject(s)
Angioplasty , Arteriovenous Fistula , Catheters , Constriction, Pathologic , Embolism , Endovascular Procedures , Pulmonary Artery , Renal Dialysis , Rupture
9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 916-930, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760272

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships of T2 *-corrected 6-echo Dixon volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) imaging-based fat fraction (FF) and R2 * values with bone mineral density (BMD); determine their associations with sex, age, and menopause; and evaluate the diagnostic performance of the FF and R2 * for predicting osteopenia and osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 153 subjects who had undergone magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including MR spectroscopy (MRS) and T2 *-corrected 6-echo Dixon VIBE imaging. The FF and R2 * were measured at the L4 vertebra. The male and female groups were divided into two subgroups according to age or menopause. Lin's concordance and Pearson's correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement, and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. RESULTS: The correlation between the spectroscopic and 6-echo Dixon VIBE imaging-based FF values was statistically significant for both readers (pc = 0.940 [reader 1], 0.908 [reader 2]; both p < 0.001). A small measurement bias was observed for the MRS-based FF for both readers (mean difference = −0.3% [reader 1], 0.1% [reader 2]). We found a moderate negative correlation between BMD and the FF (r = −0.411 [reader 1], −0.436 [reader 2]; both p <0.001) with younger men and premenopausal women showing higher correlations. R2 * and BMD were more significantly correlated in women than in men, and the highest correlation was observed in postmenopausal women (r = 0.626 [reader 1], 0.644 [reader 2]; both p < 0.001). For predicting osteopenia and osteoporosis, the FF had a higher AUC in men and R2 * had a higher AUC in women. The AUC for predicting osteoporosis was highest with a combination of the FF and R2 * in postmenopausal women (AUC = 0.872 [reader 1], 0.867 [reader 2]; both p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The FF and R2 * measured using T2 *-corrected 6-echo Dixon VIBE imaging can serve as predictors of osteopenia and osteoporosis. R2 * might be useful for predicting osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Area Under Curve , Bias , Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Bone Marrow , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Menopause , Osteoporosis , Spine
10.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 333-338, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916767

ABSTRACT

The authors report a successful outcome after percutaneous transabdominal placement of a self-expandable metallic stent in a patient who had afferent loop syndrome caused by recurrent common bile duct adenocarcinoma. Enhanced abdominal CT showed marked dilation of the afferent loop adjacent to the anterior peritoneum, multiple hepatic metastases and lymph node metastasis around the choledochojejunal anastomosis site without marked dilation of intrahepatic bile ducts. Percutaneous drainage catheter was successfully placed to the dilated afferent loop just below the abdominal wall. Subsequent successful palliation of the afferent loop obstruction was achieved by placing a self-expandable metallic stent via the transabdominal route with the aid of cone-beam CT.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1062-1071, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224180

ABSTRACT

Esophageal stents have been used to palliate patients with dysphagia caused by esophageal cancer. Early rigid plastic prostheses have been associated with a high risk of complications. However, with the development of self-expanding stents, it has developed into a widely accepted method for treating malignant esophageal strictures and esophagorespiratory fistulas (ERFs). The present review covers various aspects of self-expanding metallic stent placement for palliating esophageal cancer, including its types, placement procedures, indications, contraindications, complications, and some of innovations that will become available in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Constriction, Pathologic , Deglutition Disorders , Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophageal Stenosis , Fistula , Methods , Plastics , Prostheses and Implants , Stents
12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 657-661, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83658

ABSTRACT

Treatments for pure ground-glass nodules (GGNs) include limited resection; however, surgery is not always possible in patients with limited pulmonary functional reserve. In such patients, cryoablation may be a suitable alternative to treat a pure GGN. Here, we report our initial experience with cryoablation of a pure GGN that remained after repeated surgical resection in a patient with multiple GGNs. A 5-mm-sized pure GGN in the left lower lobe was cryoablated successfully without recurrence at the 6-month follow-up.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Cryosurgery/methods , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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