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1.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(2): 1-14, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254546

ABSTRACT

Captive animals, despite the constant care provided, are susceptible to infections from different sources. We herein report the natural trypanosome infection of 11 (28.2% positive) out of 39 non-human primates from 13 different species, in a Brazilian zoological park. Immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) ruled out Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. However, sequencing performed with positive samples employing hsp70 primers revealed similarities from 86% to 88% to diverse trypanosomes, including T. cruzi, Trypanosoma grayi, Trypanosoma lewisi, Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma vivax. We believe that the low similarity values obtained by sequencing reflect the difficulties in the molecular identification of trypanosomes, which share a large portion of their genetic material; this similarity may also preclude the diagnosis of co-infection by more than one trypanosome species. Thus, our study demonstrates the presence of diverse trypanosomes in primates, which are susceptible to infection by these parasites. Mechanical devices such as windows and bed nets, etc., are required to avoid vector insects in these environments, in addition to preventive quarantining of animals recently introduced into zoos. Therefore, investigation of the parasites in both the animals already residing in the zoo and those being introduced is of paramount importance, although no easy task.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Primates , Trypanosoma , Haplorhini , Chagas Disease
2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(5): 609-616, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345206

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate whether there is a relationship between diet quality and bone health in a group of elderly Brazilian women. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 105 elderly women. Participants were evaluated regarding diet quality (good, needing improvement, and poor) and its relationship with bone mineral density (BMD), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), and C-telopeptide (CTX). Results: Fifty eight participants (55.2%) presented a poor-quality diet and 47 (44.8%) required dietary improvements, while no subjects presented a good quality diet. The group requiring dietary improvements had lower CTX [0.35 (0.05;1.09) vs. 0.52 (0.10;1.45); p = 0.03)] and BSAP (38.7 ± 12.9 U/L vs. 46.10 ± 15.2 U/L; p < 0.01) levels than the poor-quality diet group. Groups did not differ in terms of BMD. Conclusion: In this group of elderly Brazilian women, there was a relationship between diet quality and bone health, where worse diet quality was associated with higher levels of bone remodelling markers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Bone and Bones , Bone Density , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Alkaline Phosphatase
3.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 567-574, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040356

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives on bone metabolism in adolescents for one year. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. The adolescents were divided into three groups: oral contraceptives 1 (n = 42) (20 µg EE/150 µg desogestrel), oral contraceptives 2 (n = 66) (30 µg EE/3 mg drospirenone), and a control group (n = 70). Adolescents underwent anthropometric assessment and densitometry (dual-energy X-ray). Bone age and bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) were evaluated. The oral contraceptives users were evaluated again after 12 months. Linear regression analysis was used to indirectly study the effect of each additional year of chronological age on anthropometric and densitometric variables as well as on bone markers in the control group. Results: At study entry, no significant differences were observed between the oral contraceptives 1, oral contraceptives 2, and controls in the analyzed variables. Linear regression analysis showed an increase in bone mineral density and bone mineral content for each additional year. There was a significant reduction in bone alkaline phosphatase levels; no significant difference was observed for osteocalcin in control individuals. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray variables at baseline and after one year showed no significant differences in the oral contraceptives 1 or oral contraceptives 2 groups. A significant reduction in bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels was observed in both the oral contraceptives 1 and oral contraceptives 2 groups. Conclusion: Adolescent women gain peak bone mass during this phase of life. Two low-dose combined oral hormonal contraceptives were associated with lower bone gain and lower bone formation markers than in untreated controls.


Resumo: Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de dois contraceptivos orais combinados de baixa dosagem por um ano sobre o metabolismo ósseo em adolescentes. Métodos: Este foi um estudo quase experimental. As adolescentes foram divididas em três grupos: contraceptivos orais 1 (n = 42) (20 µg de EE/150 µg de desogestrel), contraceptivos orais 2 (n = 66) (30 µg EE/3 mg de drospirenona) e grupo controle (n = 70). As adolescentes foram submetidas à avaliação antropométrica e densitometria (raio-X de dupla energia). Foram avaliados a idade óssea e os marcadores de formação óssea (osteocalcina e fosfatase alcalina óssea). As usuárias de contraceptivos orais foram novamente avaliadas após 12 meses. A análise de regressão linear foi utilizada para estudar, indiretamente, o efeito de cada ano adicional da idade cronológica sobre as variáveis antropométricas e densitométricas e sobre os marcadores ósseos no grupo de controle. Resultados: No início do estudo, não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis analisadas entre as usuárias de contraceptivos orais 1, contraceptivos orais 2 e o grupo controle. A análise de regressão linear mostrou um aumento na densidade mineral óssea e no conteúdo mineral ósseo para cada ano adicional. Houve uma redução significativa nos níveis de fosfatase alcalina óssea e não foi observada diferença significativa para osteocalcina nos indivíduos controles. A comparação das variáveis do raio-X de dupla energia no início e após um ano não mostrou diferença significativa no grupo de contraceptivos orais 1 ou contraceptivos orais 2. Foi observada uma redução significativa nos níveis de fosfatase alcalina óssea e osteocalcina nos dois grupos contraceptivos orais 1 e contraceptivos orais 2. Conclusão: As adolescentes atingiram o pico de massa óssea durante essa fase da vida. Duas formulações de contraceptivos hormonais orais de baixa dosagem, após um ano de uso, se associaram a menor incremento na densidade mineral óssea e menor concentração de marcadores de formação óssea quando confrontados com resultados de adolescentes não usuárias de contraceptivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Bone Density/drug effects , Desogestrel/administration & dosage , Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Ethinyl Estradiol/administration & dosage , Androstenes/administration & dosage , Osteogenesis/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Bone Density/physiology , Linear Models , Osteocalcin/analysis , Anthropometry , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(5): e20180067, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990118

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects that prone and supine positioning during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) have on oxygenation and lung inflammation, histological injury, and oxidative stress in a rabbit model of acute lung injury (ALI). Methods: Thirty male Norfolk white rabbits were induced to ALI by tracheal saline lavage (30 mL/kg, 38°C). The injury was induced during conventional mechanical ventilation, and ALI was considered confirmed when a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 100 mmHg was reached. Rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: HFOV in the supine position (SP group, n = 15); and HFOV with prone positioning (PP group, n = 15). For HFOV, the mean airway pressure was initially set at 16 cmH2O. At 30, 60, and 90 min after the start of the HFOV protocol, the mean airway pressure was reduced to 14, 12, and 10 cmH2O, respectively. At 120 min, the animals were returned to or remained in the supine position for an extra 30 min. We evaluated oxygenation indices and histological lung injury scores, as well as TNF-α levels in BAL fluid and lung tissue. Results: After ALI induction, all of the animals showed significant hypoxemia, decreased respiratory system compliance, decreased oxygenation, and increased mean airway pressure in comparison with the baseline values. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups, at any of the time points evaluated, in terms of the PaO2 or oxygenation index. However, TNF-α levels in BAL fluid were significantly lower in the PP group than in the SP group, as were histological lung injury scores. Conclusions: Prone positioning appears to attenuate inflammatory and histological lung injury during HFOV in rabbits with ALI.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os efeitos das posições prona e supina durante ventilação oscilatória de alta frequência (VOAF) sobre oxigenação e inflamação pulmonar, lesão histológica e estresse oxidativo em um modelo de lesão pulmonar aguda (LPA) em coelhos. Métodos: Trinta coelhos Norfolk machos brancos foram submetidos à LPA por meio de lavagem traqueal com salina (30 ml/kg, 38°C). A lesão foi induzida durante a ventilação mecânica convencional, e a LPA foi considerada confirmada na presença de relação PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg. Os coelhos foram aleatoriamente divididos em dois grupos: VOAF em posição supina (grupo PS, n = 15); e VOAF em posição prona (grupo PP, n = 15). Para a VOAF, a pressão média das vias aéreas foi inicialmente estabelecida em 16 cmH2O. No 30º, 60º e 90º min após o início do protocolo de VOAF, a pressão média das vias aéreas foi reduzida para 14, 12 e 10 cmH2O, respectivamente. No 120º min, os animais foram recolocados ou permaneceram na posição supina por mais 30 min. Foram avaliados os índices de oxigenação e escores histológicos de lesão pulmonar, bem como os níveis de TNF-α em lavado broncoalveolar e tecido pulmonar. Resultados: Após a indução da LPA, todos os animais apresentaram hipoxemia significativa, diminuição da complacência do sistema respiratório, diminuição da oxigenação e aumento da pressão média das vias aéreas em comparação aos valores basais. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os dois grupos, em nenhum dos momentos avaliados, quanto a PaO2 e índice de oxigenação. Entretanto, os níveis de TNF-α no lavado broncoalveolar foram significativamente menores no grupo PP que no grupo PS, assim como os escores histológicos de lesão pulmonar. Conclusões: A posição prona parece atenuar a lesão pulmonar inflamatória e histológica durante a VOAF em coelhos com LPA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , High-Frequency Ventilation/methods , Supine Position/physiology , Prone Position/physiology , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Oxygen/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , High-Frequency Ventilation/adverse effects , Lipid Peroxidation , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Oxidative Stress , Models, Animal , Acute Lung Injury/pathology
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190133, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020438

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) is an important public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Aging and obesity are important matters in patients with CD, as is hypovitaminosis D3, which can decrease the quality of life of these patients. Immunomodulation mediated by vitamin D3, especially the production of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin LL-37, might be related to the severity and symptoms of CD. This study aimed to determine the serum levels of vitamin D and LL-37 and VDR gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic CD. METHODS: This study included male patients with cardiac and indeterminate clinical forms of CD. Clinical, anthropometric, and blood parameters were obtained. Serum levels of 25(OH)D3 and LL-37 were determined by chemiluminescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively. Fok (rs731236), Bsm (rs1544410), Apa (rs7975232), and Taq (rs731236) polymorphisms of the VDR gene were investigated by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were included in the study: 18 of the cardiac form and 46 of the indeterminate form. No differences in age, ethnicity, BMI, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemias were observed between groups. However, the serum levels of 25(OH)D3, but not of LL-37, were lower in the cardiac form group. The association among polymorphisms, vitamin D, and clinical form was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased levels of vitamin D suggest an association with the cardiac form of CD. Studies investigating the roles of vitamin D and LL-37 in the immune response and their associations with VDR polymorphisms and disease susceptibility are necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Chagas Disease/genetics , Chagas Disease/blood , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Cholecalciferol/blood , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Middle Aged
6.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 36(3): 286-291, jul.-set. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977060

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se o conteúdo de gordura e o valor energético estimado no colostro diferem em função da idade gestacional e do crescimento fetal. Métodos: Estudo transversal com mães de recém-nascidos pré-termo e a termo nascidos em centro terciário em 2015-2016. Critério de inclusão: gestação única, sem diabetes, corioamnionite e mastite, sem uso de drogas ilícitas e álcool, ausência de malformação ou infecção congênita fetal. Foram constituídos quatro grupos conforme idade gestacional e crescimento fetal: pré-termo pequeno para a idade gestacional (n=33); pré-termo adequado (n=60); a termo pequeno (n=59) e a termo adequado para a idade gestacional (controle, n=73). O colostro foi coletado por extração manual entre 24 e 72 h pós-parto. Foram analisadas variáveis gestacionais e de nascimento. Os desfechos foram o conteúdo de gordura no colostro, pelo método do crematócrito, e o valor energético estimado. Na comparação entre grupos foram utilizados os testes do qui-quadrado ou Exato de Fisher, ANOVA e regressão linear multivariada. Resultados: A idade gestacional média foi de 34 semanas nos neonatos pré-termo e 39 semanas nos a termo. O crematócrito não diferiu entre os grupos, com valores médios de 3,3 a 4,0%; e o valor energético estimado foi de 52 a 56 kcal/dL. Crematócrito ≥4% foi mais frequente no grupo a termo pequeno para idade gestacional. Apenas no grupo de recém-nascidos pré-termo pequenos para a idade gestacional houve correlação entre crematócrito e índice de massa corpórea materno. Conclusões: O conteúdo de gordura e o valor energético estimado do colostro não diferiram em função da idade gestacional e do crescimento fetal.


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether fat content and energy value change in colostrum according to gestational age and fetal growth. Methods: Cross-sectional study with mothers of preterm and term infants born in a tertiary center in 2015-2016. Inclusion criteria: single pregnancy, absence of diabetes, chorioamnionitis and mastitis, no use of illicit drugs or alcohol, without fetal congenital malformation or infection. Four groups were formed according to gestational age and fetal growth: preterm infants small for gestational age (PT-SGA; n=33) and appropriate for gestational age (PT-AGA; n=60), term infants small for gestational age (T-SGA; n=59) and appropriate for gestational age (T-AGA; control, n=73). Colostrum was collected between 24-72 hours postpartum. Gestational and birth variables were analyzed. Outcome variables were: fat content in colostrum (evaluated by crematocrit method) and estimated energy value. Chi-square or Fisher exact tests, ANOVA, and multivariable linear regression were used for comparison among groups. Results: Mean gestational age was 34 weeks in preterm infants and 39 weeks in term neonates. Crematocrit did not differ between groups, with mean values varying between 3.3 and 4.0%; estimated energy value was 52 to 56 kcal/dL. Crematocrit ≥4% was more frequent in the T-SGA group. Only in the PT-SGA group there was a correlation between crematocrit and body mass index of the mother. Conclusions: The fat content and energy value of colostrum did not change according to gestational age or fetal growth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Young Adult , Gestational Age , Colostrum/chemistry , Fetal Development/physiology , Lipids/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 29(4): 427-435, out.-dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899533

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os efeitos da ventilação oscilatória de alta frequência e da ventilação mecânica convencional protetora associadas à posição prona quanto à oxigenação, à histologia e ao dano oxidativo pulmonar em modelo experimental de lesão pulmonar aguda. Métodos: Foram instrumentados com traqueostomia, acessos vasculares e ventilados mecanicamente 45 coelhos. A lesão pulmonar aguda foi induzida por infusão traqueal de salina aquecida. Foram formados três grupos experimentais: animais sadios + ventilação mecânica convencional protetora, em posição supina (Grupo Controle; n = 15); animais com lesão pulmonar aguda + ventilação mecânica convencional protetora, posição prona (GVMC; n = 15); animais com lesão pulmonar aguda + ventilação oscilatória de alta frequência, posição prona (GVAF; n = 15). Após 10 minutos do início da ventilação específica de cada grupo, foi coletada gasometria arterial, sendo este momento denominado tempo zero, após o qual o animal foi colocado em posição prona, permanecendo assim por 4 horas. O estresse oxidativo foi avaliado pelo método de capacidade antioxidante total. A lesão tecidual pulmonar foi determinada por escore histopatológico. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: Ambos os grupos com lesão pulmonar aguda apresentaram piora da oxigenação após a indução da lesão comparados ao Grupo Controle. Após 4 horas, houve melhora significante da oxigenação no grupo GVAF comparado ao GVMC. A análise da capacidade antioxidante total no plasma mostrou maior proteção no GVAF. O GVAF apresentou menor escore de lesão histopatológica no tecido pulmonar que o GVMC. Conclusão: A ventilação oscilatória de alta frequência, associada à posição prona, melhora a oxigenação, e atenua o dano oxidativo e a lesão pulmonar histopatológica, comparada com ventilação mecânica convencional protetora.


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and conventional protective mechanical ventilation associated with the prone position on oxygenation, histology and pulmonary oxidative damage in an experimental model of acute lung injury. Methods: Forty-five rabbits with tracheostomy and vascular access were underwent mechanical ventilation. Acute lung injury was induced by tracheal infusion of warm saline. Three experimental groups were formed: healthy animals + conventional protective mechanical ventilation, supine position (Control Group; n = 15); animals with acute lung injury + conventional protective mechanical ventilation, prone position (CMVG; n = 15); and animals with acute lung injury + high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, prone position (HFOG; n = 15). Ten minutes after the beginning of the specific ventilation of each group, arterial gasometry was collected, with this timepoint being called time zero, after which the animal was placed in prone position and remained in this position for 4 hours. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the total antioxidant performance assay. Pulmonary tissue injury was determined by histopathological score. The level of significance was 5%. Results: Both groups with acute lung injury showed worsening of oxygenation after induction of injury compared with the Control Group. After 4 hours, there was a significant improvement in oxygenation in the HFOG group compared with CMVG. Analysis of total antioxidant performance in plasma showed greater protection in HFOG. HFOG had a lower histopathological lesion score in lung tissue than CMVG. Conclusion: High-frequency oscillatory ventilation, associated with prone position, improves oxygenation and attenuates oxidative damage and histopathological lung injury compared with conventional protective mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Respiration, Artificial/methods , High-Frequency Ventilation/methods , Oxidative Stress , Acute Lung Injury/therapy , Oxygen/metabolism , Rabbits , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , Prone Position , Acute Lung Injury/physiopathology , Antioxidants/metabolism
8.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954842

ABSTRACT

Background The present study evaluated the effect of treatment with benznidazole on mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-10, TGF-β and FoxP3 in spleen and heart tissue of BALB/c mice in the acute phase of an experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, strains JLP or Y. Methods The mRNA expression of cytokines and parasite load were assessed by q-PCR. Dependent groups were compared using Student's paired t-test and independent groups were compared using Student's unpaired t-test. Results Infection with the JLP or Y strains increased expression of IFN-γ in the heart and of IL-10 and IL-17 in the spleen and heart compared to uninfected animals. Treatment increased the expression of IFN-γ and decreased the expression of IL-17, IL-10, TGF- β and Foxp3 in spleen and heart tissue compared to untreated infected animals. Conclusion Benznidazole can induce Th1 profile in the initial of the acute phase. The treatment decreased the parasite load in both organs, although the number of parasites in Y-strain-infected mice remained high. The data suggest that benznidazole may modulate cytokine expression in infection and can be dependent of the strain. However, treatment was not fully effective in the infection provoked by Y strain, probably due to the characteristics of the strain itself.(AU)


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cytokines , Interferons , Chagas Disease , Parasite Load , Immunity
9.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 90(6): 624-631, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-729835

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescent females according to five groups of chronological age (CA), bone age (BA), and breast development stage (B), and to correlate these parameters with plasma bone biomarkers (BB). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study performed in 101 healthy adolescent females between 10 and 20 years old. The study variables were: weight, height, body mass index (BMI), CA, B, BA, calcium intake, BMD, and BB. Osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C-terminal telopeptide (S-CTx) were evaluated for BB. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: BMD in lumbar spine, proximal femur, and total body increased with age, and the respective observed averages were: in CA1 (10 years old), 0.631, 0.692, 0.798 g/cm2; in CA2 (11 to 12 years old), 0.698, 0.763, 0.840 g/cm2; in CA3 (13 to 14 years old), 0.865, 0.889, 0.972 g/cm2; in CA4 (15 to 16 years old), 0.902, 0.922, 1.013 g/cm2; and in CA5 (17 to 19 years old), 0.944, 0.929, 1.35 g/cm2. These results showed significant differences between 13 and 14 years of age (CA3) or when girls reached the B3 stage (0.709, 0.832, 0.867 g/cm2). The highest median concentrations of BB were between 10 and 12 years of age when adolescents were in the B2-B3 (p < 0.001). Median BB concentrations decreased in advanced BA and B. CONCLUSIONS: BB concentrations were positively correlated with the peak height velocity and negatively correlated with BMD in the study sites. Increased BMD and BB concentrations were observed in B3. .


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a densidade mineral óssea (DMO) em adolescentes do sexo feminino de acordo com a idade cronológica (IC), idade óssea (IO) e desenvolvimento das mamas (M) e suas correlações com biomarcadores de remodelação óssea em plasma (BO). MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo transversal prospectivo feito em 101 adolescentes saudáveis do sexo feminino com idade entre 10 e 20 anos. As variáveis estudadas foram: peso, altura, índice de massa corpórea (IMC), IC, IO, M, ingestão de cálcio, DMO e BO. A osteocalcina (OC), fosfatase alcalina óssea (BAP) e o telopeptídeo C terminal (S-CTx) foram os biomarcadores de remodelação óssea avaliados. A DMO foi obtida por absorciometria de raios-X de dupla energia (DXA). RESULTADOS: A DMO de coluna lombar, fêmur proximal e corpo total aumentou com a idade, e as respectivas médias observadas foram: IC1 = 0,631, 0.692, 0,798 g/cm2; IC2, 0,698, 0,763, 0,840 g/cm2; IC3, 0,865, 0,889, 0,972 g/cm2; IC4, 0,902, 0,922, 1,013 g/cm2; e IC5, 0,944, 0,929, 1,35 g/cm2. Observou-se diferença significativa entre 13 e 14 anos (IC3) ou quando as meninas estavam em M3 (0,709, 0,832, 0,867 g/cm2). Os valores dos BO apresentaram elevação entre 10 e 12 anos e quando as adolescentes estavam em M2-M3 (p < 0,001). Os valores das medianas dos BO diminuíram com o avançar da IO e M. CONCLUSÕES: Os BOs mostraram paralelismo com o pico de velocidade de crescimento e demonstraram correlação negativa com a DMO no sítios avaliados. O aumento da DMO e dos BOs foi observado em M3. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Bone Density/physiology , Breast/physiology , Puberty/physiology , Age Factors , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Body Mass Index , Biomarkers/blood , Bone Remodeling/physiology , Breast/growth & development , Cross-Sectional Studies , Osteocalcin/blood , Prospective Studies , Students
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 24(2): 130-136, abr.-jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-644642

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Examinar o comportamento da interleucina-12 e verificar se pode ser utilizada para diferenciar condições sépticas em crianças. MÉTODOS: Foram inscritas, de forma prospectiva, entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2005, crianças com idades de 28 dias a 14 anos, subdivididas nos grupos sepse (SG; n=47) e choque séptico (SSG; n=43). A interleucina-12 foi avaliada quando da admissão (T0) e 12 horas mais tarde (T12). A gravidade da doença foi avaliada utilizando o escore PRISM. RESULTADOS: A interleucina-12 não diferenciou crianças com sepse das com choque séptico quando da admissão [SSG: 0,24 (0-22,64)=SG: 1,23 (0-511,6); p=0,135)] e na avaliação T12 [SG: 6,11 (0-230,5)=SSG: 1,32 (0-61,0); p=0,1239)]. Na comparação entre os momentos, não foi observada diferença estatística para SG [SG, T0: 1,23 (0-511,6)=T12: 6,11 (0-230,5); p=0,075]. Entretanto, em casos de SSG, a interleucina-12 aumentou entre as avaliações T0 e T12 [SSG, T0: 0,24 (0-226,4)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the behavior of interleukin-12 and verify whether it can be used to differentiate septic conditions in children. METHODS: Septic children aged between 28 days and 14 years, prospectively enrolled from 01/2004 to 12/2005, were divided into sepsis (SG; n=47) and septic shock (SSG; n=43) groups. Interleukin-12 levels were measured at admission (T0) and 12 hours later (T12). Disease severity was assessed by the PRISM score. RESULTS: Interleukin-12 levels did not differentiate children with sepsis from those with septic shock at admission [SSG: 0.24 (0-226.4)=SG: 1.23 (0-511.6); p=0.135)] and T12 [SG: 6.11 (0-230.5)=SSG: 1.32 (0-61.0); p=0.1239)]. Comparing time points, no significant difference was observed in the SG [SG, T0: 1.23 (0-511.6)=T12: 6.11 (0-230.5); p=0.075]. In SSG however, interleukin-12 increased from T0 to T12 (SSG, T0: 0.24 (0-226.4)

11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(3): 516-524, maio-jun. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-592175

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioidomicose é a mais prevalente micose sistêmica na América Latina, em pacientes imunocompetentes, sendo causada pelo fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioiddes brasiliensis. O estudo da sua imunopatogênese é importante na compreensão de aspectos relacionados à história natural, como a imunidade protetora, e à relação entre hospedeiro e parasita, favorecendo o entendimento clínico e a elaboração de estratégias terapêuticas. O polimorfismo clínico da doença depende, em última análise, do perfil de resposta imune que prevalece expresso pelo padrão de citocinas teciduais e circulantes, além da qualidade da resposta imune desencadeada, que levam ao dano tecidual.


Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America, among immunecompetent patients. It's caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioiddes brasiliensis. Investigations regarding its immunopathogenesis are very important in the understanding of aspects related to natural history, as the protective immunity, and the relationship between host and parasite; also favoring the knowledge about clinical patterns and the elaboration of therapeutic strategies. The disease clinical polymorphism depends, at least, of the immune response profile according to the tissue and blood released citokynes, resulting in tissue damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines/immunology , Paracoccidioides/physiology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/immunology , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Paracoccidioides/immunology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/pathology , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 13(6): 381-386, nov.-dez. 2007. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-487266

ABSTRACT

O crescente interesse de crianças e adolescentes por esportes competitivos induz a uma maior preocupação em prescrever treinamentos adequados a essa população específica. O conhecimento do impacto da intensidade de treinamento físico competitivo sobre a saúde de adolescentes são ainda incipientes na literatura científica. Este estudo objetivou investigar as respostas agudas do lactato sanguíneo (Lac) e da creatinofosfoquinase (CPK) após uma sessão de treinamento físico em atletas jovens treinados em diferentes modalidades esportivas. Participaram 43 adolescentes do sexo masculino entre 9 e 17 anos, distribuídos em três grupos: nadadores, tenistas, jogadores de futebol de salão. Os protocolos para cada modalidade seguiram o planejamento normal de uma sessão específica. A dieta no dia anterior à coleta foi padronizada e as 24 horas que precediam a avaliação foram dedicadas ao repouso dos atletas. Foram coletados 5ml de sangue da veia antecubital imediatamente antes da realização da sessão de treinamento, repetindo coleta idêntica, imediatamente após a sessão. Foi obtida a idade óssea para a avaliação da maturação esquelética pelo método de Greulich & Pyle. Análise de variância Kruskal-Wallis e teste U-de Mann-Whitney foram utilizados para comparações entre os grupos. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significantes. Em todas as modalidades esportivas estudadas os valores prévios do Lac e da CPK foram inferiores aos valores pós-sessão. Com relação aos três grupos de faixas etárias, tanto para o Lac como para a CPK, os valores na pré-sessão foram inferiores aos obtidos na pós-sessão, assinalando que para o grupo de 9 aos 11 anos, tanto na situação pré como na pós, os valores foram inferiores aos observados nos grupos de idade superior. Os resultados indicaram que a magnitude de aumento da CPK e do Lac foram similares aos valores encontrados na literatura e demonstraram um aumento em função da faixa etária, indicando ser maturação biológica dependente.


The growing interest of children and adolescents in competitive sports demands a higher concern with suitable training prescription to this specific population. The knowledge of the impact of the competitive physical training intensity over the young population's health is still scarce in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine acute responses in blood lactate (Lac) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentration after a physical training session with young athletes trained in different sports modalities. Forty-three male adolescents (aged 9-17 years) were divided in three groups: swimmers, tennis players, and indoor soccer players. There were no changes in rules or procedures before or after the practice session. Diet and activity (no exercise) were standardized during the twenty-four hours before the evaluation. Venous blood samples (5 mL) were collected from the antecubital vein immediately before and after the training session. The bone age was obtained through the Greulich & Pyle method and was analyzed for skeleton maturity grading. Statistical analysis included Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis and Mann-Whitney U test (alpha was set at 0.05). Both Lac and CPK were higher post-session than pre-session in all sports studied. Age appeared to influence Lac and CPK concentration. The age group between nine and eleven years old had lower values compared to the older group, both pre- and post-session. The increases in CPK and Lac with exercise are similar to the findings previously reported in the literature. Moreover, CPK and Lac are higher with older chronological age. Thus, it is possible to demonstrate that Lac and CPK have a positive correlation to bone maturation and chronological age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Athletes , Lactic Acid/analysis , Creatine Kinase/analysis , Exercise , Soccer , Swimming , Tennis
13.
Reprod. clim ; 18: 15-20, 2003. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-392130

ABSTRACT

Avaliar a função ovariana, em mulheres na menacme submetidas a histerectomia total abdominal (HTA), por meio de parâmetros clínicos e hormonais. Estudou-se, prospectivamente, 61 mulheres, idade inferior ou igual a 40 anos, divididas em: G1, 31 pacientes submetidas à HTA e, G2, 30 mulheres normais. Critérios de inclusão: eumenorreicas, ovulatórias, não obesas ou fumantes, sem cirurgias prévias ou endocrinopatias, com FSH basal inferior 15 mIU/ml. Dosagens de FSH, LH, estradiol (E2) e inibina B, e o Valor de Maturação (VM) pela colpocitologia foram realizados inicialmente e com 6 e 12 meses. Para análise estatística empregou-se Teste t de Student. Análise de Perfil, Teste de Friedman e Teste de Mann-Whitney. Na comparação estatística inicial grupos foram homogêneos. Nas pacientes submetidas a HTA verificou-se que, aos 6 e 12 meses, ocorreu redução dos valores medianos da inibina B e aumento de E2 (p<0,05), sem alterar FSH e LH, além de diminuição do VM (p<0,05). Nestas 12,9 por cento (4/31) apresentaram FSH>40mIU/ml, estradiol <20pg/ml e inibina B<5ng, compatíveis com falência ovariana. No grupo controle não alterou nenhum desses parâmetros. A histerectomia total abdominal parece acelerar o declínio da função ovariana em mulheres na menacme.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Hysterectomy , Ovarian Function Tests/adverse effects
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 59(1): 6-10, Mar. 2001. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-284229

ABSTRACT

Depressed natural killer (NK) cell activity has been showed in family members of patients with different types of cancer. The present work aimed to evaluate T cell subsets and NK cell cytotoxic activity in 15 members of a family with high incidence of tumors, such as glioblastoma, gastric, pancreas and colon rectal carcinoma, chronic myelocitic leukemia, melanoma and osteoblastoma. As controls, 19 healthy subjects with the age range equivalent were studied. The enumeration of CD3+ lymphocytes and their CD4+ and CD8+ subsets were defined by monoclonal antibodies and NK cell cytotoxicity towards K562 target cells were evaluated by single cell-assay. The results showed in family members low percentage of total T cells (CD3+), and their CD4+ subset and impairment of CD4/CD8 ratio in relation to control group. All family members presented percentage of NK-target cell conjugate formation bellow the minimum value observed in control group. Thirteen people were examined and followed up during five years, in order to assure that there was no undiagnosed or unsuspected disease at the moment of evaluation. One of them developed osteoblastoma and other malignant melanoma. Two cancer patients, with glioblastoma and chronic myelocytic leukemia were studied during illness. All the corresponding values were comparable. The persistence of low percentage of conjugate formation may be related to a defect on adhesion molecules expression in the surface of NK cells that was probably responsible for the low activity of these cells presented by the family group. Thus, the inheritance mechanism of low adherence of NK cells should have a prognostic value in determining the risk of developing tumors


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , CD3 Complex/immunology , CD4 Antigens/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic , Glioblastoma/genetics , Glioblastoma/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets , Neoplasms/genetics , Pedigree , Statistics, Nonparametric
15.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 40(3): 125-35, May-Jun. 1998. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-224944

ABSTRACT

Fungos patogênicos causadores de micoses sistemicas possuem vários fatores que permitem seu crescimento nas condiçöes adversas oferecidas pelo hospedeiro, propiciando o estabelecimento da relaçäo parasitária e contribuindo no processo de doença. Esses fatores säo conhecidos como fatores de virulencia auxiliando no desenvolvimento da infecçäo e interferindo com a patogenese das micoses. O presente trabalho avalia os fatores de virulencia em fungos patogenicos como Blastomyces dermatitis, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum e Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, em relaçäo a termotolerancia, dimorfismo, componentes da parede celular ou capsula, bem como a producao de enzimas...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacterial Infections and Mycoses/virology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/analysis , Blastomycosis/virology , Cell Wall/virology , Coccidioides/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Bacterial Infections and Mycoses/enzymology , Bacterial Infections and Mycoses/parasitology , Biomarkers/analysis , Host-Parasite Interactions
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