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Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37802


We have previously shown that the flowers of neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family Meliaceae), Thai variety, strongly induced the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) while resulting in a significant reduction in the activities of some cytochrome P(450)-dependent monooxygenases in rat liver, and possess cancer chemopreventive potential against chemically-induced mammary gland and liver carcinogenesis in rats. In the present study, 2 chemicals possessing strong QR inducing activity were fractionated from neem flowers using a bioassay based on the induction of QR activity in mouse hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cultured cells. Spectroscopic characteristics revealed that these compounds were nimbolide and chlorophylls, having CD (concentration required to double QR specific activity) values of 0.16 and 3.8 mug/ml, respectively. Nimbolide is a known constituent of neem leaves, but was found for the first time here in the flowers. Both nimbolide and chlorophylls strongly enhanced the level of QR mRNA in Hepa 1c1c7 cells, as monitored by northern blot hybridization, indicating that the mechanism by which these constituents of neem flowers induced QR activity is the induction of QR gene expression. These findings may have implication on cancer chemopreventive potential of neem flowers in experimental rats previously reported.

Animals , Azadirachta/chemistry , Biological Assay , Blotting, Northern , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Chlorophyll/isolation & purification , Enzyme Induction , Flowers , Limonins/isolation & purification , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Mice , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)/biosynthesis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tumor Cells, Cultured
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37384


Seventeen samples of tap water in Bangkok and 2 neighboring provinces were collected in winter and summer, concentrated and tested for mutagenic activity using the Ames Salmonella mutagenesis assay. Preliminary results demonstrated that concentrated tap water exhibited clear mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA100 and YG1029, but not towards TA98 and YG1024, in the absence of S9 mix, and the addition of S9 mix markedly decreased the mutagenicity to both tester strains. Amberlite( ) XAD-2 resin, but not blue rayon, was able to adsorb mutagens from water at pH 2. Our data clearly demonstrated that all tap water samples prepared by chlorination of Chao Phraya River water were mutagenic to strain TA100 without S9 mix, inducing 3,351 + 741 and 2,216 + 770 revertants/l, in winter and summer, respectively. On the other hand, however, tap water samples prepared from ground water were not mutagenic. Furthermore, it was found that boiling for only 5 min and filtration through home purifying system containing activated charcoal and mixed resin units were very effective to abolish the mutagenicity of water. Storage of water also significantly decreased the mutagenicity, however, it took 2-3 weeks to totally abolish it. Additionally, we also found 1 out of 6 brands of commercially available bottled drinking water to be mutagenic, with about 26 % of the average mutagenicity of tap water. The results in the present study clearly demonstrated that chlorinated tap water in Bangkok and neighboring provinces contain direct-acting mutagens causing capable of causing base-pair substitution. Boiling and filtration of tap water through home purifying systems may be the most effective means to abolish the mutagenicity. Some brands of commercial bottled waters may also contain mutagens which may be derived from tap water.

Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Mutagenicity Tests/methods , Mutagens/adverse effects , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Seasons , Thailand/epidemiology , Water Pollutants/adverse effects , Water Purification/methods , Water Supply/analysis