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1.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 249-256, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897165

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aims of this study were to develop a new instrument for measuring self-management with a hierarchical structure [the Diabetes Self-Management Scale (DSMS)] in patients with type 2 diabetes, and evaluate its psychometric properties. @*Methods@#The DSMS instrument was developed in three phases: (1) conceptualization and item generation; (2) content validity and pilot testing; and (3) field testing of its psychometric properties. A convenience sample of 473 participants was recruited in three university hospitals and one regional health center, South Korea. @*Results@#Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded two second-order component models explaining the common variance among six first-order factors. Principal axis factoring with a varimax rotation accounted for 60.88% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis of the hierarchical structure revealed the following fit indices: χ2/df = 1.373, standardized root-mean-square residual = .050, goodness-of-fit index = .935, incremental fit index = .975, comparative fit index = .974, and root-mean-square error of approximation = .039. All Cronbach' α values for internal consistency exceeded the criterion of .70. All of the intraclass correlation coefficients for test–retest reliability exceeded .70 except that for the taking-medication subscale. The components of the DSMS were moderately correlated with the comparator measures of self-efficacy and health literacy administered for convergent validity. @*Conclusion@#The DSMS is a new instrument for measuring the complex nature of self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes, comprising 17 items scored on a five-point Likert scale. The DSMS exhibits satisfactory psychometric properties for five reliability and validity metrics, and so is a suitable instrument to apply in both research and clinical practices.

2.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 249-256, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889461

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aims of this study were to develop a new instrument for measuring self-management with a hierarchical structure [the Diabetes Self-Management Scale (DSMS)] in patients with type 2 diabetes, and evaluate its psychometric properties. @*Methods@#The DSMS instrument was developed in three phases: (1) conceptualization and item generation; (2) content validity and pilot testing; and (3) field testing of its psychometric properties. A convenience sample of 473 participants was recruited in three university hospitals and one regional health center, South Korea. @*Results@#Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded two second-order component models explaining the common variance among six first-order factors. Principal axis factoring with a varimax rotation accounted for 60.88% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis of the hierarchical structure revealed the following fit indices: χ2/df = 1.373, standardized root-mean-square residual = .050, goodness-of-fit index = .935, incremental fit index = .975, comparative fit index = .974, and root-mean-square error of approximation = .039. All Cronbach' α values for internal consistency exceeded the criterion of .70. All of the intraclass correlation coefficients for test–retest reliability exceeded .70 except that for the taking-medication subscale. The components of the DSMS were moderately correlated with the comparator measures of self-efficacy and health literacy administered for convergent validity. @*Conclusion@#The DSMS is a new instrument for measuring the complex nature of self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes, comprising 17 items scored on a five-point Likert scale. The DSMS exhibits satisfactory psychometric properties for five reliability and validity metrics, and so is a suitable instrument to apply in both research and clinical practices.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk for dementia. The effects of hypoglycemia on dementia are controversial. Thus, we evaluated whether hypoglycemia increases the risk for dementia in senior patients with T2DM.METHODS: We used the Korean National Health Insurance Service Senior cohort, which includes >10% of the entire senior population of South Korea. In total, 5,966 patients who had ever experienced at least one episode of hypoglycemia were matched with those who had not, using propensity score matching. The risk of dementia was assessed through a survival analysis of matched pairs.RESULTS: Patients with underlying hypoglycemic events had an increased risk for all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's dementia (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) compared with those who had not experienced a hypoglycemic event (hazard ratio [HR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.166 to 1.349; P<0.001 for all-cause dementia; HR, 1.264; 95% CI, 1.162 to 1.375; P<0.001 for AD; HR, 1.286; 95% CI, 1.110 to 1.490; P<0.001 for VaD). According to number of hypoglycemic episodes, the HRs of dementia were 1.170, 1.201, and 1.358 in patients with one hypoglycemic episode, two or three episodes, and more than three episodes, respectively. In the subgroup analysis, hypoglycemia was associated with an increased risk for dementia in both sexes with or without T2DM microvascular or macrovascular complications.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that patients with a history of hypoglycemia have a higher risk for dementia. This trend was similar for AD and VaD, the two most important subtypes of dementia.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Korea , National Health Programs , Propensity Score
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Removal of uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate by AST-120 is known to improve renal function and delay the initiation of dialysis in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. However, it is unclear whether the addition of AST-120 to conventional treatments is effective in delaying the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with type 2 diabetes and renal dysfunction (serum creatinine levels ranging from 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dL) were recruited from eight centers in Korea and treated with AST-120 (6 g/day) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was improvement in renal function measured as the gradient of the reciprocal serum creatinine level (1/sCr) over time (i.e., the ratio of 1/sCr time slope for post- to pre-AST-120 therapy). A response was defined as a ratio change of the regression coefficient of 1/sCr ≤ 0.90. RESULTS: Renal function improved in 80.3% of patients (61/76) after 24 weeks of AST-120 treatment. There were no differences between responder and non-responder groups in baseline characteristics except for diastolic blood pressure (73.5 ± 9.5 mmHg in the responder group vs. 79.3 ± 11.1 mmHg in the non-responder group; P = 0.046). Serum lipid peroxidation level decreased significantly in the responder group (from 2.25 ± 0.56 μmol/L to 1.91 ± 0.72 μmol/L; P = 0.002) but not in the non-responder group. CONCLUSION: The addition of AST-120 to conventional treatments may delay the progression of renal dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy. The antioxidant effect of AST-120 might contribute to improvement in renal function.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Diabetic Nephropathies , Dialysis , Humans , Indican , Korea , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Combination of metformin to reduce the fasting plasma glucose level and an α-glucosidase inhibitor to decrease the postprandial glucose level is expected to generate a complementary effect. We compared the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of voglibose plus metformin (vogmet) with metformin monotherapy in drug-naïve newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 187 eligible patients aged 20 to 70 years, with a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7.0% to 11.0%, were randomized into either vogmet or metformin treatments for 24 weeks. A change in the HbA1c level from baseline was measured at week 24. RESULTS: The reduction in the levels of HbA1c was −1.62%±0.07% in the vogmet group and −1.31%±0.07% in the metformin group (P=0.003), and significantly more vogmet-treated patients achieved the target HbA1c levels of <6.5% (P=0.002) or <7% (P=0.039). Glycemic variability was also significantly improved with vogmet treatment, estimated by M-values (P=0.004). Gastrointestinal adverse events and hypoglycemia (%) were numerically lower in the vogmet-treated group. Moreover, a significant weight loss was observed with vogmet treatment compared with metformin (−1.63 kg vs. −0.86 kg, P=0.039). CONCLUSION: Vogmet is a safe antihyperglycemic agent that controls blood glucose level effectively, yields weight loss, and is superior to metformin in terms of various key glycemic parameters without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Metformin , Weight Loss
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidences indicate that early rapid renal function decline is closely associated with the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease. We have investigated the association between carotid atherosclerosis and rapid renal function decline in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and preserved renal function.METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter cohort, a total of 967 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and preserved renal function were followed for 6 years with serial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements. Common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and presence of carotid plaque were assessed at baseline. Rapid renal function decline was defined as an eGFR decline >3.3% per year.RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 6 years, 158 participants (16.3%) developed rapid renal function decline. While there was no difference in CIMT, the presence of carotid plaque in rapid decliners was significantly higher than in non-decliners (23.2% vs. 12.2%, P<0.001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, presence of carotid plaque was an independent predictor of rapid renal function decline (odds ratio, 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.48 to 3.68; P<0.0001) after adjustment for established risk factors. The model including the carotid plaque had better performance for discrimination of rapid renal function decline than the model without carotid plaque (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.772 vs. 0.744, P=0.016).CONCLUSION: Close monitoring of renal function and early intensive management may be beneficial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and carotid plaques.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery Diseases , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Carotid Stenosis , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Discrimination, Psychological , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on health behaviors, metabolic control, and chronic complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from South Korea, a country with universal health insurance coverage and that has experienced rapid economic and social transition. METHODS: A total of 3,294 Korean men and women with T2DM aged 30 to 65 years, participating in the Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP) cohort who reported their SES and had baseline clinical evaluation were included in the current cross-sectional analysis. SES included the level of education and monthly household income. RESULTS: Lower education level and lower income level were closely related, and both were associated with older age in men and women. Women and men with lower income and education level had higher carbohydrate and lower fat intake. After adjustment for possible confounding factors, higher education in men significantly lowered the odds of having uncontrolled hyperglycemia (glycosylated hemoglobin ≥7.5%) (odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.91 for highest education; P(trend)=0.048), while higher household income in men significantly lowered the odds of having diabetic retinopathy (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.95 for highest income level; P(trend)=0.048). In women, lower income was associated with a higher stress level. CONCLUSION: Men with lower SES had higher odds of having diabetic retinopathy and uncontrolled hyperglycemia, showing the need to improve care targeted to this population.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Education , Family Characteristics , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Insurance, Health , Korea , Male , Social Class
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646963

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among pain, range of motion of the neck, neck disability index and grip strength after thoracic manipulation and cervical stabilization training in patients with chronic neck pain. METHODS: In this study, twelve subjects with chronic neck pain were included. All participants had thoracic manipulation and cervical stabilization training. Intervention was conducted three times per a week, for 4 weeks. The visual analogue scale (VAS), range of motion of neck, neck disability index (NDI), as well as the grip strength before and after intervention were measured in all participants. Paired ttest was used to compare variables before and after intervention. Pearson correlation analysis was used to identify the correlations between the variables. RESULTS: All variables after the intervention were significantly improved. There was a significant negative correlation between VAS and flexion angle of the neck (r=−0.669, p<0.05). Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between NDI and VAS (r=0.636, p<0.05), and a significant negative correlation between NDI and flexion angle of the neck (r=−0.692, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with reduced pain following therapeutic intervention illustrated that there would be an improvement in the flexion angle rather than the extension angle of the neck, and that those with increased flexion angle would have less restriction of activities in daily living.


Subject(s)
Hand Strength , Humans , Neck Pain , Neck , Range of Motion, Articular , Statistics as Topic
9.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 291-294, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189030

ABSTRACT

Primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases and is defined as the inappropriate overproduction of parathyroid hormone, resulting in hypercalcemia. It occurs mostly as a result of parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia. The incidence of primary hyperparathyroidism increases with advancing age. The standard treatment of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism is parathyroidectomy; however, in older patients with multiple comorbidities, the risks associated with surgical treatment involving general anesthesia are high. Compared with surgery, radiofrequency abalation (RFA) is a minimally invasive procedure, in which the mass is removed. We here present a case of an elderly patient with primary hyperparathyroidism associated with parathyroid adenoma who was successfully treated with ultrasonography-guided RFA. RFA is an alternative therapeutic option for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism for high-risk elderly patients, and further evaluation of its clinical value is warranted.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anesthesia, General , Catheter Ablation , Comorbidity , Endocrine System Diseases , Humans , Hypercalcemia , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Hyperplasia , Incidence , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroid Neoplasms , Parathyroidectomy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic complications and antagonists of renin-angiotensin system and amlodipine have been reported previously to reduce oxidative stress. In this study, we compared the changes in oxidative stress markers after valsartan and amlodipine treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and compared the changes in metabolic parameters. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension 30 to 80 years of age who were not taking antihypertensive drugs were randomized into either valsartan (n = 33) or amlodipine (n = 35) groups and treated for 24 weeks. We measured serum nitrotyrosine levels as an oxidative stress marker. Metabolic parameters including serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and urine albumin and creatinine were also measured. RESULTS: After 24 weeks of valsartan or amlodipine treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased, with no significant difference between the groups. Both groups showed a decrease in serum nitrotyrosine (7.74 ± 7.30 nmol/L vs. 3.95 ± 4.07 nmol/L in the valsartan group and 8.37 ± 8.75 nmol/L vs. 2.68 ± 2.23 nmol/L in the amlodipine group) with no significant difference between the groups. Other parameters including glucose, lipid profile, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance showed no significant differences before and after treatment in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Valsartan and amlodipine reduced the oxidative stress marker in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Amlodipine , Antihypertensive Agents , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypertension , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Oxidative Stress , Renin-Angiotensin System , Valsartan
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic complications and antagonists of renin-angiotensin system and amlodipine have been reported previously to reduce oxidative stress. In this study, we compared the changes in oxidative stress markers after valsartan and amlodipine treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and compared the changes in metabolic parameters. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension 30 to 80 years of age who were not taking antihypertensive drugs were randomized into either valsartan (n = 33) or amlodipine (n = 35) groups and treated for 24 weeks. We measured serum nitrotyrosine levels as an oxidative stress marker. Metabolic parameters including serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and urine albumin and creatinine were also measured. RESULTS: After 24 weeks of valsartan or amlodipine treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased, with no significant difference between the groups. Both groups showed a decrease in serum nitrotyrosine (7.74 ± 7.30 nmol/L vs. 3.95 ± 4.07 nmol/L in the valsartan group and 8.37 ± 8.75 nmol/L vs. 2.68 ± 2.23 nmol/L in the amlodipine group) with no significant difference between the groups. Other parameters including glucose, lipid profile, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance showed no significant differences before and after treatment in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Valsartan and amlodipine reduced the oxidative stress marker in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Amlodipine , Antihypertensive Agents , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypertension , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Oxidative Stress , Renin-Angiotensin System , Valsartan
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 641-647, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93955

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As Korean society has become industrialized and westernized, the prevalence of diabetes has increased rapidly. Environmental factors, especially socio-economic status (SES), may account for the increased prevalence of diabetes. We evaluated the associations between the prevalence of diabetes and SES as reflected by household income and education level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was based on data obtained from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted in 2010-2012. Diabetes referred to a fasting plasma glucose > or =126 mg/dL in the absence of known diabetes, previous diagnosis of diabetes made by a physician, and/or current use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. RESULTS: Household income and education level were inversely associated with the prevalence of diabetes among individuals aged 30 years or older. These associations were more prominent in females aged 30-64 years. According to household income, the odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for the lowest quartile group versus the highest quartile group was 4.96 (2.87-8.58). According to education level, the OR (95% CI) for the lowest quartile group versus the highest quartile group was 8.02 (4.47-14.4). CONCLUSION: Public policies for the prevention and management of diabetes should be targeted toward people of lower SES, especially middle-aged females.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asians/ethnology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200222

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a strong predictor of postpartum prediabetes and transition to overt type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although many reports indicate that low magnesium is correlated with deteriorated glucose tolerance, the association between postpartum serum magnesium level and the risk for T2DM in women with a history of GDM has not been evaluated. We analyzed postpartum serum magnesium levels and development of prediabetes and T2DM in women with prior GDM according to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria using the Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP) GDM cohort. During a mean follow-up of 15.6+/-2.0 months after screening, 116 women were divided into three groups according to glucose tolerance status. Ultimately, eight patients (6.9%) were diagnosed with T2DM, 59 patients (50.9%) with prediabetes, and 49 patients (42.2%) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) after follow-up. The T2DM group had the lowest serum magnesium level (0.65 [0.63-0.68] mM/L) in the postpartum period, but there was no significant difference between the prediabetes group (0.70 [0.65-0.70] mM/L) and the NGT group (0.70 [0.65-0.70] mM/L) (P=0.073) Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that postpartum HOMA-IR was a significant predictor of both prediabetes and T2DM. Moreover, we found that postpartum serum magnesium level was also a possible predictor for T2DM development. Serum magnesium level in the postpartum period may be a possible predictor for T2DM development in women with a history of GDM.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Glucose , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Female , Glucose Intolerance/blood , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Magnesium/blood , Postpartum Period/blood , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim was to compare the insulin sensitivity and secretion index of pregnant Korean women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT; only one abnormal value according to the Carpenter and Coustan criteria), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,163 pregnant women with positive (1-hour plasma glucose > or = 7.2 mmol/L) in a 50-g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT). The 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to stratify the participants into three groups: NGT (n = 588), GIGT (n = 294), and GDM (n = 281). RESULTS: The GDM group had higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity index (ISOGTT), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, homeostasis model assessment for estimation of index beta-cell secretion (HOMA-B), first and second phase insulin secretion, and insulin secretion-sensitivity index (ISSI) than the NGT group (p < or = 0.001 for all). Moreover, the GIGT group had lower ISOGTT, HOMA-B, first and second phase insulin secretion, and ISSI than the NGT group (p < 0.001 for all). Among the GIGT subjects, the 1-hour plasma glucose abnormal levels group showed significantly greater weight gain during pregnancy and higher values in the 50-g OGCT than the other two groups. Moreover, the 1-hour and 2-hour abnormal levels groups had poorer insulin secretion status than the 3-hour abnormal levels group. CONCLUSIONS: Korean women with GDM show impairments of both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In addition, GIGT is associated with both beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes, Gestational/metabolism , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Pregnancy
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44052

ABSTRACT

Short sleep duration has been reported to increase the risk of diabetes. However, the influence of sleep duration on glycemic control in diabetic patients has not been clarified. In this study we evaluated the association between sleep duration and glycemic control in diabetic patients. We analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010. Sleep duration was classified into five groups: or =9 h/day. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c showed a U-shaped trend according to sleep duration. Sleep duration of 7 h/day had the lowest HbA1c (7.26%) among the subjects (P=0.026). In the older age group (> or =65 yr), a sleep duration of 6 h/day was associated with the lowest HbA1c (7.26%). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of worse glycemic control (HbA1c > or =7.0%) in group of sleep duration of > or =9 h/day was 1.48 (1.04-2.13) compared with the group of 7 h/day. This relationship disappeared after adjusting duration of diabetes (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.93-2.03). Our results suggest that sleep duration and glycemic control in diabetic patients has U-shaped relationship which was mainly affected by duration of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Aged , Asians , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Sleep/physiology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164995

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to assess the association between usual dietary nutrient intake and obesity in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. We examined 2,832 type 2 diabetic patients from the Korean National Diabetes Program cohort who completed dietary assessment and clinical evaluation in this cross-sectional study. In men, higher dietary fiber intake was associated with a lower odds of being obese (Ptrend = 0.003) and in women, higher protein intake was associated with a lower odds of being obese (Ptrend = 0.03) after adjustment for age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, alcohol drinking, income, education level, and calorie intake. In men, higher fiber intake was associated with lower odds of obesity after further adjustment for diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, and possible confounding nutritional intake and medication. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for the highest quintile of fiber intake was 0.37 (Ptrend < 0.001). In women, protein intake was not associated with obesity after further adjustment. In conclusion, higher intake of dietary fiber is associated with lower odds of being obese in type 2 diabetic men, suggesting a role for dietary fiber in the management and prevention of obesity in type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 01212198).


Subject(s)
Asians , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Dietary Fiber , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/etiology , Odds Ratio , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107378

ABSTRACT

The annual incidence of a first episode of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (PE) in the general population is 120 per 100,000. Cancer is associated with an approximately 4- to 7-fold higher risk of thrombosis. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare type of malignancy, accounting for 0.02% of all cancers reported annually. Approximately 40% of ACCs are nonsecretory. Most patients with nonsecreting tumors have clinical manifestations related to tumor growth (e.g., abdominal or flank pain). Often the adrenal mass is detected by chance via radiographic imaging. As a result, most ACC patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage and have a poor prognosis. Herein, we report a case of a 54-year-old woman who was admitted to our emergency department complaining of dyspnea. She was diagnosed with ACC accompanied by thrombi in the pulmonary artery and inferior vena cava. We performed a left adrenalectomy and administered adjuvant radiotherapy. The patient is currently receiving warfarin and adjuvant mitotane therapy. She was incidentally diagnosed with ACC, with PE as the initial manifestation.


Subject(s)
Accounting , Adrenalectomy , Adrenocortical Carcinoma , Dyspnea , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Mitotane , Prognosis , Pulmonary Artery , Pulmonary Embolism , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Thrombosis , Vena Cava, Inferior , Venous Thrombosis , Warfarin
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159028

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the direct medical costs for Korean patients with type 2 diabetes according to the type of complications and the number of microvascular complications. We analyzed costs for type 2 diabetes and associated complications in 3,125 patients. These data were obtained from the Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP), a large, ongoing, prospective cohort study that began in 2005. The cost data were prospectively collected, using an electronic database, for the KNDP cohort at six hospitals. The costs were analyzed according to complications for 1 yr from enrollment in the study. Among 3,125 patients, 918 patients had no vascular complications; 1,883 had microvascular complications only; 51 had macrovascular complications only; and 273 had both complications. The annual direct medical costs for a patient with only macrovascular, only microvascular, or both macrovascular and microvascular complications were 2.7, 1.5, and 2.0 times higher than the medical costs of patients without complications. Annual direct medical costs per patient increased with the number of microvascular complications in patients without macrovascular complications. The economic costs for type 2 diabetes are attributable largely to the management of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Proper management of diabetes and prevention of related complications are important for reducing medical costs.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asians , Cohort Studies , Costs and Cost Analysis , Databases, Factual , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Health Care Costs , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea , Vascular Diseases/complications , Young Adult
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726721

ABSTRACT

Economic development has lead to increased life expectancy, population growth, and spread of the Western life style, resulting in a gradual increase of diabetic patients during the last three decades. Outcome research focusing on the economics of the medical field began in mid the 1990s, including publications about costs, cost-effectiveness analysis, and policy reflection. According to the ADA, direct cost spending on diabetes was $91.8 billion in 2002 and is projected to be $156 billion in 2010 and $192 billion in 2020. In Canada, research found that the direct cost of diabetic care was $2.6 million (American dollars) in 1998, 7.8% of the total Canadian medical expenditure. Half of this cost was incurred in hospitals (IPD: 19%, medication: 31%). Recent domestic studies have analyzed the expenses associated with type 2 diabetes in some general hospitals. Type 2 diabetic patients, without complication, spend about 1,184,563 won annually on healthcare. On the other hand, patients with microvascular diseases spend up to 4.7 times as much, and patients with macrovascular disease incur up to 10.7 times greater costs. Patients with both complications have been shown to pay 8.8 times more than do those with no complications. The increased costs charged to kidney transplant patients was about 23.1 times greater than for those with no complications, while dialysis increased costs by 21 times, macrovascular disease with PTCA or CABG resulted in a 12.4-fold increase, and BKA was 11.8-fold more expensive. The total medical costs have soared with the treatment progress of diabetic retinopathy or nephropathy. In diabetic treatments, complication occurrence ultimately has an effect on the QOL, the patient mortality, and is associated with the direct medical expenses. Thus it is critical not to delay care in diabetic patients in order to avoid increased direct medical costs. Therefore, in diabetic care, as outlined in the medical care plan policy, it is most critical to adequately control blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol in conjunction with the early discovery of any complications through the appropriate management techniques.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Canada , Cholesterol , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetic Retinopathy , Dialysis , Economic Development , Hand , Health Expenditures , Hospitals, General , Humans , Kidney , Life Expectancy , Life Style , Population Growth , Transplants
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191394

ABSTRACT

Outcome research focusing on the economics of the medical field began in the mid-1990s and has included studies about costs, cost effectiveness, and policies. According to the American Diabetes Association, the total estimated cost of diabetes in 2007 was $174 billion. The economic burden of patients with diabetes in Canada is expected to be about $12.2 billion in 2010. Recent Korean studies have analyzed the expenses associated with type 2 diabetes for patients in selected general hospitals. Type 2 diabetic patients without complications cost approximately 1,184,563 won (the equivalent of US $1,184) per patient for healthcare annually. In contrast, patients with microvascular disease due to diabetic complications cost up to 4.7 times that amount, and patients with macrovascular disease incur up to 10.7 times the annual costs for patients without diabetic complications. Diabetic complications ultimately impact the quality of life for patients and patient mortality, and are associated with higher direct medical expenses for patients. To avoid increased medical costs, appropriate management techniques must be implemented to ensure timely care for patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Canada , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Dietary Sucrose , Hospitals, General , Humans , Korea , Quality of Life
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