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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917391

ABSTRACT

In primary prevention for cardiovascular diseases, there are significant barriers to adherence including freedom from symptoms, long latency for therapeutic benefits, life-long duration of treatment, and need for combined lifestyle changes. However, to implement more systematic approaches, the focus on adherence improvement needs to be shifted away from patient factors to the effects of the treatment team and healthcare system. In addition to conventional educational approaches, more patient-oriented approaches such as patientcentered clinical communication skills, counseling using motivational strategies, decisionmaking by patient empowerment, and a multi-disciplinary team approach should be developed and implemented. Patients should be involved in a program of self-monitoring, self-management, and active counseling. Because most effective interventions on adherence improvement demand greater resources, the health care system and educational or training system of physicians and healthcare staff need to be supported for systematic improvement.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926993

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Drugs with anticholinergic properties (DAPs) are associated with adverse health outcomes in older patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that determine the prescribing of more DAPs in long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) in Korea. In addition, the current patterns of DAP prescription were explored using a novel platform, which can collect data from LTCHs. @*Methods@#This was a Health-RESPECT (integrated caRE Systems for elderly PatiEnts using iCT) sub-study, which is a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, controlled trial. The Health-RESPECT platform was used to collect prescribed medication data of 466 patients (aged ≥ 65 years) from seven LTCHs. DAPs were identified using the Korean Anticholinergic Burden Scale (KABS). Physical frailty, cognitive function, functional status, and quality of life were evaluated. @*Results@#Among 466 LTCH patients, 88.8% (n = 414) were prescribed DAPs, and the prevalence of high KABS (≥ 3) was 70.4% (n = 328). The drugs that contributed most to the total KABS were quetiapine (20.7%), chlorpheniramine (19.5%), tramadol (9.8%), cimetidine (5.8%), and furosemide (3.6%). Polypharmacy, higher body mass index, less dependence, better communication and cognitive functions, and poorer quality of life were associated with high KABS. @*Conclusions@#Although the patients with a high burden of DAPs were less dependent and had better cognitive and communication functions, they had poorer quality of life. DAP use in LTCH patients should be monitored carefully, and the risk/ benefit relationship for their use should be considered.

3.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 460-474, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926523

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#This study aimed to investigate the association between cardiovascular events and 2 different levels of elevated on-treatment diastolic blood pressures (DBP) in the presence of achieved systolic blood pressure targets (SBP). @*Methods@#A nation-wide population-based cohort study comprised 237,592 patients with hypertension treated. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Elevated DBP was defined according to the Seventh Report of Joint National Committee (JNC7; SBP <140 mmHg, DBP ≥90 mmHg) or to the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) definitions (SBP <130 mmHg, DBP ≥80 mmHg). @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 9 years, elevated on-treatment DBP by the JNC7 definition was associated with an increased risk of the occurrence of primary endpoint compared with achieved both SBP and DBP (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.24) but not in those by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition. Elevated ontreatment DBP by the JNC7 definition was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (aHR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18–1.70) and stroke (aHR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08–1.30). Elevated on-treatment DBP by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition was only associated with stroke (aHR, 1.10;95% CI, 1.04–1.16). Similar results were seen in the propensity-score-matched cohort. @*Conclusion@#Elevated on-treatment DBP by the JNC7 definition was associated a high risk of major cardiovascular events, while elevated DBP by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition was only associated with a higher risk of stroke. The result of study can provide evidence of DBP targets in subjects who achieved SBP targets.

4.
Blood Research ; : S1-S5, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925637

ABSTRACT

The incidence of hematologic malignancy increases with age; thus, the number of older patients who require intensive chemotherapy is expected to increase with the aging population. In Korea, 61.8%, 59.3%, 47.0%, and 46.7% of newly diagnosed cases of multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative disorder, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, respectively, occurred in patients aged >65 years in 2018. Health status among older patients, defined by frailty, age-related syndrome of physiological decline and increased vulnerability, is associated with adverse health outcomes. Health status is highly heterogeneous among older patients, and treatment outcomes vary according to frailty and physiologic age rather than chronologic age. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a multidimensional and multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process that identifies multiple domains, including functional status, cognition, comorbidities, medications, socioeconomic status, and nutritional status, to develop a coordinated plan to improve treatment-related outcomes and quality of life. Frailty can be assessed with CGA findings, and CGA is considered the “gold standard of care” for frail, older patients. Through CGA, unidentified problems can be assessed, and pre-emptive and non-oncologic interventions can be delivered. CGA is an objective and reliable tool for predicting further treatment-related complications and identifying patients for whom intensive chemotherapy with curative intent is appropriate. CGA should be considered a routine practice before starting treatment planning in older patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies who require intensive chemotherapy. Further study is needed to allocate individualized treatment plans or multidisciplinary geriatric interventions according to CGA results.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924923

ABSTRACT

Carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting (IF) have been rapidly gaining interest among the general population and patients with cardiometabolic disease, such as overweight or obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. However, there are limited expert recommendations for these dietary regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the level of scientific evidence on the benefits and harms of carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF to make responsible recommendations. A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of 66 articles on 50 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of carbohydrate-restricted diets and 10 articles on eight RCTs of IF was performed. Based on the analysis, the following recommendations are suggested. In adults with overweight or obesity, a moderately-low carbohydrate or low carbohydrate diet (mLCD) can be considered as a dietary regimen for weight reduction. In adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, mLCD can be considered as a dietary regimen for improving glycemic control and reducing body weight. In contrast, a very-low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) and IF are recommended against in patients with diabetes. Furthermore, no recommendations are suggested for VLCD and IF in adults with overweight or obesity, and carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF in patients with hypertension. Here, we describe the results of our analysis and the evidence for these recommendations.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903726

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypertension (HT) has a significant impact on public health and medical expenses. However, HT is a chronic disease that requires the long-term follow-up of a large number of patients. @*Methods@#The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) study aimed to develop a model for calculating cardiovascular risk in HT patients by linking and utilizing the detailed clinical and longitudinal data from hospitals and the national health insurance claim database, respectively. This cohort had a planned sample size of over 11,000 HT patients and 100,000 non-HT controls. Eligible patients were hypertensive patients, who were presenting for the first time and were diagnosed with HT as a main disease from 2006 to 2011. Long-term survival data over a period of approximately 9 years were obtained from the national health insurance claim and national health examination data. @*Results@#This cohort enrolled 11,083 patients with HT. The mean age was 58.87 ± 11.5 years, 50.5% were male, and 31.4% were never-treated HT. Of the enrolled patients, 32.9% and 37.7% belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. Initial blood pressures were 149.4 ± 18.5/88.5 ± 12.5 mmHg. During the 2 years hospital data follow-up period, blood pressures lowered to 130.8 ± 14.1/78.0 ± 9.7 mmHg with 1.9 ± 1.0 tablet doses of antihypertensive medication. Cardiovascular events occurred in 7.5% of the overall patients; 8.5%, 8.8%, and 4.7% in the high, moderate, and low risk patients, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The KHC study has provided important information on the long-term outcomes of HT patients according to the blood pressure, comorbid diseases, medication, and adherence, as well as health behaviors and health resource use.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896022

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypertension (HT) has a significant impact on public health and medical expenses. However, HT is a chronic disease that requires the long-term follow-up of a large number of patients. @*Methods@#The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) study aimed to develop a model for calculating cardiovascular risk in HT patients by linking and utilizing the detailed clinical and longitudinal data from hospitals and the national health insurance claim database, respectively. This cohort had a planned sample size of over 11,000 HT patients and 100,000 non-HT controls. Eligible patients were hypertensive patients, who were presenting for the first time and were diagnosed with HT as a main disease from 2006 to 2011. Long-term survival data over a period of approximately 9 years were obtained from the national health insurance claim and national health examination data. @*Results@#This cohort enrolled 11,083 patients with HT. The mean age was 58.87 ± 11.5 years, 50.5% were male, and 31.4% were never-treated HT. Of the enrolled patients, 32.9% and 37.7% belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. Initial blood pressures were 149.4 ± 18.5/88.5 ± 12.5 mmHg. During the 2 years hospital data follow-up period, blood pressures lowered to 130.8 ± 14.1/78.0 ± 9.7 mmHg with 1.9 ± 1.0 tablet doses of antihypertensive medication. Cardiovascular events occurred in 7.5% of the overall patients; 8.5%, 8.8%, and 4.7% in the high, moderate, and low risk patients, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The KHC study has provided important information on the long-term outcomes of HT patients according to the blood pressure, comorbid diseases, medication, and adherence, as well as health behaviors and health resource use.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836507

ABSTRACT

Background@#Reducing the total anticholinergic burden (AB) in older adults is recommended owing to the several peripheral and central adverse effects. This study aimed to identify the AB status of patients admitted to geriatric centers for assessing the influence of the pharmacist-involved multidisciplinary geriatric team care on reducing the AB. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 328 older patients hospitalized in geriatric centers from July 1, 2018 to June 30, 2019, who received comprehensive geriatric assessment and pharmaceutical interventions from a multidisciplinary geriatric team. We measured the total AB scores for the medications at the time of admission and upon hospital discharge using the Korean Anticholinergic Burden Scale (KABS). The pre-admission factors associated with high AB (KABS score ≥3) at the time of admission were identified. @*Results@#The proportion of patients with high AB significantly decreased from 41.8% (136/328) at the time of admission to 25.0% (82/328) on discharge (p<0.001). The pre-admission AB of patients transferred from skilled nursing facilities (odds ratio[OR]: 2.85, 95% CI: 1.26- 3.75), taking more than 10 medications (OR: 3.70, 95% CI: 1.55-8.82), suffering from delirium (OR: 2.80, 95% CI: 1.04-7.50), or depression (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.04-7.41) were significantly high. Antipsychotics were the most frequent classes of drugs that contributed to the total KABS score at the time of admission, followed by antihistamines. @*Conclusions@#This study demonstrated that the multidisciplinary teams for geriatric care are effective at reducing AB in older adults. The factors associated with high AB should be considered when targeting pharmaceutical care in geriatric individuals.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831646

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is a controversy whether it is safe to continue renin-angiotensin system blockers in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We analyzed big data to investigate whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers have any significant effect on the risk of COVID-19. Population-based cohort study was conducted based on the prescription data from nationwide health insurance records. @*Methods@#We investigated the 1,374,381 residents aged ≥ 40 years living in Daegu, the epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak, between February and March 2020. Prescriptions of antihypertensive medication during the year before the outbreak were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service registry. Medications were categorized by types and stratified by the medication possession ratios (MPRs) of antihypertensive medications after controlling for the potential confounders. The risk of COVID-19 was estimated using a difference in difference analysis. @*Results@#Females, older individuals, low-income earners, and recently hospitalized patients had a higher risk of infection. Patients with higher MPRs of antihypertensive medications had a consistently lower risk of COVID-19 than those with lower MPRs of antihypertensive medications and non-users. Among patients who showed complete compliance, there was a significantly lower risk of COVID-19 for those prescribed angiotensin II receptor blockers (relative risk [RR], 0.751; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.587–0.960) or calcium channel blockers (RR, 0.768; 95% CI, 0.601–0.980). @*Conclusion@#Renin-angiotensin system blockers or other antihypertensive medications do not increase the risk of COVID-19. Patients should not stop antihypertensive medications, including renin-angiotensin system blockers, because of concerns of COVID-19.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919046

ABSTRACT

As the prevalence of hypertension in the elderly population is increasing, information regarding the characteristics, optimal blood pressure targets, and special considerations for elderly hypertensive patients is needed to improve clinical outcomes. Various factors should be considered when managing hypertension in elderly patients, and there are many controversial issues and conflicting results related to the optimal treatment of hypertension in the elderly. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiology and characteristics of elderly hypertensive patients and discuss the optimal treatment of hypertension in elderly people.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a worldwide epidemic, and is frequently found in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We investigated the impact of histologically proven hepatic steatosis on the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in CHB patients without excessive alcohol intake. METHODS: Consecutive CHB patients who underwent liver biopsy from January 2007 to December 2015 were included. The association between hepatic steatosis (≥ 5%) and subsequent HCC risk was analyzed. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) using the propensity score was applied to adjust for differences in patient characteristics, including metabolic factors. RESULTS: Fatty liver was histologically proven in 70 patients (21.8%) among a total of 321 patients. During the median (interquartile range) follow-up of 5.3 (2.9–8.3) years, 17 of 321 patients (5.3%) developed HCC: 8 of 70 patients (11.4%) with fatty liver and 9 of 251 patients (3.6%) without fatty liver. The five-year cumulative incidences of HCC among patients without and with fatty liver were 1.9% and 8.2%, respectively (P=0.004). Coexisting fatty liver was associated with a higher risk for HCC (adjusted hazards ratio [HR], 3.005; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.122–8.051; P=0.03). After balancing with IPW, HCC incidences were not significantly different between the groups (P=0.19), and the association between fatty liver and HCC was not significant (adjusted HR, 1.709; 95% CI, 0.404–7.228; P=0.47). CONCLUSIONS: Superimposed NAFLD was associated with a higher HCC risk in CHB patients. However, the association between steatosis per se and HCC risk was not evident after adjustment for metabolic factors.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Fatty Liver , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Incidence , Liver , Liver Neoplasms , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Propensity Score
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225693

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the clinical significance of frailty and changes of frailty after dialysis initiation in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We prospectively enrolled 46 elderly patients with incident ESRD at a dialysis center of a tertiary hospital between May 2013 and March 2015. Frailty was assessed by using a comprehensive geriatric assessment protocol and defined as a multidimensional frailty score of ≥ 10. The main outcome was the composite of all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization, as determined in June 2016. The median age of the 46 participants was 71.5 years, and 63.0% of them were men. During the median 17.7 months follow-up, the rate of composite outcome was 17.4%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and time of predialytic nephrologic care, female sex, and increased BMI were associated with increased and decreased odds of frailty, respectively. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, BMI, and time of predialytic nephrologic care, frailty was significantly associated with the composite adverse outcome. In repeated frailty assessments, the multidimensional frailty score significantly improved 12 months after the initiation of dialysis, which largely relied on improved nutrition. Therefore, frailty needs to be assessed for risk stratification in elderly patients with incident ESRD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Body Mass Index , Dialysis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Geriatric Assessment , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Logistic Models , Male , Malnutrition , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49969

ABSTRACT

Falls and fall-related injuries are common in older populations and have negative effects on quality of life and independence. Falling is also associated with increased morbidity, mortality, nursing home admission, and medical costs. Korea has experienced an extreme demographic shift with its population aging at the fastest pace among developed countries, so it is important to assess fall risks and develop interventions for high-risk populations. Guidelines for the prevention of falls were first developed by the Korean Association of Internal Medicine and the Korean Geriatrics Society. These guidelines were developed through an adaptation process as an evidence-based method; four guidelines were retrieved via systematic review and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II process, and seven recommendations were developed based on the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. Because falls are the result of various factors, the guidelines include a multidimensional assessment and multimodal strategy. The guidelines were developed for primary physicians as well as patients and the general population. They provide detailed recommendations and concrete measures to assess risk and prevent falls among older people.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Aging , Developed Countries , Geriatrics , Humans , Internal Medicine , Korea , Methods , Mortality , Nursing Homes , Quality of Life
15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 365-373, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Blood pressure variability (BPV) was recently shown to be a risk factor of stroke. White coat hypertension (WCH) used to be regarded as innocuous, but one long-term follow-up study reported that WCH increased stroke rate compared to normotension (NT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between WCH and BPV. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 1398 subjects from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Registry, who were divided into NT (n=364), masked hypertension (n=122), white coat hypertension (n=254), and sustained hypertension (n=658) groups. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. The average real variability (ARV), a highly sensitive BPV parameter, was highest in the WCH group, followed by the sustained hypertension, masked hypertension, and NT groups. The results persisted after being adjusted for covariates. The WCH vs. sustained hypertension results (adjusted mean±standard error) were as follows: 24-h systolic ARV, 22.9±0.8 vs. 19.4±0.6; 24-h diastolic ARV, 16.8±0.6 vs. 14.3±0.5; daytime systolic ARV, 21.8±0.8 vs. 16.8±0.6; and daytime diastolic ARV, 16.2±0.6 vs. 13.4±0.5 (p<0.001 for all comparisons). CONCLUSION: From the registry data, we found that subjects with WCH or masked hypertension had higher BPV than NT. However, long-term follow-up data assessing the clinical influences of WCH on stroke are needed.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Blood Pressure , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension , Masked Hypertension , Risk Factors , Stroke , White Coat Hypertension
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and loss of weight (FRAIL) scale is a screening tool for frailty status using a simple 5-item questionnaire. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility and validity of the Korean version of the FRAIL (K-FRAIL) scale. METHODS: Questionnaire items were translated and administered to 103 patients aged ≥ 65 years who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. In this cross-sectional study, the K-FRAIL scale was compared with the domains and the multidimensional frailty index of the comprehensive geriatric assessment. We also assessed the time required to complete the scale. RESULTS: The participants' mean age was 76.8 years (standard deviation [SD], 6.1), and 55 (53.4%) were males. The mean overall frailty index was 0.19 (SD, 0.17). For K-FRAIL-robust, prefrail, and frail patients, the mean frailty indices were 0.09, 0.18, and 0.34, respectively (p for trend < 0.001). A higher degree of impairment in the K-FRAIL scale was associated with worse nutritional status, poor physical performance, functional dependence, and polypharmacy. The number of items with impairment in the K-FRAIL scale was positively associated with the frailty index (B = 3.73, p < 0.001). The K-FRAIL scale could differentiate vulnerability from robustness with a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.33. Of all patients, 75 (72.8%) completed the K-FRAIL scale within < 3 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The K-FRAIL scale is correlated with the frailty index and is a simple tool to screen for frailty in a clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Fatigue , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Nutritional Status , Polypharmacy , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul , Walking
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202846

ABSTRACT

Falls and fall-related injuries are common amongst the elderly population and have deleterious effects on the quality of life or independence in daily living in the elderly. Falling is also associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, nursing home admission, and an increase in medical costs. Given that Korea has shown an extreme demographic shift with its population aging at the fastest pace among developed countries, assessment of fall risks and implementing intervention strategies to the high-risk population are getting more important. The guidelines for the prevention of falls were developed first by The Korean Association of Internal Medicine and The Korean Geriatric Society. These guidelines were developed by an adaptation process and the use of an evidence-based method; 4 guidelines were retrieved by systematic review and by the AGREE (appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation) II process and 7 statements were made based on the grading of evidence, and these recommendations followed the GRADE (grades of recommendation, assessment, development, and evaluation) framework. Given that falls result from a various combination of many factors, the guidelines contain multidimensional assessment measures and multimodal strategies to prevent falls. These guidelines were developed not only for use by primary physicians but also for patients and the general population. Therefore, these guidelines provide detailed recommendations and concrete measures for the assessment of the risk of a fall and to prevent falls amongst the elderly population.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Aged , Aging , Developed Countries , Humans , Internal Medicine , Korea , Mortality , Nursing Homes , Quality of Life
18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 752-780, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46987

ABSTRACT

Falls and fall-related injuries are common in older population and have deleterious effects to the quality of life or independence of daily living in the elderly. Falling is also associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, nursing home admission and the increase of medical costs. Because Korea has shown extreme demographic shift with its population aging at the fastest pace among developed country, assessment of fall risks and intervention to high risk population are getting more important. The guideline for prevention of falls was developed first by The Korean Association of Internal Medicine and The Korean Geriatric Society. This guideline was developed by adaptation process as evidence-based method; four guidelines were retrieved by systematic review and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II process, seven statements were made with the grading of evidence and recommendations followed the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. Because falls result from various combinations of many factors, the guideline contains multidimensional assessment and multimodal strategy to prevent falls. This guideline was developed for not only primary physician but also patients and general population, therefore it provides detailed recommendations and concrete measures to assess the risk and prevent falls in older people.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Aged , Aging , Developed Countries , Humans , Internal Medicine , Korea , Mortality , Nursing Homes , Quality of Life
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The detection of white coat hypertension (WCH), treated normalized hypertension, and masked hypertension (MH) is important to improve the effectiveness of hypertension management. However, whether global cardiovascular risk (GCR) profile has any effect on the discordance between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and clinic blood pressure (CBP) is unknown. METHODS: Data from 1,916 subjects, taken from the Korean Multicenter Registry for ABP monitoring, were grouped according to diagnostic and therapeutic thresholds for CBP and ABP (140/90 and 135/85 mmHg, respectively). GCR was assessed using European Society of Hypertension 2007 guidelines. RESULTS: The mean subject age was 54.1 ± 14.9 years, and 48.9% of patients were female. The discordancy rate between ABP and CBP in the untreated and treated patients was 32.5% and 26.5%, respectively (p = 0.02). The prevalence of WCH or treated normalized hypertension and MH was 14.4% and 16.0%, respectively. Discordance between ABP and CBP was lower in the very high added-risk group compared to the moderate added-risk group (odds ratio [OR], 0.649; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.487 to 0.863; p = 0.003). The prevalence of WCH or treated normalized hypertension was also lower in the very high added-risk group (OR, 0.451; 95% CI, 0.311 to 0.655). CONCLUSIONS: Discordance between ABP and CBP was observed more frequently in untreated subjects than in treated subjects, and less frequently in the very high added-risk group, which was due mainly to the lower prevalence of WCH or treated normalized hypertension.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Masked Hypertension/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Observer Variation , Odds Ratio , Office Visits , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Registries , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , White Coat Hypertension/diagnosis
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104683

ABSTRACT

In Korea, the number of older adults, particularly of the very elderly people, is expected to be increasing for the upcoming years. This demographic change has profound implication for medical and health care systems. As more people live a longer life, it is important to understand the chronic diseases or health problems which affect the health status or quality of life among the older adults. It has been well established that cardio-cerebrovascular diseases have important roles and impacts on functional capacity and health status of older adults. Recently, many risk factors which increase the risk of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases have been identified. Among them, dyslipidemia is one of the most important risk factor for cardio-cerebrovascular disease. However, there remain several questions regarding the clinical importance of dyslipidemia in older adults, safety and efficacy issue in treating dyslipidemia with statin in older adults, and the relationship between genetic factors associated with lipid profile and longevity. In this review, I will discuss current evidence and data on the topic of dyslipidemia in older adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases , Chronic Disease , Delivery of Health Care , Dyslipidemias , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Korea , Longevity , Quality of Life , Risk Factors
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