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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915761

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Long-term maintenance treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly used to prevent relapse of reflux symptoms; however, due to concerns about safety of long-term proton pump inhibitors (PPI) use, on-demand therapy is recommended as a longterm treatment modality. We compared the efficacy of on-demand and continuous PPI therapy for maintenance treatment of patients with GERD using meta-analysis. @*Methods@#Core electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing on-demand and continuous therapy in GERD patients. The primary outcome was treatment failure of maintenance therapy, and the secondary outcomes included symptomatic relief, patient satisfaction, and amount of PPI use. @*Results@#Overall, 11 studies were selected in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Compared with continuous PPI therapy, on-demand therapy showed similar outcomes for treatment failure (risk ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-2.07), particularly in the non-erosive esophageal reflux disease and mild erosive reflux disease group (risk ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.39-5.63). In studies including severe esophagitis patients, continuous PPI maintenance treatment was more effective (β, 0.127 [95% CI, 0.066-0.188]; P < 0.001). Severity of esophagitis was associated with higher efficacies of continuous maintenance therapy. The amount of daily PPI use was about half in the on-demand group compared to the continuous group (risk difference −0.52; 95% CI, −0.62-−0.42). @*Conclusions@#On-demand PPI therapy shows comparable efficacy to the continuous maintenance treatment in the non-erosive esophageal reflux disease and mild erosive reflux disease group, and can remarkably reduce the amount of PPI use. Therefore, on-demand therapy may be preferentially recommended in the maintenance treatment of GERD unaccompanied by severe esophagitis.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915759

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly efficacious and safe modality for the treatment of recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), with overall success rates of 90%. Thus, FMT has been widely used for 10 years. The incidence and clinical characteristics of CDI, the main indication for FMT, differ between countries. To date, several guidelines have been published. However, most of them were published in Western countries and therefore cannot represent the Korean national healthcare systems. One of the barriers to performing FMT is a lack of national guidelines. Accordingly, multidisciplinary experts in this field have developed practical guidelines for FMT. The purpose of these guidelines is to aid physicians performing FMT, which can be adapted to treat CDI and other conditions.

3.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 74-85, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914054

ABSTRACT

Ultrasound (US) can depict of various anatomical structures, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerve roots, and vessels, around the neck. The usage of US around the neck is increasing due to its quick and easy application for guided injection for nerves, tendons, and joints. This article elaborates the degenerative diseases causing neck pain, sonoanatomy, and the use of US for diagnosis and intervention; for example, small nerves around the neck, cervical root, stellate ganglion, medial branches, greater occipital nerve (GON), and third occipital nerve (TON). The aim of this review article is to lead readers to understand the anatomy around the neck and structural relations, and to get to know about several US-guided intervention of the neck.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900414

ABSTRACT

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is considered to be a heterogeneous disorder with different pathophysiological mechanisms or pathogenetic factors. In addition to traditional mechanisms, novel concepts regarding pathophysiologic mechanisms of FD have been proposed.Candidates of therapeutic agents based on novel concepts have also been suggested. FD is a symptom complex and currently diagnosed by symptom-based Rome criteria. In the Rome criteria, symptom-based subtypes of FD including postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome are recommended to be used, based on the assumption that each subtype is more homogenous in terms of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms than FD as a whole. In this review, the usefulness of symptombased subtypes of FD for predicting underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and choosing appropriate therapeutic agents was evaluated. Although several classic pathophysiologic mechanisms are suggested to be associated with individual dyspeptic symptoms, symptom-based subtypes of FD are not specific for a certain pathogenetic factor or pathophysiologic mechanism, and may be frequently associated with multiple pathophysiologic abnormalities. Novel concepts on the pathophysiology of FD show complex interactions between pathophysiologic mechanisms and pathogenetic factors, and prediction of underlying mechanisms of individual patients simply by the symptom pattern or symptom-based subtypes may not be accurate in a considerable proportion of cases. Therefore, subtyping by the Rome criteria appears to have limited value to guide therapeutic strategy, suggesting that the addition of objective parameters or subclassification reflecting physiologic or pathologic tests may be necessary for the targeted therapeutic approaches, particularly when therapeutic agents targeting novel mechanisms are available.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895845

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Functional dyspepsia is a disease involving a range of upper gastrointestinal symptoms derived from various pathophysiologies. Tablets containing a combination of rabeprazole and controlled-release (CR) mosapride were recently developed.To investigate a more effective treatment, this trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of UIC201609/UIC201610 as a preliminary study. @*Methods@#A multicenter, double-blind, randomized study was performed on 30 subjects. UIC201609/UIC201610 (combination of rabeprazole and CR mosapride) was the case group, and the two control groups were rabeprazole 10 mg once a day and mosapride 15 mg CR tablet once a day. As a primary efficacy endpoint of the study, the changes in the total score of eight items of the Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean version were analyzed at 2 weeks and 4 weeks. The outcomes regarding safety were collected. @*Results@#The total symptom score of Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean decreased in the rabeprazole single group (29.4±17.1), mosapride CR single group (33.4±15.6), and UIC201609/UIC201610 group (33.4±11.8) at 4 weeks without significant differences. On the other hand, the UIC201609/UIC201610 combination group showed more score reduction of pain in the upper abdomen, burning in the upper abdomen compared to each control group, but it did not reach statistical significance. No difference was found in safety analysis. @*Conclusions@#UIC201609/UIC201610 once daily showed some improvement in epigastric pain and dyspepsia in patients with functional dyspepsia, but there was no significance. Further study based on the advanced clinical trial design will be needed to confirm the efficacy of UIC201609/UIC201610 combination therapy in the future.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892710

ABSTRACT

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is considered to be a heterogeneous disorder with different pathophysiological mechanisms or pathogenetic factors. In addition to traditional mechanisms, novel concepts regarding pathophysiologic mechanisms of FD have been proposed.Candidates of therapeutic agents based on novel concepts have also been suggested. FD is a symptom complex and currently diagnosed by symptom-based Rome criteria. In the Rome criteria, symptom-based subtypes of FD including postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome are recommended to be used, based on the assumption that each subtype is more homogenous in terms of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms than FD as a whole. In this review, the usefulness of symptombased subtypes of FD for predicting underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and choosing appropriate therapeutic agents was evaluated. Although several classic pathophysiologic mechanisms are suggested to be associated with individual dyspeptic symptoms, symptom-based subtypes of FD are not specific for a certain pathogenetic factor or pathophysiologic mechanism, and may be frequently associated with multiple pathophysiologic abnormalities. Novel concepts on the pathophysiology of FD show complex interactions between pathophysiologic mechanisms and pathogenetic factors, and prediction of underlying mechanisms of individual patients simply by the symptom pattern or symptom-based subtypes may not be accurate in a considerable proportion of cases. Therefore, subtyping by the Rome criteria appears to have limited value to guide therapeutic strategy, suggesting that the addition of objective parameters or subclassification reflecting physiologic or pathologic tests may be necessary for the targeted therapeutic approaches, particularly when therapeutic agents targeting novel mechanisms are available.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903549

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Functional dyspepsia is a disease involving a range of upper gastrointestinal symptoms derived from various pathophysiologies. Tablets containing a combination of rabeprazole and controlled-release (CR) mosapride were recently developed.To investigate a more effective treatment, this trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of UIC201609/UIC201610 as a preliminary study. @*Methods@#A multicenter, double-blind, randomized study was performed on 30 subjects. UIC201609/UIC201610 (combination of rabeprazole and CR mosapride) was the case group, and the two control groups were rabeprazole 10 mg once a day and mosapride 15 mg CR tablet once a day. As a primary efficacy endpoint of the study, the changes in the total score of eight items of the Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean version were analyzed at 2 weeks and 4 weeks. The outcomes regarding safety were collected. @*Results@#The total symptom score of Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean decreased in the rabeprazole single group (29.4±17.1), mosapride CR single group (33.4±15.6), and UIC201609/UIC201610 group (33.4±11.8) at 4 weeks without significant differences. On the other hand, the UIC201609/UIC201610 combination group showed more score reduction of pain in the upper abdomen, burning in the upper abdomen compared to each control group, but it did not reach statistical significance. No difference was found in safety analysis. @*Conclusions@#UIC201609/UIC201610 once daily showed some improvement in epigastric pain and dyspepsia in patients with functional dyspepsia, but there was no significance. Further study based on the advanced clinical trial design will be needed to confirm the efficacy of UIC201609/UIC201610 combination therapy in the future.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874871

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Prokinetics such as mosapride citrate CR (conventional-release; Gasmotin) are commonly used in functional dyspepsia (FD). This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-a-day mosapride citrate SR (DWJ1252), a sustained-release formulation of mosapride citrate, compared with mosapride citrate CR 3 times a day, in patients with FD. @*Methods@#In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study, 119 patients with FD (by the Rome III criteria, 60 for mosapride citrate SR and 59 for mosapride citrate CR) were randomly allocated to mosapride citrate SR once daily or mosapride citrate CR thrice daily for 4 weeks in 16 medical institutions. Primary end point was the change in gastrointestinal symptom (GIS) score from baseline, assessed by GIS questionnaires on 5-point Likert scale after 4-week treatment. Secondary end points and safety profiles were also analyzed. @*Results@#The study included 51 and 49 subjects in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively. GIS scores at week 4 were significantly reduced in both groups (mean ± SD: − 10.04 ± 4.45 and − 10.86 ± 5.53 in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively; P < 0.001), and the GIS changes from baseline did not differ between the 2 groups (difference, 0.82 point; 95% CI, − 1.17, 2.81; P = 0.643). Changes in GIS at weeks 2 and 4 and quality of life at week 4, and the improvement rates of global assessments at weeks 2 and 4, did not differ between the groups. Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups, and there were no serious adverse events. @*Conclusion@#In patients with FD, mosapride citrate SR once daily is as effective as mosapride citrate CR thrice daily, with a similar safety profile.

11.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 45-48, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897852

ABSTRACT

Angioleiomyoma is an infrequent benign smooth muscle tumor that arises from smooth muscle cells of arterial or venous walls in the tunica media layer. It would be found in the dermis, the subcutaneous tissue, or the superficial fascia of the anywhere in the body and is most often seen in the lower extremities. The typical lesion is a small, slowly growing, round, but firm and mobile nodule. We report a case of angioleiomyoma located on the anterior aspect of the elbow, which was mistaken for extradigital glomus tumor after history taking, physical examination. With point tenderness and worsening sharp pain in cold exposure for several years, the patient was referred for a further evaluation, and the lesion was 5 mm sized well-circumscribed mass in the anterior elbow with vascular signals on color and power Doppler by ultrasonography and finally diagnosed as angioleiomyoma following complete excision and histological evaluation.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897394

ABSTRACT

Bladder diverticulum can be caused by many varying factors. It is usually asymptomatic in nature and thus often found by chance. In adult males, it can develop as a result of increased intravesicular pressure in the presence of an underlying benign prostatic hyperplasia. We observed a case in which a patient with asymptomatic bladder diverticulum developed new urinary symptoms owing to an underlying neurogenic lower urinary tract disorder which occurred following a cerebral infarction.

13.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 45-48, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890148

ABSTRACT

Angioleiomyoma is an infrequent benign smooth muscle tumor that arises from smooth muscle cells of arterial or venous walls in the tunica media layer. It would be found in the dermis, the subcutaneous tissue, or the superficial fascia of the anywhere in the body and is most often seen in the lower extremities. The typical lesion is a small, slowly growing, round, but firm and mobile nodule. We report a case of angioleiomyoma located on the anterior aspect of the elbow, which was mistaken for extradigital glomus tumor after history taking, physical examination. With point tenderness and worsening sharp pain in cold exposure for several years, the patient was referred for a further evaluation, and the lesion was 5 mm sized well-circumscribed mass in the anterior elbow with vascular signals on color and power Doppler by ultrasonography and finally diagnosed as angioleiomyoma following complete excision and histological evaluation.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889690

ABSTRACT

Bladder diverticulum can be caused by many varying factors. It is usually asymptomatic in nature and thus often found by chance. In adult males, it can develop as a result of increased intravesicular pressure in the presence of an underlying benign prostatic hyperplasia. We observed a case in which a patient with asymptomatic bladder diverticulum developed new urinary symptoms owing to an underlying neurogenic lower urinary tract disorder which occurred following a cerebral infarction.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the optimal third-line therapy for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that is inadequately controlled using dual combination therapy. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of pioglitazone or glimepiride when added to metformin plus alogliptin treatment for T2DM.METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, active-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02426294) recruited 135 Korean patients with T2DM that was inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin. The patients were then randomized to also receive pioglitazone (15 mg/day) or glimepiride (2 mg/day) for a 26-week period, with dose titration was permitted based on the investigator's judgement.RESULTS: Glycosylated hemoglobin levels exhibited similar significant decreases in both groups during the treatment period (pioglitazone: −0.81%, P<0.001; glimepiride: −1.05%, P<0.001). However, the pioglitazone-treated group exhibited significantly higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P<0.001) and significantly lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values (P<0.001). Relative to pioglitazone, adding glimepiride to metformin plus alogliptin markedly increased the risk of hypoglycemia (pioglitazone: 1/69 cases [1.45%], glimepiride: 14/66 cases [21.21%]; P<0.001).CONCLUSION: Among patients with T2DM inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin, the addition of pioglitazone provided comparable glycemic control and various benefits (improvements in lipid profiles, insulin resistance, and hypoglycemia risk) relative to the addition of glimepiride.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol, HDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Insulin Resistance , Metformin , Sulfonylurea Compounds , Thiazolidinediones , Treatment Failure
16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833890

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Low baseline impedance levels (BILs) have been suggested to be evidence of GERD. The aim of this study is to investigate the usefulness of esophageal BILs for the diagnosis of nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and the proper time for measurement in endoscopy-negative Korean patients with esophageal or supraesophageal symptoms. @*Methods@#Endoscopy-negative patients with esophageal or supraesophageal symptoms who underwent esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring were included. BILs were measured in the proximal and distal esophagus around 10 minutes before meals, 10 minutes and 30 minutes after meals, 30 minutes before the start of nighttime sleep, and 30 minutes and 60 minutes after the start of nighttime sleep. @*Results@#A total of 104 patients were included in the study. Distal and proximal esophageal BILs were decreased after meal ingestion. The BILs of the distal esophagus were significantly lower at all time points in the NERD group, but not in the reflux hypersensitivity (RH) group, compared with the functional group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the diagnosis of NERD was significant at all time points, but that for the diagnosis of RH was not. The cut-off value of 2375 Ω or 2125 Ω measured around 30 minutes before or 60 minutes after the start of nighttime sleep, respectively, were appropriate for the diagnosis of NERD. @*Conclusion@#The BILs of the distal esophagus measured at time points before or after the start of nighttime sleep appear to be useful for the diagnosis of NERD, but not for the diagnosis of RH, in endoscopy-negative Korean patients with esophageal or supraesophageal symptoms.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833877

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The pathophysiology of functional abdominal bloating and distention (FABD) is unclear yet. Our aim is to compare the diversity and composition of fecal microbiota in patients with FABD and healthy individuals, and to evaluate the relationship between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and dysbiosis. @*Methods@#The microbiota of fecal samples was analyzed from 33 subjects, including 12 healthy controls and 21 patients with FABD diagnosed by the Rome IV criteria. FABD patients underwent a hydrogen breath test. Fecal microbiota composition was determined by 16S ribosomal RNA amplification and sequencing. @*Results@#Overall fecal microbiota composition of the FABD group differed from that of the control group. Microbial diversity was significantly lower in the FABD group than in the control group. Significantly higher proportion of Proteobacteria and significantly lower proportion of Actinobacteria were observed in FABD patients, compared with healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, significantly higher proportion of Faecalibacterium in FABD patients and significantly higher proportion of Prevotella and Faecalibacterium in SIBO (+) patients with FABD were found. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, was significantly more abundant, but Bacteroides uniformis and Bifidobacterium adolescentis were significantly less abundant in patients with FABD, compared with healthy controls. Significantly more abundant Prevotella copri and F. prausnitzii, and significantly less abundant B. uniformis and B. adolescentis were observed in SIBO (+) patients, compared with healthy controls. @*Conclusion@#The fecal microbiota profiles in FABD patients are different from those in healthy controls, particularly in SIBO (+) patients, suggesting a role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of FABD.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785549

ABSTRACT

Bladder diverticulum can be caused by many varying factors. It is usually asymptomatic in nature and thus often found by chance. In adult males, it can develop as a result of increased intravesicular pressure in the presence of an underlying benign prostatic hyperplasia. We observed a case in which a patient with asymptomatic bladder diverticulum developed new urinary symptoms owing to an underlying neurogenic lower urinary tract disorder which occurred following a cerebral infarction.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cerebral Infarction , Diverticulum , Humans , Male , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Stroke , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic , Urinary Tract
20.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 438-442, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759957

ABSTRACT

Patients with a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) frequently report abdominal discomfort and bloating after ingesting specific foods. However, evidence on the relationship between foods and symptoms is lacking. In addition, the diagnosis of food hypersensitivity and food intolerance does not seem to be established yet. Food hypersensitivity can be divided into immunologically mediated and non-immunologically mediated forms. The immunologically mediated forms are specifically termed food allergies, whereas the non-immunologically mediated forms are referred to as food intolerances. Various diagnostic tools are required to make an accurate diagnosis of a food allergy or a food intolerance. First, a thorough examination of the history and basic tests to rule out other organic diseases are needed. Next, diagnostic tests for immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergies are required and diseases, such as celiac disease and lactose intolerance, should be differentiated. A diagnosis for non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is also required. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dietary challenge test can be used for diagnosing NCGS and food intolerance. Diagnostic tests for food intolerance, in which scientific evidence is lacking, may result in a misdiagnosis of food hypersensitivity or food intolerance in patients with a FGID. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis of food hypersensitivity or food intolerance based on reliable tests is required.


Subject(s)
Celiac Disease , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Food Hypersensitivity , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Glutens , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Lactose Intolerance
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