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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890486

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor that accelerates NAFLD progression, leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Thus, here we aimed to develop a simple model to predict the presence of NAFLD based on clinical parameters of patients with T2DM. @*Methods@#A total of 698 patients with T2DM who visited five medical centers were included. NAFLD was evaluated using transient elastography. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify potential contributors to NAFLD, followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses to create the final prediction model for NAFLD. @*Results@#Two NAFLD prediction models were developed, with and without serum biomarker use. The non-laboratory model comprised six variables: age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), dyslipidemia, and smoking status. For a cutoff value of ≥60, the prediction accuracy was 0.780 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.743 to 0.817). The second comprehensive model showed an improved discrimination ability of up to 0.815 (95% CI, 0.782 to 0.847) and comprised seven variables: age, sex, waist circumference, BMI, glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, and alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase ratio. Our non-laboratory model showed non-inferiority in the prediction of NAFLD versus previously established models, including serum parameters. @*Conclusion@#The new models are simple and user-friendly screening methods that can identify individuals with T2DM who are at high-risk for NAFLD. Additional studies are warranted to validate these new models as useful predictive tools for NAFLD in clinicalpractice.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899918

ABSTRACT

We investigated the relationship between glucose variability and frailty. Forty-eight type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 65 years were enrolled. The FRAIL scale was used for frailty assessment, and participants were classified into ‘healthy & pre-frail’ (n = 24) and ‘frail’ (n = 24) groups. A continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system was used for a mean of 6.9 days and standardized CGM metrics were analyzed: mean glucose, glucose management indicator (GMI), coefficient of variation, and time in range, time above range (TAR), and time below range. The demographics did not differ between groups. However, among the CGM metrics, mean glucose, GMI, and TAR in the postprandial periods were higher in the frail group (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustments, the post-lunch TAR (OR = 1.12, P = 0.019) affected the prevalence of frailty. Higher glucose variability with marked daytime postprandial hyperglycemia is significantly associated with frailty in older patients with diabetes.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898190

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor that accelerates NAFLD progression, leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Thus, here we aimed to develop a simple model to predict the presence of NAFLD based on clinical parameters of patients with T2DM. @*Methods@#A total of 698 patients with T2DM who visited five medical centers were included. NAFLD was evaluated using transient elastography. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify potential contributors to NAFLD, followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses to create the final prediction model for NAFLD. @*Results@#Two NAFLD prediction models were developed, with and without serum biomarker use. The non-laboratory model comprised six variables: age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), dyslipidemia, and smoking status. For a cutoff value of ≥60, the prediction accuracy was 0.780 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.743 to 0.817). The second comprehensive model showed an improved discrimination ability of up to 0.815 (95% CI, 0.782 to 0.847) and comprised seven variables: age, sex, waist circumference, BMI, glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, and alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase ratio. Our non-laboratory model showed non-inferiority in the prediction of NAFLD versus previously established models, including serum parameters. @*Conclusion@#The new models are simple and user-friendly screening methods that can identify individuals with T2DM who are at high-risk for NAFLD. Additional studies are warranted to validate these new models as useful predictive tools for NAFLD in clinicalpractice.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892214

ABSTRACT

We investigated the relationship between glucose variability and frailty. Forty-eight type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 65 years were enrolled. The FRAIL scale was used for frailty assessment, and participants were classified into ‘healthy & pre-frail’ (n = 24) and ‘frail’ (n = 24) groups. A continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system was used for a mean of 6.9 days and standardized CGM metrics were analyzed: mean glucose, glucose management indicator (GMI), coefficient of variation, and time in range, time above range (TAR), and time below range. The demographics did not differ between groups. However, among the CGM metrics, mean glucose, GMI, and TAR in the postprandial periods were higher in the frail group (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustments, the post-lunch TAR (OR = 1.12, P = 0.019) affected the prevalence of frailty. Higher glucose variability with marked daytime postprandial hyperglycemia is significantly associated with frailty in older patients with diabetes.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832406

ABSTRACT

Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is caused by congenital or acquired causes and occurs in childhood or adulthood. GH replacement therapy brings benefits to body composition, exercise capacity, skeletal health, cardiovascular outcomes, and quality of life. Before initiating GH replacement, GH deficiency should be confirmed through proper stimulation tests, and in cases with proven genetic causes or structural lesions, repeated GH stimulation testing is not necessary. The dosing regimen of GH replacement therapy should be individualized, with the goal of minimizing side effects and maximizing clinical improvements. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology have developed a position statement on the diagnosis and treatment of GH deficiency. This position statement is based on a systematic review of evidence and expert opinions.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831666

ABSTRACT

In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have greatly advanced and become a reality in many areas of our daily lives. In the health care field, numerous efforts are being made to implement the AI technology for practical medical treatments. With the rapid developments in machine learning algorithms and improvements in hardware performances, the AI technology is expected to play an important role in effectively analyzing and utilizing extensive amounts of health and medical data. However, the AI technology has various unique characteristics that are different from the existing health care technologies. Subsequently, there are a number of areas that need to be supplemented within the current health care system for the AI to be utilized more effectively and frequently in health care. In addition, the number of medical practitioners and public that accept AI in the health care is still low;moreover, there are various concerns regarding the safety and reliability of AI technologyimplementations. Therefore, this paper aims to introduce the current research and application status of AI technology in health care and discuss the issues that need to be resolved.

7.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 140-148, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903528

ABSTRACT

In the modern society in which we live, digitalization, big data and artificial intelligence (AI) are widely used in finance, e-commerce, manufacturing, and logistics. This trend is no exception in healthcare, and many healthcare professionals have the expectation that digital healthcare, including AI, which produce and utilize medical big data, can help doctors to improve the quality of healthcare services. In particular, in the endocrine area to which we belong, it can be seen that it is relatively easy to conduct AI research using medical big data, i.e., real world data, which is relatively well organized compared to other diseases.Already, AI technologies for diagnosing diabetic complication or vision recognition technologies for determining diabetic retinopathy have been studied for quite a long time and are also used in clinical practice. Hence, there is no doubt that medical big data will play an essential role in healthcare, especially in endocrinology and diabetology. However, there is a need to review the clinical implications of AI research results utilizing medical big data. Medical staff should clarify the purpose of AI to leverage medical big data. In addition, healthcare professionals must understand the precautions and benefits required to use medical big data when perform AI research. Therefore, in this manuscript, some studies are being conducted using real world data in the field of diabetology, and I would like to discuss the implications of these studies and future development directions.

8.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 140-148, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895824

ABSTRACT

In the modern society in which we live, digitalization, big data and artificial intelligence (AI) are widely used in finance, e-commerce, manufacturing, and logistics. This trend is no exception in healthcare, and many healthcare professionals have the expectation that digital healthcare, including AI, which produce and utilize medical big data, can help doctors to improve the quality of healthcare services. In particular, in the endocrine area to which we belong, it can be seen that it is relatively easy to conduct AI research using medical big data, i.e., real world data, which is relatively well organized compared to other diseases.Already, AI technologies for diagnosing diabetic complication or vision recognition technologies for determining diabetic retinopathy have been studied for quite a long time and are also used in clinical practice. Hence, there is no doubt that medical big data will play an essential role in healthcare, especially in endocrinology and diabetology. However, there is a need to review the clinical implications of AI research results utilizing medical big data. Medical staff should clarify the purpose of AI to leverage medical big data. In addition, healthcare professionals must understand the precautions and benefits required to use medical big data when perform AI research. Therefore, in this manuscript, some studies are being conducted using real world data in the field of diabetology, and I would like to discuss the implications of these studies and future development directions.

10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 485-494, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786308

ABSTRACT

Acromegaly is a chronic disorder caused by excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion. In most cases, the excess GH originates from GH-producing pituitary adenomas. Surgery is the preferred first-line treatment for patients with acromegaly, but medical management is considered when the disease persists after surgery or in cases where patients refuse surgery or are poor candidates for surgery. Somatostatin analogues are commonly used to treat acromegaly. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group have developed a position statement for the use of somatostatin analogues in the medical treatment of acromegaly. This position statement is based on evidence from the current literature and expert opinions. In the case of discrepancies among expert opinions, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Expert Testimony , Growth Hormone , Humans , Octreotide , Pituitary Neoplasms , Somatostatin
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739219

ABSTRACT

The Korean Endocrine Society (KES) published clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acromegaly in 2011. Since then, the number of acromegaly cases, publications on studies addressing medical treatment of acromegaly, and demands for improvements in insurance coverage have been dramatically increasing. In 2017, the KES Committee of Health Insurance decided to publish a position statement regarding the use of somatostatin analogues in acromegaly. Accordingly, consensus opinions for the position statement were collected after intensive review of the relevant literature and discussions among experts affiliated with the KES, and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group. This position statement includes the characteristics, indications, dose, interval (including extended dose interval in case of lanreotide autogel), switching and preoperative use of somatostatin analogues in medical treatment of acromegaly. The recommended approach is based on the expert opinions in case of insufficient clinical evidence, and where discrepancies among the expert opinions were found, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Consensus , Expert Testimony , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Octreotide , Somatostatin
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764378

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical effect of intravenous glutamine administration on patients admitted to the intensive care unit in general hospitals. METHODS: Patients with more than 7 days in an intensive care unit were evaluated. The experimental group was the patients who received intravenous glutamine administration for more than 3 days. The laboratory results, intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay, 30 days mortality, and hospital mortality were evaluated with a comparative group. RESULTS: The mean number of administration days of intravenous glutamine was 10.12±8.93 days, and the average daily dose was 0.33±0.10 g/kg/day. No adequate improvement in the laboratory results of glutamine-treated group was observed. The intensive care unit length of stay (21.16±15.83 vs. 16.48±11.06, P=0.007), hospital length of stay (35.94±30.75 vs. 27.34±19.09, P=0.010), 30 days mortality (20.0% vs. 10.0%, P=0.034), and hospital mortality (26.3% vs. 13.0%, P=0.001) were higher in the glutamine-treated group. CONCLUSION: The use of intravenous glutamine on intensive care unit patients did not improve the clinical effect. Further large-scale multi-center studies will be needed to assess the proper administration of intravenous glutamine on intensive care unit patients.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Glutamine , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, General , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Mortality
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide a database for making better decisions of the treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patient, and for improving the recognition of IBS in the Korean society. METHODS: The survey was conducted on 174 female college students in Korea from January 2017 to January 2018. Out of the total students surveyed, 160 questionnaires were analyzed after excluding 14 uncompleted questionnaires. RESULTS: Based on the survey, the prevalence of IBS among female college students in Korea was found to be 13.8%. Statistically, the results proved that there were significant differences in the stress levels between the students with IBS and non-IBS diagnosed by ROME IV criteria. Students with IBS had higher stress levels than students without the ailment. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this study, stress management related treatment should be actively considered. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop more efficient and updated guidelines for the treatment of IBS and new patient care programs.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Korea , Patient Care , Prevalence
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: South Korea made a list of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) for elderly patients in 2015 and has prompted medical professionals to prescribe proper medication by using the drug utilization review (DUR) system. It has been three years since the system was introduced, but related studies have rarely been conducted. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the DUR system on the prescription of PIMs for elderly patients. METHODS: The data on the prescription of PIMs for elderly patients (≥ 65 years) who received medical treatment between March 1st and May 31st in 2015 (before introduction of the DUR system) and who received medical treatment between March 1st and May 31st in 2018 (after introduction of the DUR system) were retrospectively collected from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The prescriptions of PIMs decreased from 3,716 (7.7%) to 3,857 (6.9%) (p < 0.001). The prescription of escitalopram and paroxetine, among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, increased significantly, and that of short-acting benzodiazepines also increased significantly from 454 (0.93%) to 624 (1.2%). CONCLUSION: Prescription of PIMs for elderly patients significantly decreased (p < 0.001) after the DUR system was introduced. Further expanded studies of PIMs need to be conducted for the safety of elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Benzodiazepines , Citalopram , Drug Utilization Review , Drug Utilization , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Korea , Paroxetine , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List , Prescriptions , Retrospective Studies , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study attempts to gauge the necessity of contraceptive education for women defecting from North Korea (NKDWs). METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with six NKDWs who had lived in the Republic of Korea (ROK) for more than three years, to understand the subjects' perceptions, experiences, and opinions regarding contraception. Thematic analyses were performed using qualitative data provided in the survey results. RESULTS: Before their defections from North Korea, none of the NKDWs had received any sex education. Loop is the only contraceptive method available to married women in ROK. After defection, NKDWs were provided information about contraceptive options available in China, but they could not fully understand this information. Furthermore, the information they received was not accurate. Thus, NKDWs had a high need for contraceptive sex education. As per our survey, their preferred education method was at least 3 lessons plus 1 : 1 counseling, as necessary. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that a necessity exists for development of a sex education program for NKDWs to enhance their contraceptive knowledge. Thus, government and health managers have a role to play in developing such a program.


Subject(s)
China , Contraception , Contraceptives, Oral , Counseling , Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Education , Female , Humans , Methods , Republic of Korea , Sex Education , Women's Health
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726823

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), traditionally considered as a disease of hepatologists, has recently become a major concern in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as T2DM seems to worsen the course of NAFLD and vice versa. Furthermore, the increasing prevalence of NAFLD in T2DM and the complex mechanisms between these two diseases make physicians caring for patients with T2DM face many uncertainties in the diagnosis of NAFLD. Although the liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard of the diagnosis of NAFLD so far, it has several limitations such as infection, bleeding and cost. Hence, radiologic evaluations have been increasingly accepted as noninvasive alternatives to liver biopsy. Currently, 4 major imaging tools are available for measuring liver fat, including ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and liver fibroscan. This article will describe these methods used to evaluate hepatic steatosis in patients with T2DM, including the diagnostic accuracy, limitations, and practical applicability.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Fatty Liver , Hemorrhage , Humans , Liver , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Prevalence , Ultrasonography
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 885-892, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63336

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population compared with that in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) individuals has not yet been quantitatively assessed. We investigated the prevalence and the severity of NAFLD in a T2DM population using controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects who underwent testing for biomarkers related to T2DM and CAP using Fibroscan® during a regular health check-up were enrolled. CAP values of 250 dB/m and 300 dB/m were selected as the cutoffs for the presence of NAFLD and for moderate to severe NAFLD, respectively. Biomarkers related to T2DM included fasting glucose/insulin, fasting C-peptide, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycoalbumin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: Among 340 study participants (T2DM, n=66; pre-diabetes, n=202; NGT, n=72), the proportion of subjects with NAFLD increased according to the glucose tolerance status (31.9% in NGT; 47.0% in pre-diabetes; 57.6% in T2DM). The median CAP value was significantly higher in subjects with T2DM (265 dB/m) than in those with pre-diabetes (245 dB/m) or NGT (231 dB/m) (all p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that subjects with moderate to severe NAFLD had a 2.8-fold (odds ratio) higher risk of having T2DM than those without NAFLD (p=0.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-6.64), and positive correlations between the CAP value and HOMA-IR (ρ=0.407) or fasting C-peptide (ρ=0.402) were demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Subjects with T2DM had a higher prevalence of severe NAFLD than those with NGT. Increased hepatic steatosis was significantly associated with the presence of T2DM, and insulin resistance induced by hepatic fat may be an important mechanistic connection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , C-Peptide/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Prevalence
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: γ-Glutamyl transferase (GGT) is a well-known marker of chronic alcohol consumption or hepatobiliary diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated that serum levels of GGT are independently associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this study was to test if serum GGT levels are associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean adults. METHODS: A total of 462 subjects (289 men and 173 women), who visited Severance Hospital for medical checkup, were included in this study. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cross-sectional association between serum GGT and BMD was evaluated. RESULTS: As serum GGT levels increased from the lowest tertile (tertile 1) to the highest tertile (tertile 3), BMD decreased after adjusting for confounders such as age, body mass index, amount of alcohol consumed, smoking, regular exercise, postmenopausal state (in women), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between log-transformed serum GGT levels and BMD. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, tertile 3 of serum GGT level was associated with an increased risk for low bone mass compared to tertile 1 (odds ratio, 2.271; 95% confidence interval, 1.340 to 3.850; P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Serum GGT level was inversely associated with BMD in Korean adults. Further study is necessary to fully elucidate the mechanism of the inverse relationship.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Diabetes Mellitus , gamma-Glutamyltransferase , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia , Hypertension , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Male , Smoke , Smoking , Transferases
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